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Music 200 Final Study Guide

by: Tara

Music 200 Final Study Guide 200

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Professor VIcki Curry
Study Guide
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tara on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 200 at James Madison University taught by Professor VIcki Curry in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see MUSIC IN GENERAL CULTURE [C2VPA] in Music at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 04/28/16
Music 200 Final Exam Study Guide I. Listening Questions: A. Style Periods 1. Baroque  Religion: Reformation and Counter-reformation  “Thirty Years’ War”  Absolutism: Louis XIV (The Sun King) wanted complete control  Science: Age of Science (Issac Newton)  Theater: Fascination with the theater gives rise to opera  Art: Baroque altar (over the top), marble tops  Doctrine of Affections: aesthetic theory that held that different musical moods could and should be used to influence the emotions, or affections, of the listener.  Music: expressive, extravagant melody, with strong supporting bass. Opera  Use of major and minor keys  Polyphonic texture  Henry Purcell  Baroque Concerto  Bach  Vivaldi 2. Classical  The Age of Enlightenment  Classicism  Age of Reason: pursuit of truth and discovery of natural laws  Scientific advances  electricity, steam engines  Science for the betterment of society  Humanism: seeking pleasure in this earthly life  Education: Encyclopedia Britannica and the French Encyclopedia. Rise in education.  Art: Rococo (Fragonard “The Swing”). Neoclassicism (David, “The Oath of the Horatir”)  Emulation of the art of ancient Greece and Rome  Geometric shapes, balance, symmetry, proportion, ornate decoration avoided.  Public concerts  Alberti bass: broken chord. Chord is presented in order lowest, highest, and middle.  Melody: Diatonic, moderation, regular phrases, narrow range, balanced phrases, frequent cadences  Harmony: Mostly diatonic, consanent, simple tuneful  Rhythm: steady beat, duple meter, lots of rhythm  Texture: homophonic, counterpoint used sparingly  Dynamics: crescendos, diminuendos. 3. Romantic Expression of individual feeling/emotion Glorification of love Revolution (social, political, artistic, freedom) Nostalgia (especially interest in Medieval legends/characters and Shakespeare) Supernatural/Fantasy (exploring the dark side) Nature Nationalism Exoticism Macabre Chromatic harmony Rubato: flows with speed. Stretching and squeezing the beat. Luxurious and consonant style of music Introduce the art song and tone poem Melodies become broad, powerful streams of sound to sweep the listener away. Colorful harmony to contribute to emotional intensity th 4. 20 Century Impressionism: late 19 century movement that arose in France, the impressionists were the first to reject photographic realism in painting. Tone poem Modernism: anti-romantic movement Cubism: formal reality fractured into geometrical planes Expressionism: express strong emotions generated by objects. Express the subjective, unconscious Octave displacement Tone cluster “tall chords” “emancipation of dissonance” B. Genres 1. Symphony  A genre of instrumental music for orchestra consisting of several contrasting movements 2. Concerto  Instrumental genre in which one or more soloists play with and against a larger orchestra. 3. Solo Concerto  An orchestra and a solo instrument performer in turn present and develop the musical material. 4. String Quartet  A standard instrumental ensemble for chamber music consisting of a first and second violin, a viola, and cello.  Usually in 3 or 4 movements. 5. Sonata-allegro  A dramatic musical form of the Classical and Romantic periods involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda. 6. Sonata  A piece for a solo instrument  Or instrument with keyboard 7. Opera  A drama set to music  Aria – song like, legato melody, wider vocal range, clear beat and meter accompanied by orchestra and basso continuo.  Recitative – speech like melody, narrow vocal range, weak beat, accompanied by basso continuo 8. Lied  Art song  The genre of art song, for voice and piano accompaniment that originated in Germany around 1800. 9. Character Piece  A brief instrumental work seeking to capture a single mood; a genre favored by composers of the Romantic era. 10. Symphonic Poem  A one-movement work for orchestra of the Romantic era that gives musical expression to the emotions and events associated with an extramusical idea. 11. Concerto Grosso  Two or more soloists 12. Serenade  Multi-movement work written for weddings, parties, etc. For strings alone or small orchestra. Often outdoors. 13. Program Symphony  A symphony with the usual three, four, or five movements in which the individual movements together tell a tale or depict a succession of specific events or scenes. 14. Ballet  A drama danced to music II. Multiple Choice Questions (not listening) A. Forms: arrangement of music 1. Ritornello  A musical form in which all or part of the main theme (the ritornello) is played repeatedly by the tutti (full orchestra), with each statement separated by a virtuosic solo section played by the concertino. 2. Basso ostinato (or ground bass)  A motive or phrase in the bass that is repeated again and again; provides structure/form for the composition. 3. Fugue  A composition for three, four, or five parts played or sung by voices or instruments, which begins with a presentation of a subject in imitation in each part and continues with modulating passages of free counterpoint and further appearances of the subject. 4. Sonata form  The three-or four-movement plan commonly used in multimovement genres such as symphony, string quartet, sonata, and concerto. 5. Ternary  Most common. (ABA: statement, contrast, repeat)  Tchaikovsky’s “Dance of the Reed Pipes” from ballet The Nutcracker 6. Theme and Variations  A musical form in which a theme continually returns but is varied by changing the notes of the melody, the harmony, the rhythm, or some other feature of music. 7. Rondo  Two contrasting sections (ABACA)  Classical form with at least three statements of the refrain (A) and at least two contrasting sections (at least B and C). 8. Strophic  The basic unit (often called a stanza) is repeated  A musical form often used in setting a strophic, or stanzaic, text, such as a hymn or carol. 