CCJ415ThirdSectionReviewSpring2016.pdf CCJ 415 - 001
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CCJ 415 - 001
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hertis Mcclanahan on Thursday April 28, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CCJ 415 - 001 at Southern Illinois University Carbondale taught by Cindy L. Hart in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 64 views. For similar materials see Prevention: Crime & Delnqncy in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
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Date Created: 04/28/16
CCJ415 Prevention: Crime and Delinquency Spring 2016 Third Exam Study Guide for Chapters 12 - 17 KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 1 Fear An emotional response of dread or anxiety to crime or symbols that a person’s associates with crime Fearing Subject Functional Fear Motivation to be aware of surroundings Gatekeepers Police Incivility Physical and social factors involved in disorder and community decline NCVS National crime victimization survey Panel Survey Group of people surveyed over a long period of time Part I Crimes Murder, arson, rape, aggravated robbery, larceny Part II Crimes Any other crimes Uniform Crime The most widely used and cited official measures of crime in the united states Reports Vicarious Live by the victim Victimization Victimization Surveys KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 2 Assize of Arms Call for men to have weapons Chicago Area Project Sought to have a sense of pride and community Constable An unpaid position responsible for coordinating the watch and ward system and overseeing other aspects of the law Crime Control Maintenance of a given or existing level and the management of that amount of behavior Crime Prevention To reduce the actual level of crime and/or the perceived fear of crime Crime Science Application of the methods of science to crime and disorder Developmental Prevention Hue and Cry Watcher who raised the alarm and call for help Lex talionis An eye for an eye Micro, meso and Micro- individual macro-level crime Meso- larger communities or neighborhoods prevention Macro- large communities or society as a whole Parens Patriae Which argue that youths needed help and that processing in adult court was geared toward punishment rather than prevention Parochial police Hired by the wealthy to protect their homes and businesses Primary prevention Identifies conditions of the physical and social environment that provide opportunities for or precipitate criminal acts. Public Health Model Classifies prevention as primary, secondary, or tertiary Secondary The ability to correctly identify and predict problem people and situations Prevention Situational Crime Identify existing problems at the micro level and institute interventions that are developed specifically for Prevention the given problem Social Prevention Status Offenses Curfew, smoking, playing in the street under 18 Tertiary Prevention Deals with actual offenders and involves intervention Thief Takers Bounty hunters Vigilante Movement Like hue and cry Watch and Ward Rotated responsibility for keeping watch over the town or area KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 3 Context Which a program or intervention operates Cost-Benefit Seeks to assess whether the costs of an intervention are justified by the benefits or outcomes that accrue Evaluation from it Evaluation Investigating the usefulness of some exercise or phenomenon Generalizability Would be applicable in other places, settings, and times Gold Standard Impact Evaluation Focus on what changes occur after the intro of the policy, intervention, or program Maryland Scale of The bulk of the evidence on prevention activities suggests that there are relatively few effective programs Scientific Methods or interventions Mechanism What process does an intervention impact an outcome measure such as crime or fear of crime Process Evaluation Consider the implementation of a program or initiative and involve determining the procedures used to implement a specific program Realistic Evaluation Evaluation needs to observe the phenomenon its entirety Threats to External Place attributes, victim attributes, offender attributes, dosage, crime options Validity Threats to Internal Factors that could cause the results other than the measures that were implemented Validity KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 4 Access Control The ability to regulate who comes and goes from area or building Activity Support Functions that assist and enhance interaction between citizens and other legitimate users in the community Alley Gating Closed-Circuit Surveillance Television (CCTV) CRAVED Concealable, removable, available, valuable, enjoyable, disposable Crime and Disorder Act Crime Prevention Efforts to alter the physical design of an area or location to impact crime Through Environmental Design (CPTED) Defensible Space A model which inhibits crime by creating a physical expression of a social fabric which defends itself Escape Formal or Organized Use of guards or employees specifically