New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

General Psychology Final Exam Cumulative Study Guide

by: Melissa Metzgar

General Psychology Final Exam Cumulative Study Guide 1557

Marketplace > Kutztown University of Pennsylvania > Psychlogy > 1557 > General Psychology Final Exam Cumulative Study Guide
Melissa Metzgar
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
GPA 3.47

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes cover the cumulative part of the exam (25 questions).
General Psychology (PSY 11)
Dr. Manos Akillas
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in General Psychology (PSY 11)

Popular in Psychlogy

This 31 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Manos Akillas in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 122 views. For similar materials see General Psychology (PSY 11) in Psychlogy at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.

Similar to 1557 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania

Popular in Psychlogy


Reviews for General Psychology Final Exam Cumulative Study Guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 04/29/16
General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm ***Material from the 1st Exam*** Definition of Psychology -The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behavior in a given context. History of Psychology ➔ Concept of Abnormal Behavior ◆ Prehistoric -> 11th century AD ◆ Religious and Occult Explanations (performed exorcisms) ● trephining: opening the skull to give the demon an exit point (40,000 years ago-today), many survived ➔ Abnormal Behavior 11th-19th Century ◆ Social morality and control ◆ Poverty and workhouses (17th century) ◆ Concept of abnormal behavior expands and includes people who don’t conform→ Asylums arise ◆ More and more people were being seen as mentally ill ● Concept of AB was changing because of things like economic problems in Europe during the 17th century ○ unemployment (which was made illegal) ○ homelessness ◆ these people were arrested and taken to workhouses ➔ The Problem of Subjectivity ◆ Science and Objectivity ● claimed knowledge was based on observation, not logic ◆ Observation isn’t always objective due to perspectives ◆ Efforts to study perception and the mind lead to the development of psychology as a new field General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Important People   Name Time Beliefs Experiment(s)/ Criticism of Period Accomplishments Work 27th All living organisms have a positive Huang Ti & negative force, strange behaviors Wrote a book Century result from an off-balance of these about his beliefs N/A BC forces. Created mental 5th-4th Everyone has 4 fluids in balance ininstitutions to try Hippocrate Century their bodies, but that balance gets and relieve N/A s disturbed and affects our BC behaviors. people’s stress (successful) 4th In order for a person to be healthy Plato Century they must have strong logic. To be N/A N/A BC able to help the mentally ill we have to teach them philosophy. 10th-11t Helped cure a Methods You can help the mentally ill by worked Avicenna h prince who because of Century talking to them in a manipulative thought he was a creativity & BC way. cow. catering to each illness. Benjamin 18th-19t Wanted to teach the mentally ill Director of PA Rush h skills in-order for them to help hospital in Philly.Teaching of Century themselves. Relocated the mentally Spinning chairs, BC ill into better environments from blind ice baths, skills failed. the basement. etc. Theory of Hysteria: suffering from a brain weakness results in Very Jean Experimented impatient Martin 19th hysteria. with hypnosis on with Charcot Century Theory of Hypnosis: Anyone can be various people. experiments hypnotized. Thought only a few people can be hypnotized. . Can’t say that all suffer from a Hippolyte 19th weakness, then it isn’t a weakness. Experimented Argued with Bernheim Century Everyone can be hypnotized, it just with hypnosis Charcot. takes time. more intensively. Theory of Suggestibility: hysteria is the result of suggestibility. General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Areas of Specialization Applied Areas Clinical Psychology -Focus on diagnosis and treatments (ex. Therapies) -40% of all psychologists -Work: hospitals, private practice, teaching, research Industrial/Organizational -Interested in using psychology principles/knowledge Psychology in the workplace (that isn’t already psychology related) -Work in human resources, employee counselors, designing the workplace, marketing, advertising Academic & Research Areas Learning Involves understanding the process of learning (ex. animals) Motivation and Interested in causes of these behaviors Emotion (ex. feelings triggering behaviors) Cognition focus on understanding higher level thinking (ex. human memory, creativity) Developmental Study different ages of people in a comparison form (ex. 5 yr old vs. 25 yr old) Physiological Psychology and Biology, how the brain influences behavior Social Study people in groups (interactions, social behaviors) Comparative Studies animal behavior, species specific General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Research Methods Common Sense vs. -Knowledge from life experiences vs. knowledge from Scientific scientific studies Knowledge -Difference: science goes through active evaluation through its research True Experiments -Experimental and Control Groups Experimental: exposed--Control: not exposed -Personal qualities may affect results, have to find ways to factor-out (Random Assignment) -Independent and Dependent Variable Independent: what you’re studying--Dependent: the results Quasi-Experiments -not divided randomly, pre-existing groups ex) brain damaged vs. healthy, male vs. female -never as good as true experiments, can never be certain that the results are caused by the difference being studied Reactivity -you can never be certain of the results because when humans know they’re being observed they behave differently In-Depth Case -Focuses on one or more people very closely Studies -No control group -conclusions don’t have the same type of certainty Theories of Learning Pavlovian Conditioning -Wanted to know how much saliva is generated in a dog when food is present -Original measuring experiment got him wondering how the dogs starting salivating before the food was present -Trained the dogs to associate the sound of a bell with the receiveing of food -Taught the animal that two stimuli go together (the bell and the food) -Acquisition: Learning that the bell & the food correspond **Learning the association General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -Extinction: Learning that the bell and the food don’t correspond **Unlearning the association -Spontaneous Recovery: Even though a behavior has been extinct, the association still remains to a certain degree. -Generalization: Finding a similarity between the different bell sounds and generating the same response for all of them. -Discrimination: Training the animal to separate the generalization and break down the different bell sounds into different associations. Instrumental and Operant Conditioning Edward Lee Thorndike -Experiment: caged cat needs to learn how to get out & obtain food by pressing a button in the cage. Out of hunger driven hysteria, the cat got out accidentally. This cycle was repeated & the cat gradually learned what the button did through trial & error -Law of Effect: If an animal/human does something that has pleasing consequences, that behavior is more than likely to happen again. Wolfgang Kohler -Caged a monkey with boxes and hung a banana over his head. Monkey stacked the boxes & retrieved the banana. -Wanted to prove Thorndike wrong -Thorndike argued monkeys naturally have the instinct to climb to obtain food, so it was highlighting a natural instinct. Behaviorism John Broadus Watson -Wrote criticism of ming/thinking theories because of many psychologists using introspection -show someone something and ask them to tell you about it and then repeat it with more people to find patterns -no consistent information, said that the problem was that thoughts can’t be observed -Methodological Behaviorism: anything that can’t be observed should be referred to as non-existent (thoughts and feelings). General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Burrhus Frederic Radical Behaviorism:​the difference between the observable Skinner and unobservable is the internal behavior vs. overt behavior, but they still obey the same principles. Law of Reinforcement​: if a behavior has certain consequences (positive or negative) and because of those consequences the behavior becomes frequent, we can say that the consequences reinforced the behavior -Positive: something pleasant is obtained in return -Negative: something unpleasant is taken away ex) if you get an A on all exams there is no final Motivation Instinct Theory -All organisms are born with innate biological tendencies that help them survive. -Problem: just assumed unsolvable behaviors were instincts Drive Theory -Replacement for instinct -All behaviors can be explained by the 4 drives of hunger, thirst, sex, & aggression -Biologically determined, not learned -Other needs are learned based off of secondary drives and conditioning Harry Harlow -Harlow took infant monkeys and placed them with wire mothers or cloth mothers. The wire mother held the food, and the cloth mother didn’t have any food. The monkeys developed an attachment to the cloth mother, which a 5th primary drive of comfort was added. Homeostatic Model -believed that the brain acts like a thermostat in a way to maintain regularity -Hunger and thirst General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -Hypothalamus: responsible for detecting the need to eat or drink, activates according to behavior -lateral hypothalamus initiates desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat or drink stops) -ventromedial hypothalamus inhibits the desire to eat or drink (if destroyed, the desire to eat and drink happens) Non-Homeostatic Behaviors -Aggression -Not a good concept→ many behaviors, but happen for different reasons ex) play aggression vs. hunting aggression -Amygdala Theory -There is a part of the brain that controls aggression called the Amygdala that once stimulated causes aggression -Experiment with Baboons -Scientists measured how often the monkeys fought, then removed the Amygdala and found that they weren’t fighting anymore. -It was later found that this lack of aggression was due to the monkeys not being able to recognize anything in the environments around them. -Sexuality *more complicated to study because of the sensitivity & assuming honesty -Masters and Johnson’s studies -conducted human experiments -measured heart rate, skin