9. Through-Composed  A term used to describe music that exhibits no obvious repetitions or overt musical from beginning to end. 10. Binary form  A musical form consisting of two units (A and B) constructed to balance and complement each other. B. Sonata Cycle  A dramatic musical form involving an exposition, development, and recapitulation, with optional introduction and coda. C. Composers 1. Purcell a. 1659 – 1695 b. English c. Son of one of the King’s singers. d. Organist at Westminster Abbey in London e. Devoted much of his time composing for theater. 2. Vivaldi a. Violinist and Composer b. From Venice c. Son of a barber and part-time musician at the basilica of Saint Mark. d. Music director of the Ospedale della Pieta (Hospice of Mercy), an orphanage and convent dedicated to the care and education of young women. e. Wrote and produced nearly 50 operas f. Was forbidden to practice his musical artistry in papally controlled lands, which then constituted a large position of Italy. 3. Bach a. 1685 – 1750 b. Germen c. Cantor of Saint Thomas’s church and choir school. d. Composed music for the church for every Sunday and religious holidays e. Brought the genre of music, the church cantana, to the highest point of its development. 4. Haydn a. 1732 – 1809 b. First of the classical composers to more to Vienna c. His father fixed wheels d. Spent his childhood years as a choirboy at the cathedral of St. Stephen in London e. When is voice broke, he eked out a meager living as a free-lance musician by giving piano lessons, accompanying singers, and performing at several churches. f. For nearly 30 years he worked in the service of Prince Esterhazy. 5. Mozart a. 1756 – 1791 b. Born in Salzburg, Austria c. His father and sister were talented musicians d. Child prodigy e. Traveled extensively to perform f. Mozart and Haydn met g. At age eight he wrong his first 2 symphonies 6. Beethoven a. 1770 – 1827 b. His father hoped to exploit young Beethoven as a child prodigy, much the way Mozart’s father had. c. Met Mozart in Vienna d. Studied with Haydn in Vienna but it didn’t work out e. Made his living in Vienna as a remarkable concert pianist. f. Beethoven was quickly received well by the Viennese aristocracy g. Wanted to remain a free lance musician h. Published his music to make money i. 1817 loss his hearing j. Became a well-known eccentric in Vienna, wandering the streets. k. Demonstrated how personal expression might expand the confines of classical style. 7. Chopin a. 1810 – 1849 b. Born in Poland c. Acquired aristocratic friends and tastes as a result of his early education at an elite school for the sons of Polish aristocrats. d. Spent most of his adult hood in Paris e. An introverted personality and poor health made public performances difficult experiences f. Known as the “poet of the piano” g. Many of his compositions reflect his Polish heritage. 8. Schubert a. 1797 – 1828 b. Born in Vienna c. Father was a schoolteacher and expected to follow in his footsteps. d. Received early musical training from his father (violin) and brother (piano) and later became a choirboy of the emperor’s chapel (later known as Vienna Boys Choir) e. Lived with friends that helped support each other f. Lived a Bohemian life, assisted by the generosity of his friends, and lodging with them when he was broke g. Small, private gatherings in the parlor of middle- class homes where Schubert’s music would be performed h. 600 Lieder i. Wrote his masterpiece, Erlkonig, in 1815 at 17 years old. 9. Berlioz a. 1803 – 1869 b. Born in France c. Son of local doctor d. Studied mainly the sciences and ancient roman literature. e. Local tutors taught him to play the flute and guitar, but he had no systematic training in music theory or composition and little exposure to the music of the great masters. f. First composer to earn a livelihood as a music critic. g. Compositions call for more musicians h. Sent to study medicine in Paris, but eventually studied music composition at the Paris Conservatory. 10. Brahms a. 1833 – 1897 b. Born in Hamburg, Germany c. Best training in piano and music theory; studied the music of Bach and Beethoven d. Schumann wrote an article praising the 20-year- old Brahms as the heir to the Classical tradition. e. Moved to Vienna where he earned an income as a performer and conductor f. Wrote 4 symphonies g. Composed absolute genres: symphonies, concertos, sonatas h. Traditional forms such as sonata, rondo, ternary, theme and variations 11. Musorgsky a. 1839 – 1881 b. Russian c. Trained for a career as a Military officer and civil servant d. Became a member of “Mighty Kuchka” or the Russian Five e. Suffered from poverty, depression, and alcoholism. f. Turned photos into piano pieces. 12. Debussy a. 1862 – 1918 b. French c. Studied Piano, composition, and music theory at the Paris Conservatory (beginning at age 10) d. Hired by Nadezhda von Meck as a pianist to provide music for her family during the summer months e. Won the Prix de Rome f. His entire career was spent primarily in Paris g. Associated more with poets and painters than with musicians h. The symbolist poet, Mallarme, was a friend and mentor. i. Illness and the outbreak of WWI brought his musical productivity to a standstill j. First to use modernism 13. Stravinsky a. 1882 – 1970 b. Russia c. Are three ballets are based on Russian folk tales d. Achieved international fame through his early ballets written in association with Sergei Diaghilev and his Ballets russes. e. The Rite of Spring caused at its premiere in Paris f. Russian ballets called for a huge orchestra, consisting mostly of percussion and woodwinds 14. Copland a. 1900 – 1990 b. American c. Parents were Jewish immigrants d. Copland traveled to Paris for three years to study with noted teacher Nadia Boulanger e. In 1930s started a series of projects dealing with rural and western American subjects f. Wrote three ballets during that time: Appalachian Spring, Billy The Kid, and Rodeo. 15. Adams a. 1947 – present b. Born in Massachusetts c. Went to Harvard d. Developed his own electric musical style that blended the learned with the popular and added increasing amounts of Minimalism, which was then gaining popularity in California e. 2003 received Pulitzer prize and three Grammys


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