tasked with watching for offenders Surveillance Hot Products Image A neighborhood having the appearance that it is not isolated and is cared for, and that residents will take action Incivility Physical and social indicators Mechanical Utilizes cameras or other devices to observe activities, or lights to simply increase the ability of people to Surveillance see what is taking place Milieu The placement of a home, building, or community in a large area characterized by low crime Motivation “same as activity support” Reinforcement Natural Surveillance The ability to observe activity, whether inside or outside, without the aid of special devices Operation Identification OTREP Permeability Prospect The ability of individuals to see an area Real Territoriality Reducing Burglary Initiative Refuge Deals with the presence or absence of concealment Secured by Design Influence the building of new structures or the redesign of existing sites Smart Guns Symbolic Territoriality Target Hardening Actions that increase the effort by offenders in committing a crime Territoriality The ability and desire of legitimate users of an area to lay claim to the area KEYWORDS - CHAPTER 5 Citizen Patrols Have more eyes on the street- key neighborhood watch element Community Anti- Same as neighborhood watch but for drugs Drug Programs Guardian Angels Citizen patrol group Kirkholt Burglary Prevention Project National Night Out Started in 1981 and consists of educational programs, neighborhood organizing, social events, and anti- drug and anti-crime activities Neighborhood Watch Sets out to identify problems before they occur Parochial Control Broadens the sources of control to include neighborhood networks and institutions, such as schools, churches, or businesses Private Control Interpersonal relationship among family members, friends, and close associates. Public Control Reflects the ability to marshal input, support, and resources from public agencies Routine Activities Argues that the normal movement and activities of both potential offenders and victims plays a role in the Theory occurrence of crime Safer Cities Program Street Block Homes on either side of a single block that is between two cross-streets Super Controllers The people, organizations and institutions that create incentives for controllers to prevent crime Whistle Stop Blow whistle if they see something happening out of the ordinary KEYWORDS – CHAPTER 6 Benign Displacement Suggests that changes from displacement may benefit society Cognitive Map Construct images of the environment as they move about the community CRAVED Concealable, removable, available, valuable, enjoyable, disposable Crime Attractors Areas to which potential offenders and others are drawn, such as drug markets, adult clubs Crime Displacement Represents change in crime due to the preventive actions of the individual or society Crime Fuse Area where crime is allowed to operate without bothering the rest of society until it explodes in the area Crime Generator By drawing potential victims to the area Crime Pattern Theory Proposes that crime and criminal behavior fits patterns that can be identified and understood when viewed in terms of where and when they occur Diffusion of Benefits Distance Decay Commission of crime decreases as the distance from the offender’s home increases Edges Prime spots for deviant behavior Environmental The social, economic, cultural, and physical conditions within which people operate Backcloth Euclidean Distance Measures in a straight line from the start to the end point Functional The offender stops committing one offense and shifts to another Displacement Google Street View Hot Products Items that attract thieves Journey to Crime Criminals will travel to commit a crime Malign Displacement Leads to undesirable outcomes Manhattan Distance Measures distance as people follow roadways, generally selecting those that reduce both distance and travel time Nodes Locations of activity Paths Transit routes between the nodes Perpetrator One offender ceases activity only to be replaced by another offender Displacement Rational Choice Offenders make rational choices about when and where to offend Theory Routine Activities Argues that the normal movement and activities of both potential offenders and victims plays a role in the Theory occurrence of crime Social/Crime Outlines expectations of what will happen at certain times and places, given certain behavior by the Template individual Soft Determinism Tactical Changing the methods used in the commission of a crime Displacement Target Displacement Choosing a different victim within the same area. Temporal A shift in offending from one tim to s different time, such as day to night Displacement Territorial Movement of crime from one area to another Displacement Chapter 12 - KEYWORDS business Organizations typically composed of area business owners and property owners who voluntarily come improvement together and agree to impose special tax assessments on themselves districts CAPS Chicago alternative police strategy- program that includes assigning officers to permanent neighborhood beats, he