temperature, etc. -not a natural environment/situation -influenced behavior -questionable sanity of those being experimented on *Their conclusion: Humans arousal reaches a plateau and then ends after orgasm. -Criticism of Masters and Johnson’s work -There wasn’t any at first, but it was later questioned because there was not really any useful information out of the 10,000 observations. -Experiments with animals -Better results than human experiments -Caged a male monkey, and later added a female monkey and began measuring the frequency of sex. Once the frequency got low, they removed the female and replaced her with another, and did that for a total of 3 monkeys. -Once a new monkey was added, the frequency went up and gradually General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm decreased until sex became rare. *Sexuality is triggered by novelty -C.A. Tripp -Novelty -Barrier Theory *It’s not novelty that triggers sexuality, but barriers. ex) break ups, relationship problems Theories of Emotion -William James -“We feel sad because we cry” -Believed that behavior comes first, then emotions. -Stanley Schachter -Epinephrine experiment→ creates physical tension and arousal -Supported William James -Randomly placed people into 3 groups and gave them an epinephrine Injection. Then they were randomly placed into two different waiting rooms with an actor: the first room had someone acting like they were in a really good mood, and the second had a grumpy actor. -When asked afterwards how they felt: Group 1: felt tense regardless of actor Groups 2 & 3: felt like the corresponding actor *Emotions aren’t as automatic as we think that they are, they come after a process of interpretation. Emotion and Personality Styles -Meyer Friedman’s theory of Type A and Type B styles Type A: very task oriented, tense, impatient, needs to get things done. *Increased risk of heart disease Type B: relaxed, procrastinator, no urgency. *Less likely to be at risk for heart disease - Found being type A versus being type B plays a role in predicting heart disease and heart attacks. -Suzanne Miller’s Monitors and blunters -Can divide people into Monitors and Blunters Monitors: seek information, stress over it Blunters: avoid information -David McClelland’s theory of needs -nAch→ the need for achievement General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -constantly needs to accomplish things -nPow→ the need for power - constantly needs to feel they have authority -nAff→ the need for affiliation -needs to feel they have high levels of interactions with others ****Material from the 2nd Exam**** Theories of Memory -Information Processing Model Encoding: the learning, taking information in Storage: keeping that learned information Retrieval: finding the kept information *Information is never lost, you simply have trouble finding it within your brain because it gets to be an “unorganized filing cabinet” Richard Atkinson’s Theory Sensory Theory: some believe that it shouldn’t be called sensory memory because it happens in the sensory organs -after the stimulus is gone you still have a 1-2 second memory of that stimulus Short Term Memory: brief, limited in terms of the time of the storage and the amount of storage available (about 15-30 seconds and 5-9 pieces of information) Long Term Memory: unlimited in both time and amount of storage available Endel Tulvig’s Theory Episodic Memory:​ remembering the entire event just as it was when you first learned/experienced ex) your high school graduation Semantic Memory:​ remembering information but not the circumstances of when you first learned it Memory: Forgetting Interference Theory Retroactive Interference: the new information gets in the way and you can’t find the old information *most common type of forgetting Proactive Interference: the old information gets in the way and you can’t find the new information *less common General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Motivated Forgetting -Emotional Reasons (abused children forgetting the abuse) -Unpleasant things (fights) Amnesias -due to brain damages, illnesses and extreme stress -everytime someone can’t remember something that they should be able to remember (ex. your address) Anterograde Amnesia -not being able to recall the information from after an event ex) what happened after a car accident Retrograde Amnesia -not being able to recall the information from before an event ex) what happened before a car accident Memory Characteristics Recall→ remembering information by relevancy (like when writing an essay) Recognition→ the ability to identify the correct information among given wrong information (like a multiple choice exam) *People always do better with recognition Primacy→ tendency to remember information you studied first Recency→ tendency to remember information you studied last *Always better to divide up material you need to study & do it a little at a time Reconstructive Nature of Memory -finding all relevant pieces of information and piecing them back together -memory needs to be economical, it can’t waste space -problem: because of this, people often make mistakes and mis-match information about an event ex) eyewitness testimony *Shows memory isn’t as reliable as we think it is Psychopathology: Definitions of Abnormal Behavior Traditional definitions and their criticism -Deviation from the norm: a person is different from the average person problem: people can be different yet still not negatively abnormal ex) being extremely intelligent -Maladaptive behavior: the behavior is bad for the person problem: many behaviors are maladaptive but not abnormal General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm ex) working overtime and having a heart attack; dangerous sports -Subjective Distress: the person is suffering (depression, stress) problem: certain behaviors that are abnormal aren’t associated with suffering David Rosenhan’s Studies First Study: -Tried to define abnormal behavior -sent students to psychiatric hospitals with fake schizophrenia and had them act normal and they stayed at the hospitals for a month -after they returned he got their records and the hospital staff had interpreted their normal behaviors as abnormal ex) one guy worked on a school paper everyday and they said he was obsessively writing Second Study: -contacted hospitals and told them that he was sending fake patients and that he wanted them to identify them -never sent any fake patients -hospitals reported that 30% of their patients were fake *Behavior is abnormal because of our expectations, and it depends on the context of the behavior on whether or not we consider it to be abnormal. Thomas Szasz’s Theory -Argued that in our society we make judgements (morally) and don’t approve of certain behaviors and use mental illness to control and explain those negatively judged behaviors Michel Foucault -Noticed that over the past 1,000 years more and more people are being considered to be abnormal → because society changed and became more organized and judgemental with higher expectations of people Psychopathology: Diagnostic System Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5th Edition (DSM-V) -defines types of problems by specifying symptoms of disorders advantage→ makes precise definitions disadvantages→ well defined makes it hard for people who don’t have all the symptoms to be professionally diagnosed, as well as some symptoms aren’t always the same in every problem General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Psychopathology: Anxiety Disorders Anxiety States→ when a person experiences anxiety/fear but doesn’t have a specific trigger for the reaction -Generalized Anxiety: when someone feels anxious all the time (most people aren’t aware of it) -Panic Attacks: occasional overwhelming fear that happens for no reason *Severe problem because of the consequences such as causing a harming accident or a scene. Most people avoid doing things because of these consequences. Phobias→ experiences of fear triggered by something specific -Agoraphobia A person is afraid of public places (ex. supermarket) A person is afraid of being at a place in which they can’t escape -Social Phobia: feeling anxious because they are afraid of the negative judgement of others Specific: if a person get anxious when in a specific activity ex) speaking publicly Generalized: afraid of any interaction with others -Specific/Simple Phobia: being afraid of a specific thing -tons of them -extremely common, everyone has at least 1 ex) spiders, mice, darkness, heights Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Obsessions: thoughts people don’t want to have Compulsions: behaviors people need to do -most involve checking or cleaning things -have to repeat the action like they don’t believe that they already did it -anxiety occurs when they try and fight the obsessions and compulsions Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder -after an extremely stressful event the person experiences after effects such as nightmares and different way of reliving the event -some get past it after a certain amount of time, but others don’t -war veterans especially are effected Psychopathology: Mood Disorders Symptoms: Manic and Depressive Episodes General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Manic→ mood is abnormally high extreme cases: sleep loss, heart attack Depressive→ mood is abnormally low extreme cases: can’t talk *both can be anywhere from mild to extreme episodes Major Depression -Very low mood (severely), can’t enjoy things -no energy, cries a lot -trouble sleeping or oversleeping -usually needs to be hospitalized Dysthymic Disorder -mild depression -not severe enough to be hospitalized Bipolar Disorder -manic and depressive episodes, very severe -may need to be hospitalized Cyclothymic Disorder -moods changes very quickly or over a length of time -significant shifts between manic and depressive Depression and Suicide -high suicide risk when they begin to recover (because they have more energy) -sometimes create the impression they are doing better when they aren’t Psychopathology: Somatoform Disorders Somatoform Pain and Signal Pain -experiences pain, yet there is nothing wrong physically -most of the pain is psychological and difficult to tolerate -mind creates it as an alarm to stop what you’re doing (signal pain) -physical pain is more like pressure and more tolerable Somatization -when someone complains about a large number of symptoms that doesn’t make sense and there’s nothing wrong with them -person pays too much attention to their own body -happens a lot with the elderly Hypochondriasis -the belief that you have an illness even though the doctor(s) say otherwise Conversion Disorder (hysteria) -Losing function of an organ or body part even though there is nothing physically wrong