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Complete Final Notes Good Luck Guys!

by: Mubeen Hyder

Complete Final Notes Good Luck Guys! 2305

Marketplace > University of Texas at Dallas > Political Science > 2305 > Complete Final Notes Good Luck Guys
Mubeen Hyder

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Okay these are the complete notes starting from the material we started exam 4 with and ending. It also includes an online reading we needed as well. Good Luck guys!!!
American National Government
Brian Bearry
Study Guide
Government, notes, exam4, exam
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Mubeen Hyder on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2305 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Brian Bearry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of Texas at Dallas.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Exam 4 Notes  ● A person’s political opinions are formed depending on their experiences in society  ● Family values are also a big factor in a persons opinions  ● A persons political opinions will also be shaped by what they think is right (morals)    ● Tocqueville “Power exercised by majority opinion”  ● Majority opinion can lead to tyranny  ● Public opinion is determined by majority opinion  ● Tocqueville argues that you cannot truly believe majority opinion  ● Majority opinion can overshadow and silence important matters  ● Majority opinion can be unjust, and considered just at the time    ● Tocqueville “democratic nations”  ● Democratic citizens must get their opinions from somewhere else  ● All societies depend on dogmatic opinion (higher truth that cannot be broken) for social  cohesion  ● Democratic love of equality causes citizens to distrust one another  ● Because there is no aristocracy or caste system, democratic citizens have different ways  that influence majority opinion    ● Social state ­ what a group of people believe as a whole  ● Plato’s republic ­ the kind of people depends on their education within the social state  ● Family, social groups, and media influence political socialization    ● liberal/progressive/=political left  ● conservative/limited/= politcal right  ● Libertarian ­ a person that believes in the doctrine of free will  ● Populist­ a member of a political party representing the interests of ordinary people    ● Direction  ● Saliency  ● Intensity  ● Stability  ● Random sample  ● Qouta sample      ● Tracking poll ­ poll taken on the same group of people over a period of time to see a  change in opinion  ● Exit polls ­ taking polls after people have left the voting place and asking them how they  voted  ● Focus groups ­ the group that questions tracking polls    Key problems   Push pulls  Media shows poll results   Many americans dont understand     ● Pamphlets & broadsides ­ sheets of paper  ● Penny press ­ very expensive newspaper  ● Moisei Orstrogorski ­ gives marxist analysis to press. (every time technology changes,  politics change)  ● Calvin Coolidge ­ first president to use radio. FDR developed the fireside chat  ● 1960 Nixon Kennedy televised debate ­ kennedy looked professional, Nixon sounded  professional  ● New media ­ internet is changing political functions  ● The internet can provide political info and commentary, hold government accountable  and provide a forum for discussion   ● Factors affecting media coverage?  ● Journalists  ● Sources  ● Audience ­ affects news consumption;  ● Editorial functions  ● Priming ­ presenting political officials in positive or negative light  ● framing/interpreting events ­ the media interpreting things in their own ways to send out  their opinions.      ●  fragmentation/narrowcasting ­ when people side with one source only because it relates  to their beliefs and opinions.   ● Centralized control ­ government wanting some control over media    ● Economic interests  ● Labor unions ­ protects the rights of workers  ● Professional­   ● Public interest groups (pigs) ­ mothers against driving, black lives matter, etc.  ● Rent­seeking: when economic interests is able to influence government on its behalf    ● Methods of influence?  ● Gaining access/lobbying  ● Going public  ● Political action   ­ Boycotts, sit ins, strikes  ­ Electioneering ­ when an interest group tries to elect people into office  ­ Agency capture ­ when an interest group influences a government institution  ­ Campaign finance   ­ Political action committees (PACS) ­ campaign contribution pools  ­ 527s ­ tax exempt organizations created to influence election outcomes  ­ Grassroots lobbying ­ teaparty, occupy wallstreet etc.   ­ What is the purpose of an interest group ­ interest groups try to influence the government  to change things based on their beliefs    ● 2 major conflicts right now (contemporary)   ­ Left leaning progressives/socialism ­ (origins in early europe socialism) ­ this was based  around occupy wallstreet (supported by democrats)  ­ Right leaning Lockean liberalism ­ (origins in british radical) pushed movements like the  tea party.  (supported by republicans)    History of American Party Development Below    ● Generic party structure  ● Charactarized by stratarchy (a system where power is diffused among levels)  ● Precinct level ­ responsible for platform development; GOTV  ● County level    ● State level   ● National level    ● Party­in­the­legislature ­ parties organize leadership, committees, etc.  ● Party­in­the­exec. ­ electoral leader, coattail effect  ● Party­in­the­judiciary ­ appointments are ideological  ● Party in the electorate     ● Electoral system ­ winner takes all vs. proportional representation   ● Historical advantage/institutional barriers for 3rd parties  ● Party ID/political socialization     ● The historical form of human political participation is political violence  ● Machiavelli said that political violence is normal among free societies  ● He also argues that this violence cannot be put to good political effect    ● In the american constitutional theory, voting solves this problem  ● Free societies are characterized by tumult (confusion).    ● Declaration of independence gives american people the natural right to revolution  ● Jefferson followed chapters 18­19 of John Lockes 2 treatises of government in arguing  the right to revolution to fight tyranny  ● All government has tyranny  ● Voting in elections help facilitate revolution through law    ● Mass public voting is understood to overcome political violence (machiavellian venting)  ● Voting is basically one of the most important things a people of government can do to  take control    ● Article 1 gives state the authority to determine voter qualifications  ● All property qualifications for franchise rights eliminated by 1828  ● 15th,19th,24th, and 26th amendments/ voting rights act of 1965    ● Partisan ID ­ which party one identifies with  ● Prospective/retrospective voting ­ what one thinks a candidate will do once elected  because they have no experience (trump supporters)  ● Retrospective ­ voting based on what the candidate has already done  ● Issues ­ voting based on what issues you think is important  ● Older people vote more. More wiser  ● Race. a lot of minority vote in democratic side  ● Llya somin ­ the american electorate does not have adequate knowledge for voters to  control public policy           Chapter XV    UNLIMITED POWER OF THE MAJORITY IN THE UNITED STATES, AND ITS  CONSEQUENCES    ● According to this document, legislatures are the easiest body of government to influence  and “sway” by the majority     ● At this time in history, the executive and judiciary branches did not have the same level  of authority as the legislative     ● Checks and balances was not functioning 100 %     ● The danger was the idea that the interest of the many outweighed the interest of the few    The dangers of a majority   1. Laws that quickly change cause instability  2. There is no long term stance in projects or laws because legislatures are  constantly replaced  3. A majority is only the opinion of each individual  4. A majority is not always right and needs to be checked as well  5. The biggest danger = “ ​nadequate securities which one finds there against  tyranny”    ● The biggest fear discussed in this chapter is that the legislative branch will  become too powerful    ● “If minorities do not have more freedom, rule by majority could lead to new  revolutions”    ● The opinions of the minority group must be addressed because the majority can  be corrupted       


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