Final exam Study guide - chapters 8-10
Final exam Study guide - chapters 8-10 PSYC 1010
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samuel Croteau on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 1010 at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences taught by Prof Underwood in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Massachusetts College of Pharmacy & Health Sciences.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Chapter Eight Psyc Section 1 According to Freud, the ego is the executive of the personality in that it must find acceptable ways within reality (society norms) and the constraints of the superego to satisfy the instinctual drives of the id. Finding such ways isn't easy, and the ego may not be able to do its job. In reaction formation, the ego transforms the unacceptable impulses and behavior into their opposites; in projection they are projected onto other people. For example consider thoughts of homosexuality in a man. In reaction formation, the man would become just the opposite in his behavior, romantically overly interested in the opposite sex. However in projection the homosexual feelings would be projected onto other men. He would see homosexual tendices in other men and think they were gay, but he would not think this about himself. According to Freud as a child progresses through the first three psychosexual stages (oral, anal, and phallic) he may become fixated in a stage when there is an unresolved conflict in that stage. It fixated, part of the id's pleasure seeking energy remains at that erogenous zone and continues throughout a persons life. Thus, it will show up in the child’s adult personality. For example anal fixations will lead to the anal retentive or expulsive personality types. Section 2 Maslow's hierarchy of needs, physiological, saftey, belonging and love., and esteem needs have to be satisfied before the highest level need for self- actualization can be met. Positive regard for a person should be unconditional so that the person is free to develop her true self and thus work toward self-actualization. If our positive regard for a person is conditionalized (we set up conditions of worth for that person) then the person develops a self concept of what other think she should be. This self may be very different from the person's true self and thus prevent self-actualization Both self efficacy and locus of control are cognitive judgments about our effectiveness In dealing with the situations that occur in our lives. Whereas self efficacy is a person's judgement of his effectiveness in dealing with particular situations, locus of control is a more global judgement of how much a person controls what happens to him. Both a low general sense of self efficacy and an external locus of control (the perception that forces beyond one's control determine one's fate) often lead to depression. Section 3 There are two major reasons that factor analysis can lead to different numbers of basic personality dimensions. The first concerns the level of abstaraction at which a theroist uses the analysis. Some theorists have used a level of analysis in which some of the dimensions are still correlated others have used higher order factors that are not correlated. Thus, theorists may use different levels of inclusiveness with those using more global levels leading to fewer factors. Second and independent of level of abstraction, is what data are being analyzed. Different theorists have examined different databases. Obviously, varying input will lead to varying input will lead to varying results, even with the same types of analysis. The test construction method used to develop the MMPI involves only choosing test items that clearly differentiate the responding of two distinct groups. In the case of the MMPI test items were chosen that were responded to differently by representative samples of people 1 of 10 different disorders versus normal people. Thus predictive validity is ensured because only test items that defiantly differentiate test takers according to the purpose of the tests are chosen. In the case of the MMPI this means that various clinical personality problems such as depression or schizophrenia can be detected by comparing a test takers response pattern to those of the disordered groups. Chapter 9 Psyc Section 1 The main difference between normative social influence and informational social influence concerns the need for information. When normative social influence is opereating information is not necssary for the judgement task. The correct answer or action is clear. People are conforming to gain the approval of others in the group and avoid their disapproval. When informational social influence is operating however people conform because they need information as to what the correct answer or action is. Conformity in this case is due to the need for information, which we use to guide our behavior. In the door-in-the-face technique the other person accepts your refusal to the first requet, so you reciprocate by agreeing to her second smaller request, the one she wanted you to comply with. In the thats-not-all-technique , you think that the other person has done you a favor by giving you an even better deal with the second request, so you reciprocate and do her a favor and agree to the second request. If you predicted that the result was the same (zero percent maxium obedience) you are wrong. The result was the same as in Milgrims baseline condition, 65 percent maxium obedience. An explanation involves how we view persons of authority who lose their authority (being demoted). In a sense by agreeing to serve as the learner, the experimenter gave up his authority, and the teachers no longer viewed him as an authority figure. He had demoted. According to the bystander effect, you would be more likely to receive help on the little traveled country road, because any passing bystander would feel the responsibility for helping you. She would realize that there was no one else available to help you, so she would do so. On a busy interstate highway, however, the responsibility for stopping to help is diffused across hundreds of people passing by, each thinking that someone else would help you. Section 2 The actor observer bias qualifies the fundamental attribution error because it says that the type of attribution we tend to make depends upon whether we are actors making attributions about our own behavior or observers making attributions about others' behavior. The actor observer bias leads us to as actors to make situational attributions; the fundamental attribution error leads us, as observers, to make dispositional attributions. The actor observer bias is