ex. blindness, paralysis General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -Common 100 years ago, rare today -Seems to be based off of societal factors and the rates of expectations Studies on Hysterical Blindness -presented the blind with a light and turned it on and off, asking them which they thought it was -they mostly guessed wrong, which proved they could see it because they were giving too many wrong answers -examined individual life history of everyone and didn’t find any reasons for why they would lie about being blind (no benefits) -repeated the experiment and explained to the blind that they were giving too many wrong answers when they answered, which caused them to get frustrated but no other changes in behavior *Concluded: the blind could see the light, but they were seeing it subconsciously, they didn’t know they could see it Psychopathology: Dissociative Disorders -A phenomena involving a split in consciousness -Separating things and not letting certain parts be active Depersonalization -experience life as it if were not real, like in a dream -extremely common, not abnormal -only a disorder if it bothers the person -50% of the world’s population experience it several times a day Dissociative Psychogenic Amnesia -forgetting something (for emotional reasons) that you should be able to remember ex. abused children forgetting the abuse -too painful to remember in most cases Psychogenic Fugue -very rare a controversial (some think it’s not real) -involves complete loss of memory except of the skills or knowledge that you’ve already learned, you just don’t know how you know it -causes panics, hospitalization Dissociative Identity Disorder (Multiple Personality) -Relatively rare -part of consciousness assumes different identity -person doesn’t feel comfortable with certain feelings, so they shift personalities and truly don’t believe that they did something connected to those feelings Psychopathology: Sexual Disorders Sexual Dysfunctions -related to anxiety -problems in sexual functioning Sexual Paraphilias General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -desires/practices that aren’t acceptable socially in society -have a lot to do with social values Desire Stage -before the actual experience -where problems can occur Hypoactive Desire: not interested in sex, indifferent opinion Sexual Aversion: negative attitudes towards sex Arousal Stage -problems with physical arousal -can happen to male or female -in males: erectile dysfunction -in females: lack of lubrication Intercourse Stage Dispareunia: painful intercourse (can be in male or female) Vaginismus: difficult/painful intercourse due to tense vaginal muscles Orgasm Stage -can’t reach orgasm, it’s inhibited (can be in male or female) -premature ejaculation, male has orgasm too quickly Treatment -usually very easy to treat because clients are highly motivated to be cured -the earlier the problem appears (stage wise) the more difficult it is to treat Paraphilias Voyeurism→ the desire to observe others having sex who aren’t aware of being watched (peeping tom) Exhibitionism→ the desire to expose yourself to unsuspecting victims Fetishism→ derives sexual pleasure from an inanimate object that isn’t meant for sex Partism→ arousal by parts of the body that aren’t typically arousing Sadism→ arousal from inflicting pain on others Masochism→ arousal from pain being inflicted on you Frotteurism→ arousal from going somewhere crowded and “accidentally” touching people Necrophilia→ arousal from having sex with dead people Treatments -difficult to treat because people usually don’t want to get better -many think they’re impossible to treat -often times people are legally ordered to go to therapy for them Psychopathology: Eating Disorders Anorexia -uncommon, very serious, very dangerous -usually requires hospitalization -involves a loss of significant weight & having a distorted body image of self -people aren’t comfortable with their own body -more than wanting to lose weight and look good General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Bulimia -very common, especially among women *ages 18-22, 25% are bulimic. -desire to lose weight according to ideal body images -uses unhealthy methods (inducing vomiting, taking laxatives) -not as dangerous as anorexia -possible physical damage still common (esophagus, intestines) Psychopathology: Sleeping Disorders Dyssomnias (involves the hours of sleep) -Insomnia: not sleeping very much, problems falling asleep or staying asleep -Hypersomnia: sleeping too much, constantly feeling sleepy Parasomnias (involves the quality of sleep) -Dream Anxiety: nightmares causing a feeling of the lack of sleep -Sleep Terror: like dream anxiety, wakes up in a state of panic and takes a while to calm down, causes anxiety and fear -Sleepwalking: gets up and walks around while still sleeping, usually perform complex tasks without getting injured or injuring others Sleeping Disorders in Children -all sleep disorders are very common in children -considered normal when a child complains of them Psychopathology: Schizophrenia *One of the most severe disorders, only ⅓fully recover→ ⅔bounce in and out of hospitals for their lifetime not being in touch with reality. Psychotic Symptoms -Delusions: beliefs a person has that don’t correspond with reality -Hallucinations: things a person perceives without appropriate stimulation (hearing things, seeing things, feeling