General Psychology Final Exam Non-Cumulative Portion Study Guide
General Psychology Final Exam Non-Cumulative Portion Study Guide 1557
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 81 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Behavioral Theories -Behavioral theories of personality are based on principles of learning (ex. The work of Pavlov (dogs) or Skinner (enforcement)) -They are used to try and understand human beings -outdated, humans are too complex -Successful in anxiety and phobias Joseph Wolpe -believed that phobias are learned -systematic desensitization (phobia treatment) -if someone learned a phobia, introduce a new learning of replacing a fear with a positive response 1. Make a list of the person’s fear in different situations, ranked by the degree of fear within each situation 2. Train the person in deep muscle relaxation through a series of exercises and tensing & relaxing opposite pairs of muscles (for about 45 minutes) 3. Imagining the least fearful situation while doing relaxation exercises a. Keep doing this while gradually escalating the fearful situations and stop where it makes sense b. Sometimes you can even have the stimulus there, but only if it’s logical and practical Cognitive Theories -used in understanding depression -use thinking as an explanation for things Aaron Beck’s Cognitive Theory of Depression -depression is a distortion of reality -the way they see themselves is negative -the way they see the world is negative -the way they see the future is as if it’s not going to get better -huge discrepancy between thinking and the objective facts Magnification:when you exaggerate all the negative aspects Minimization:when people downplay the good aspects Logical and Philosophical Arguments as Therapy - get the person to believe the opposite through logical arguments proving them wrong and to see the reality of the situation Criticism of Aaron Beck’s Theory of Depression -Awareness of distortion -a lot of depressed people say that they know things aren’t as bad as they say they are -many people exaggerate the negative things but aren’t depressed -inexperienced therapists can cause the person to feel blamed and ultimately make them feel worse -Alloy and Abramson -2 graduate students that did a study to originally prove Beck right in his theory -took 2 groups of people (one healthy and one depressed) and gave them the task of turning on a light (which sometimes worked and sometimes didn’t) -afterwards they asked them to guess the percentage of the time that they had control over the light -found that the depressed group was more accurate in their guess of their control -the healthy people were distorting their level of control Martin Seligman -did experiments with animals to understand depression Learned Helplessness Theory Attribution -explanations people come up with for things that happen to them Internal→ cause was something about you External→ cause was something not about you Specific→ only applies to a particular situation General→ effects a lot of your life situations Stable→ cause is something relatively permanent Unstable→ cause is something temporary Cognitive Bias -depressed have a bias about when things happen to them Positive -usually external, specific, and unstable -they don’t take credit for the positive things and don’t feel good about it Negative -usually internal, general, and stable -they blame themselves when something bad happens and it effects lots of their life and it will be permanent George Kelly’s Personal Constructs Theory Reality and interpretation -reality isn’t important -interpreting and understanding is the most important -everyone has a different view of reality Personality constructs -the way we interpret reality -a rule that discriminates between things -have 2 sides (friend vs. enemy) -our thinking is based on making discriminations -leads us to have certain expectations, which because of this we end up having problems in life -we develop anger and hostility from forcing others to conform to our expectations Fixed Role Therapy -Kelly asked them to pretend for a time that they are someone else -he gave them a script to follow -changes the interpretation of their own issues Social Factors Neo Freudians and Social Factors -personality development depends a lot on social factors -saw a big importance in each person's experiences within their life Fundamental Attribution Error -people have the tendency to explain things differently depending on if they’re explaining something that happened to themselves (usually external) or other people (typically internal) -external: what happened to them is the fault of the situation -internal: what happened to the other person is their own fault Zimbardo Experiment and Role Conformity -people change their behavior based on the role they have at a certain time ex) police officers on duty vs. off duty Experiment: Zimbardo took students and assigned half of them to be prisoners and the other half to be guards. The guards soon became very aggressive towards the prisoners, and the experiment had to be stopped. Overall, it highly enforced how powerful role conformity is. Psychological Testing -used as a measurement for things -has to have certain characteristics Reliabilityshould give consistent results Validity:whether or not it measures what you want it to *it is possible to have a reliable, yet not valid test Standardization:you have to give the test to a large group of people before you can start your experiment in order to create a baseline to then compare the results of your experiment to in the future Cognitive Tests -Achievement Tests: measure a specific ability -Aptitude Tests: measure future performance (potential, overall skill) -Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) -most common intelligence test -gives you 3 IQ numbers 1. Overall 2. Verbal (based on language) 3. Performance (based on things like solving puzzles) -useful because some people perform better in one category Support and Criticisms of the IQ Tests -do they really measure intelligence? -not true experiments, they’re correlational with other factors that are unrelated such as genetics and life experiences -have shown that intelligence tests can predict academic performance and ability, but not overall life success Personality Tests Self-Report -straight forward questions asked to the person for them to answer -Advantages:very easy to administer, can reach a large audience rather quickly -Disadvantages people can lie about their answers intentionally or unintentionally Projective Tests -almost the exact opposite of self-report -when people see something they don’t understand they tend to use things about themselves to explain the situation ex) good mood, good situation -advantages:not possible for people to lie in their answers -disadvantagesvery difficult to use, only those highly trained can use them, can be very time consuming Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) -20 pictures showing people doing things and viewers are instructed to create a story of what’s happening in the situations -psychologists look for themes among the stories Rorschach -people are presented with ink blots on cards and are asked to describe what they look like using their own creativity and experimenters look for patterns and pay attention to how the person is handling the test
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