Complete Final Notes Good Luck Guys!
Complete Final Notes Good Luck Guys! 2305
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mubeen Hyder on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Brian Bearry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Exam 4 Notes ● A person’s political opinions are formed depending on their experiences in society ● Family values are also a big factor in a persons opinions ● A persons political opinions will also be shaped by what they think is right (morals) ● Tocqueville “Power exercised by majority opinion” ● Majority opinion can lead to tyranny ● Public opinion is determined by majority opinion ● Tocqueville argues that you cannot truly believe majority opinion ● Majority opinion can overshadow and silence important matters ● Majority opinion can be unjust, and considered just at the time ● Tocqueville “democratic nations” ● Democratic citizens must get their opinions from somewhere else ● All societies depend on dogmatic opinion (higher truth that cannot be broken) for social cohesion ● Democratic love of equality causes citizens to distrust one another ● Because there is no aristocracy or caste system, democratic citizens have different ways that influence majority opinion ● Social state what a group of people believe as a whole ● Plato’s republic the kind of people depends on their education within the social state ● Family, social groups, and media influence political socialization ● liberal/progressive/=political left ● conservative/limited/= politcal right ● Libertarian a person that believes in the doctrine of free will ● Populist a member of a political party representing the interests of ordinary people ● Direction ● Saliency ● Intensity ● Stability ● Random sample ● Qouta sample ● Tracking poll poll taken on the same group of people over a period of time to see a change in opinion ● Exit polls taking polls after people have left the voting place and asking them how they voted ● Focus groups the group that questions tracking polls Key problems Push pulls Media shows poll results Many americans dont understand ● Pamphlets & broadsides sheets of paper ● Penny press very expensive newspaper ● Moisei Orstrogorski gives marxist analysis to press. (every time technology changes, politics change) ● Calvin Coolidge first president to use radio. FDR developed the fireside chat ● 1960 Nixon Kennedy televised debate kennedy looked professional, Nixon sounded professional ● New media internet is changing political functions ● The internet can provide political info and commentary, hold government accountable and provide a forum for discussion ● Factors affecting media coverage? ● Journalists ● Sources ● Audience affects news consumption; ● Editorial functions ● Priming presenting political officials in positive or negative light ● framing/interpreting events the media interpreting things in their own ways to send out their opinions. ● fragmentation/narrowcasting when people side with one source only because it relates to their beliefs and opinions. ● Centralized control government wanting some control over media ● Economic interests ● Labor unions protects the rights of workers ● Professional ● Public interest groups (pigs) mothers against driving, black lives matter, etc. ● Rentseeking: when economic interests is able to influence government on its behalf ● Methods of influence? ● Gaining access/lobbying ● Going public ● Political action Boycotts, sit ins, strikes Electioneering when an interest group tries to elect people into office Agency capture when an interest group influences a government institution Campaign finance Political action committees (PACS) campaign contribution pools 527s tax exempt organizations created to influence election outcomes Grassroots lobbying teaparty, occupy wallstreet etc. What is the purpose of an interest group interest groups try to influence the government to change things based on their beliefs ● 2 major conflicts right now (contemporary) Left leaning progressives/socialism (origins in early europe socialism) this was based around occupy wallstreet (supported by democrats) Right leaning Lockean liberalism (origins in british radical) pushed movements like the tea party. (supported by republicans) History of American Party Development Below ● Generic party structure ● Charactarized by stratarchy (a system where power is diffused among levels) ● Precinct level responsible for platform development; GOTV ● County level ● State level ● National level ● Partyinthelegislature parties organize leadership, committees, etc. ● Partyintheexec. electoral leader, coattail effect ● Partyinthejudiciary appointments are ideological ● Party in the electorate ● Electoral system winner takes all vs. proportional representation ● Historical advantage/institutional barriers for 3rd parties ● Party ID/political socialization ● The historical form of human political participation is political violence ● Machiavelli said that political violence is normal among free societies ● He also argues that this violence cannot be put to good political effect ● In the american constitutional theory, voting solves this problem ● Free societies are characterized by tumult (confusion). ● Declaration of independence gives american people the natural right to revolution ● Jefferson followed chapters 1819 of John Lockes 2 treatises of government in arguing the right to revolution to fight tyranny ● All government has tyranny ● Voting in elections help facilitate revolution through law ● Mass public voting is understood to overcome political violence (machiavellian venting) ● Voting is basically one of the most important things a people of government can do to take control ● Article 1 gives state the authority to determine voter qualifications ● All property qualifications for franchise rights eliminated by 1828 ● 15th,19th,24th, and 26th amendments/ voting rights act of 1965 ● Partisan ID which party one identifies with ● Prospective/retrospective voting what one thinks a candidate will do once elected because they have no experience (trump supporters) ● Retrospective voting based on what the candidate has already done ● Issues voting based on what issues you think is important ● Older people vote more. More wiser ● Race. a lot of minority vote in democratic side ● Llya somin the american electorate does not have adequate knowledge for voters to control public policy Chapter XV UNLIMITED POWER OF THE MAJORITY IN THE UNITED STATES, AND ITS CONSEQUENCES ● According to this document, legislatures are the easiest body of government to influence and “sway” by the majority ● At this time in history, the executive and judiciary branches did not have the same level of authority as the legislative ● Checks and balances was not functioning 100 % ● The danger was the idea that the interest of the many outweighed the interest of the few The dangers of a majority 1. Laws that quickly change cause instability 2. There is no long term stance in projects or laws because legislatures are constantly replaced 3. A majority is only the opinion of each individual 4. A majority is not always right and needs to be checked as well 5. The biggest danger = “ nadequate securities which one finds there against tyranny” ● The biggest fear discussed in this chapter is that the legislative branch will become too powerful ● “If minorities do not have more freedom, rule by majority could lead to new revolutions” ● The opinions of the minority group must be addressed because the majority can be corrupted
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