things, smelling things and tasting things that aren’t actually there) Types -Paranoid: very expressive, will talk to you, feelings of persecution, most mild form, good chance of recovery -Catatonic: completely disconnected from the world around them, don’t answer/react when spoken to, most severe type, generally don’t recover, don’t express themselves, body rigidity Psychopathology: Substance Use Substance Abuse -using too much of a substance on a regular basis ex) alcohol, drugs, medications, etc. Dependency -needs to take the substance otherwise they get sick (withdrawal symptoms) -can have dependence without abuse ex) needing to have one beer a day General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -develops depending on the substance Psychopathology: Personality Disorders *Don’t involve specific symptoms, but the entire personality of the person. Avoidant→ avoids others because they get anxious and insecure around them Schizoid→ avoids others because they are happier alone Schizotypal→ weird in the way they talk, act and dress; very awkward; can’t maintain relationships of any kind Histrionic→ reacts with extreme emotion, very dramatic, changes moods easily Obsessive-Compulsive Personality→ perfectionist, under control, organized, planned Narcissistic→ needs to feel unique in either a positive or negative way, not ordinary Borderline→ has instability in their relationships, feel a sense of void emotionally, very sensitive to criticism and imperfections from others Antisocial→ takes advantage of others without guilt (like criminals), not very ethical Dependent→ expects others to take care of them, don’t want to be independent ***Material from the 3rd exam*** Sigmund Freud -Born in Czechoslovakia, moved to Austria as a child -Family encouraged education, was a very good student -Went to med school to be a Dr., then for Psychiatry to develop theories Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory *very complicated theory, people often misinterpret it due to lack of knowledge* -The project -the book Freud began to write which contained the theory of personality being based upon the nervous system -The book was never finished because he changed his beliefs on the subject, however it did help to improve later theories that he developed -contained the ideas of primary and secondary processes: Primary Processes: the tendency of the nervous system to be active Secondary Processes: when all the activity suddenly stops ex)when you are startled by something -these processes were central in Freud’s theory -the two opposite tendencies caused conflict within -Early studies on hysteria -Charcot was the famous psychologist at the time of Freud finishing school and Freud went to study with Charcot in Paris for a year -During this time Charcot and Bernheim were arguing about the nature of hypnosis -After he finished studying with Charcot he came back and opened his own private practice, he was considered to be an expert in hysteria and ended up working with a lot of people who had hysterical symptoms General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -Breuer and Anna O. -Freud developed a friendship with Breuer and collaborated with him on developing hysteria theories -Anna was a young woman who was experiencing a number of problems -Ill father, only one who took care of him so she wasn’t in school, had no friends, etc. She developed temporary neck paralysis, various phobias and the inability to speak in her native german -Breuer started treating her by hypnosis and she remembered that when she was younger she got very upset that she saw her dog drinking out of a regular glass (started yelling and crying) (had a phobia of drinking water at the time) -Breuer kept getting her to remember instances like such and she started to get better -Anna eventually fell in love with Breuer, and he rejected her which caused her to fall apart and have a hallucination of being in mid-labor with Breuer’s child. Breuer refused to treat her from then on. -Breuer went and talked to Freud about it and he believed that all the negative feelings she was building up from her life were causing her physical tension -Abreaction and catharsis (1st model of treatment) Abreaction​he expression & consequent release of a previously repressed emotion, achieved through reliving the experience that caused it (typically through hypnosis or suggestion). Catharsis: the process of releasing, and thereby providing relief from, strong or repressed emotions -Seduction theory Freudbelieved provided the solution to the problem of the origins of hysteriand ​bsessionaneurosis​According to the theory​epressed  memory​of an​arly childhoosexual abuseormolestationexperience was the essential precondition for hysterical symptoms. These people became scared of their own feelings and suppressed them in their memory. -Revision of the seduction theory -hysteria was very common at this time, especially among the “respectable” families -this caused lots of suspicion into those families, and caused criticism of his theory -revised the theory, and claimed that these memories were not of real events, but rather vague images of thoughts and fantasies that the person had as child that they weren’t aware of Theory of Consciousness General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Freud argued that deep down all humans are animals, sometimes even more aggressive than tigers. From