involvement of residents in the identification of problems and potential solutions, and reliance on other agencies to address identified issues civil abatement The use of civil codes to attack crime problems; most notable is the involvement of landlords, citizens, health departments, zoning boards, and city/county attorneys in addressing drug problems community A new philosophy of policing rather than a clearly definable method; generally includes community policing involvement, problem solving, community base, and redefined goals for the police Operation Partnership in Boston to address gun violence, particularly among juveniles and gang members Ceasefire order maintenance Police functions that do not deal with an immediate criminal action problem solving Deals with crime by identifying the underlying causes and contributors to crime and seeking out solutions to those problems Project Safe That focuses primarily on reducing firearms violence through partnerships, strategic plans, training, Neighborhoods outreach, and accountability pulling levers Strict enforcement policy for all groups and individuals involved directly or indirectly in a crime problem SACSI Strategic approaches to community safety initiative- attempts to build a partnership consisting mainly of other criminal justice agencies to attack crime problems SARA Scanning, analysis, response, and assessment Weed and Seed A federally sponsored project initiated in 1991 to revitalize communities through “wedding” out existing problems and “seeding” areas with programs and initiatives that inhibit the return of the problems Chapter 12 - QUESTIONS What is the Interaction between police officers and citizens underlying philosophy of partnership initiatives? What functions do not deal with an Order maintenance immediate criminal action? What are the Focus on the ends rather on the means elements of community policing? What does SARA Scanning, analysis, response, and assessment stand for? What are the key Sign officers to community beats aspects of the Chicago alternative Police Strategy? What is Civil The use of civil codes to attack crime problems; most notable is the involvement of landlords, citizens, health Abatement? departments, zoning boards, and city/county attorneys in addressing drug problems The evaluation of Help to reduce drug activity the Oakland SMART Program found: What is PSN? Project safe neighborhood What was the Boston Operation Pulling levers Ceasefire Program? What did the Crime Community partnerships and Disorder Act mandate? What did evaluations of the Suppressing was the primary response Community-Wide Approach to Gang Prevention, Intervention, and Suppression Program indicate? What are the Strong leaders, manager, qualify staff features of a successful partnership? Chapter 13 - KEYWORDS ADAM program Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring- a means of ascertaining the extent of drug use by arrested subjects; arrestees voluntarily agree to be interviewed and give a urine sample for testing D.A.R.E. Drug Abuse Resistance Education- in-school program taught by law enforcement officers, emphasizing resistance skills training detoxification The use of drugs in an effort to remove an individual from an addiction to another illicit drug methadone Outpatient programs that involve the provision of methadone to heroin/opiate addicts maintenance Monitoring the Annual survey of representative high school students, college students, and young adults; the most Future important set of info deals with the level and type of drug use National Survey on Measures drug use by a representative sample of U.S. respondents age 12 and older Drug Use and Health National Youth An outgoing, longitudinal panel study of youths; collects info on delinquency, drug use, and Survey demographic factors psychopharmacolo Explanation suggesting that various drugs have a direct impact on the user, both physically and gical psychologically, which impels the individual to act in a way that society deems unacceptable reciprocal Means that criminal activity leads to drug use and drug use leads to criminal activity resistance skills A set of ideas that address recognizing problematic situations and issues, dealing with peer pressure, training recognizing pressure from media presentation, knowing proper responses to temptations, building self- esteem and assertiveness, and knowing how and when to take a stand spurious Means that neither factor is the ultimate cause of the other; rather, both are caused by either the same common factors or by different factors systemic violence Refers to violence resulting from competition between drug dealers, retaliation for poor drug quality or high prices, robbery of drug dealers or users, and other factors related to the drug trade therapeutic Residential communities that emphasize providing a supportive, highly structured atmosphere within communities which individuals can be helped to alter their personality and develop social relationships conductive to conforming behavior; operate as surrogate families for clients Chapter 13 - QUESTIONS What is the most MTF well-known drug survey? Monitoring the Future data Alcohol indicates the use of what drug is most prevalent? National Survey on marijuana Drug Use and Health indicates the use of what illicit drug is most prevalent? What is ADAM? Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring- a means of ascertaining the extent of drug use by arrested subjects; arrestees voluntarily agree to be interviewed and give a urine sample for testing What is the Spurious relationship between drug use and crime? The police High level of arrest , short term impact on the drugs, reduction of robbery crackdown in the Alphabet City area of New York found: What are the main Maintenance, Therapeutic communities, outpatient, detoxification categories of drug treatment programs? What is a Residential communities that emphasize providing a supportive, highly structured atmosphere Therapeutic within which individuals can be helped to alter their personality and develop social relationships Community? conductive to conforming behavior; operate as surrogate families for clients What impact does Mixed results most Reduced drugs use Education/Informat ion/Knowledge Programs have on drug use? What is the best “Just Say No” and D.A.R.E. example of a resistance skills training program? What is The use of drugs in an effort to remove an individual from an addiction to another illicit drug detoxification? Chapter 14 - KEYWORDS alternative schools Individual classrooms or programs within a school, set up dispel the negative experiences of many problem youths bullying Behavior that includes both physical and verbal aggression that is repeated over time is meant to intentionally harm the victim feeble-minded Term used in the early 1900s to denote those with low IQs G.R.E.A.T. Gang Resistance Education and Training- taught by local police officers in middle schools; goal of the program is to “prevent youth crime, violence and gang involvement”; provides youths with the necessary skills for identifying high-risk situations and resisting the pressure or allure of taking part in gangs and gang activity; program curricula are geared toward increasing self-esteem, changing attitudes, and eliminating participation in violent behavior meta-analysis The reanalysis of data from various studies in order to make direct comparisons between the results peer mediation Program in which students are trained to assist one another in resolving disputes in such a way that all parties to the dispute accept the resolution Project PATHE Positive action through holistic education- a broad based approach to the school environment that brings teachers, administrators, students, parents, and agencies together to make decisions about education and the school Resolving Conflict School program including student mediation as a core component; elementary curriculum consist of 12 Creatively Program lessons dealing with issues of communication, cooperation, feelings, diversity, peacemaking, and (RCCP) resolving conflicts Responding in Program that targets sixth graders and includes lessons on appropriate responses to conflict situations Peaceful and and how students can avoid violence Positive Ways (RIPP) school resource Police officers assigned to schools who are involved in mentoring and referrals, training teachers and officers (SROs) parents, teaching programs, and performing traditional police functions tracking The process of assigning students to different classes or groups based on the perceived needs of the student; common forms of tracking appear in high school, where students find themselves placed into “college preparatory” or “vocational” groups Chapter 14 - QUESTIONS Early IQ tests were Entrants to the united states in order to keep the mentally deficient out of the country used to screen? Feeble- minded What is the Important correlate of delinquency Not a direct casual factor relationship between IQ and delinquency? What impact does a Not that impactful. Lower expectations by teachers and students vocational group in school have on grades and teacher expectations? What did Gold find Positive reinforcement in his research the relationship between offending youths and school misbehavior? What are the a broad based approach to the school environment that brings teachers, administrators, students, components of the parents, and agencies together to make decisions about education and the school Project PATHE in school pride, career-oriented programs, student team learning, and individual services as targets for change Charleston, SC? The evaluation of The program has no overall effect on the schools as a group, improvements can be found in individual Project PATHE schools indicated: What is Peer Program in which students are trained to assist one another in resolving disputes in such a way that all parties Mediation? to the dispute accept the resolution What has been the Fewer discipline problems, fewer suspension outcome of teaching student conflict management/resolu tion? What does the goal of the program is to “prevent youth crime, violence and gang involvement”; provides youths with the G.R.E.A.T. necessary skills for