qualified, however, by the self serveing bias, which says that the type of attribution we make for our own actions depends upon whether the outcome is positive or negative. If positive, we tend to make dispositional attributions; if negative, we tend to make situational attributions. The false consensus effect pertains to situations in which we tend to overestimate the commonality of our opinions and unsuccessful behaviors. The false uniqueness effect pertians to situations in which we tend to underestimate the commonality of our abilities and successful behaviors. According to these effects, we think others share our opinions and unsuccessful behaviors but do not share our abilities and successful behaviors. These effects both stem from the self serving bias, which helps to protect our self esteem. Congnitive dissonance theory seems to be the better explanation for situations in which our attitudes are well-defined. With well-defined attitudes, our contradictory behavior creates dissonance; therfore we tend to change our attitude to make it fit with our behavior. Self perception theory seems to be the better explanation for situations in which our attitudes are weakly defined. We make self attributions using our behavior to infer our attitudes. Chapter 10 Psyc Section 1 The DSM is the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders published by the American Psychiatric Association. It is the most widely used diagnostic system for classifying mental disorders. Basing its classification upon behavioral and psychological symptoms, it provides reliable diagnostic guidelines for approximately 400 disorders, grouped into major categories that share particular symptoms. Labels attached to people bias our perception of these people in terms of their labels. Labels for mental disorders are especially problematic, because they tend to lead to neagative perceptions and interpretations of a person's behavior in terms of the label. In brief, labels guide our perception. Therefore, it is important to realize that there is much more to a person than a label. However, we need labels in order to know how to treat people with disorders and to conduct research on these disorders. This is why labels are necessary. Section 2 A bio-psychosocial explanation of a disorder entails explaining the problem as the result of the interaction of biological, psychological (behavioral and cognitive) and sociocultural factors. A good example is the explanation of specific phobia disorders in terms of a behavioral factor (Classical conditioning) along with a biological predisposed to learn certain fears more easily. Thus, a psychological factor is involved in the learning of fear but a biological factor determine which fears are easier to learn. Another good example is the vulnerability stress model explanation of schizophrenia in which one's level of vulnerability to schizophrenia is determined by biological factors, but how uch stress one experiences and how one copes psychologically with the stress determines whether or not one suffers from the disorder. The anxiety and fear in the specific phobia disorder are exactly as the label indicates. They are specific to a certain class of objects or situations. However, the anxiety and fear in generalized anxiety disorder are not specific, but rather global. The person has excessive anxiety and worries most of the time, and the anxiety is not tied to anything in particular. The concordance rates for identical twins for major depressive disorder and schizophrenia are only about 1 in 2 (50%). If only biological genetic factors were responsible for these disorders, these concordance rates would be 100 percent. Thus, psychological and sociocultural factors must play a role in causing these disorders. Schizophrenia is a psychotic disorder. This means the person loses contact with reality. Thus, the split is between the person's mental functions (perception, beliefs, and speech) and reality. In “split personality” which used to be called multiple personality disorder and is now called dissociative identity disorder in the DSM one's personality is split into two or more distinct personalities. Section 3 In biomedical therapy, there is a direct biological intervention via drugs or ECT, which has an impact on the biochemistry of the nervous system, or psycho- surgery, in which part of the brain is actually destroyed. There is no direct impact on the client's biology in psychotherapy. Psychological interventions (talk therapies) are used to treat disorders. However, successful psychotherapy may indirectly lead to biological changes in the client's neruochemistry through more positive thinking. The neurogenesis theory of depression can be considered a bio-psychosocial explanation, because both biological and psychological factors can have an impact on the neurogensis process that is assumed to eliminate the depression. Antidepressant drugs with their antagonistic effects on serotonin and norepinephrine are good examples of possible biological factors, and the positive thinking produced by cognitive psychotherapy is a good example of a psychological factor. A psychoanalyst can be thought of as a detective because she has to interpret many clue to the client's problem. Discovering the client's problem is like solving a case. The sources of the psychoanalyst clues are free association data, resistances, dream analysis, and transference. The therapist uses these clues to interpret the person' problem (solve the case) and then uses this interpretation to help the person gain insight into the source of his problem. Both of these types of psychotherapies are very direct in their approach. However behavioral therapies assume that the client's behavior is maladaptive and needs to be replaced with more adaptive behavior. Cognitive therapies instead hold that the client's thinking is maladaptive and needs to be replaced with more adaptive thinking. In brief, the behavioral therapist works to change the client's behavior, and the cognitive therapist works to change the client's thinking. Spontaneous remission is when a person gets better with the passage of time without reviving any therapy. Thus, if it were not considered when the effectiveness of psychotherapy is being evaluated, the researcher might incorrectly assume that the improvement was due to the psychotherapy and not to spontaneous remission. This is why the improvement in wellness for the psychotherapy group must be significantly (statistically) greater than the improvement for the spontaneous remission control group. If it is, then the psychotherapy has produced improvement that cannot be due to just spontaneous remission.
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