identifying high-risk situations and resisting the pressure or allure of taking part in gangs Program target? and gang activity; The most recent No impact on delinquent activity evaluation of the Positive about the police, less positive about gangs more often used refusal skills, better able to resist peer revised G.R.E.A.T. pressure, less involved in gangs Program indicates: What are the Reductions in bulling, classroom disruption, and general delinquency results of the Olweus anti- bullying approach? Cox, et al’s Little impact on delinquency, increase academic performance and self-esteem analaysis of alternative schools indicated: What is tracking? The process of assigning students to different classes or groups based on the perceived needs of the student; common forms of tracking appear in high school, where students find themselves placed into “college preparatory” or “vocational” groups Chapter 15 - KEYWORDS active (continuous A form of electronic monitoring of offenders that keeps track of the offender on a continuous basis; signaling) system system consists of a transmitter, receiver, and a central computer Big Brother Term used to refer to the ability of the gov’t to monitor the behavior of the citizenry collective The imposition of sentences on everyone exhibiting the same behavior with no concern for the potential incapacitation of the individual electronic A form of home confinement in which individuals can be tracked by placing an electronic device on monitoring (EM) them incapacitation Method to prevent future crime on the part of the offender by imposing control over the individual that prohibits the physical possibility of future criminal activity Minneapolis Project to investigate the deterrent effect of arrest, separation, and police counseling in misdemeanor Domestic Violence spouse abuse situations Experiment net widening Bringing more people under the umbrella of social control passive Form of electronic monitoring that requires periodic activation of the system; the system randomly calls (programmed the offender’s home to certify the presence of the individual contact) system specific deterrence Efforts that keep the individual offender from violating the law again in the future three-strikes laws Anyone convicted of three separate violent felonies must be sentenced to life in prison with no chance for Parole Chapter 15 - QUESTIONS Studies of specific Very high levels of recidivism deterrent effects of imprisonment indicated: How does specific Inconsistent deterrence effect Higher levels of recidivism of longer sentencing length of sentence or parole? What is the Research on domestic violence on arrest Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment? What were some of The officers followed their own thing, self-selected the problems with the Minneapolis Domestic Violence Experiment? What are the two Selective and collective types of incapacitation? What are the key If they are incapacitation they will stop committing crimes assumptions in incapacitation claims? What does Greenwood’s Prior convection, drug use, serving time in juvenile facility selective incapacitation scale include? What is another Continuous name for an active electronic monitoring system? What are some of Enhance supervision, less overcrowding the advantages of electronic monitoring of offenders? What are the Public in greater risk, net widening concerns/criticisms of EM? Chapter 16 - KEYWORDS aggregate-level evaluation circle sentencing cognitive thinking skills drug courts family group conferencing individual-level evaluation intensive supervision probation mental health courts multi-systemic therapy restorative justice risk, need, and responsivity tautological teen courts victim–offender mediation Chapter 16 - QUESTIONS What is one of No real effect of recidivism Martinson’s most well-known statement? What did Palmer Rehabilitation worked claim? What are the key principles Need, risk, response underlying successful rehabilitation according to Andrews et al? What are the most Self-esteem, attitude, psychological adjustment common outcome measures considered in the rehabilitation literature? Charges that appear Aggregate level evaluation in large groups of subjects are referred to as: What were Cullen and Gendreau’s Target know predictors criminals, intervention should be behavioral principles for effective correctional treatment programs? What is Restorative Repair the harm of the victim and community while also helping the offender Justice? What the major Family group conferencing categories of Restorative Justice Programs? What is Circle Community has input on the sentencing on the offender Sentencing? How does High level of satisfaction by all parties victim/offenders perceive restorative justice? Studies of recidivism after Small but weak reduce recidivism participation in restorative justice indicate: What are the common elements of drug courts? Evaluations of the effectiveness of drug court programs indicate: Chapter 17 – KEYWORDS approach assessment diversity evaluation evidence perspective prevention
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