this he developed the three levels of consciousness. The Conscious: anything that we are aware of at any given moment The Preconscious: things you aren’t aware of, but can become aware of ex)what you had for dinner yesterday The Unconscious: things we aren’t aware of and cannot become aware of In the Ego -the conscious and the preconscious -this part understands society and keeps the ID under control through repression of the thoughts that aren’t acceptable in society In the ID -needs, desires, and ideas that aren’t acceptable in society that are part of our animal nature -the unconscious   Sigmund Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory Theory of Consciousness (continued) -Libido and repression of primitive desires Libido: energy that functions ID -Methods of studying the unconscious (can’t study directly) -process of repression relaxes during dreaming (why they are strange) -dreams: highly symbolic, thoughts that are usually kept in unconscious Manifest content: actual content Latent content: what the actual content symbolizes -therapists discuss their feelings and try to relate them to real life -free association: -ask them to report every single thought without holding back -helpful b/c people report seemingly unconnected things that are actually connected Insight (2nd model of treatment) - ​reud changed his theory to start trying to help people understand their feelings -thought that a healthy person has control over their unconscious and the way they express and relieve it, but you have to know yourself and have insight Studies with normal people: all have primitive desires -at some point all reported similar memories to those who were considered and diagnosed to be hysterical General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Need to explain individual differences -normal people have a better way of handling hysteria because they don’t bottle it up and repress it Stage Theory The Oral Stage -food most important -derives all satisfaction through eating and drinking -has no concept of self -develops this concept by learning that the mental image of food can’t satisfy them -fantasy vs. reality=environment vs. self -learns they aren’t helpless (can control the environment) Problems: -if you have an anxious mother who is always tending to their needs, that doesn’t allow the child the ability to learn between fantasy and reality and leads to the child becoming a very dependent person -also possible to have the opposite scenario with an uncaring mother which results in a child who has a lack of trust in people The Anal Stage -about controlling the self -toilet training time period -learns to physically control their body Problems: Strict parents→ child feels like they can’t do anything right Permissive parents→ child doesn’t learn right vs. wrong *results in the child being uptight, rigid, afraid of doing things wrong, don’t trust themselves Phallic Stage Oedipus Conflict -boys discover their bodies and masturbation -become very confused because they’re told it’s allowed, but not in certain instances -they develop the fear that the dad will get angry and he will get in trouble Resolution: -boy identifies with his father and adopts similar characteristics -he then internalizes them and they become the superego Electra Conflict -girls have two identifications -first they have anger towards the mother and identify with their father -this stage isn’t complete because of the difference in gender -the girl then resolves the anger with the mother and identifies with her General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -she then adopts similar characteristics and internalizes those to develop her superego Instinct theory Civilization and sublimation Civilization developed because early human societies adopted a new system: instead of hierarchy based on strength they established certain social rules (economic system of exchange, family systems, religions). In order for this to work it was necessary for people to control their animal tendencies. The only way society could become civilized was to satisfy their animal urges in socially acceptable ways given that there was no way to make these urges go away (sublimation: satisfying a primal urge in a socially acceptable way). Ex) st​ simulating competition in safer ways (sports, certain careers) 1​ theory of instincts: sexual and ego instincts Freud argued that people have two instinctsà sexual instincts ego instincts Sexual: about any kind of pleasure or enjoyment (the desire to enjoy things) Ego: the need to protect one’s own self (self-preservation) nd​ 2​ theory of instincts: sexual Freud changed his theory because he realized that those two instincts are somehow related to each other (always balance the other one out)à resulted in just sexual. People can experience desire in two ways: in the environment (desire for pleasure) or they can direct that desire towards themselves (self-preservation) *followed during most of his life* 3​dtheory of instincts: Eros and Thanatos Freud added to the second theory (two instincts: Eros and Thanatos) Eros: the need we experience as desire (external or self) Thanatos: the desire for self destruction, experience danger (don’t normally experience, not suicide related) If we only had the desire to feel good we’d never take any risks or put ourselves in danger (primitive times and hunting). rd​ Transfest​ce (3 ​ model of treatment)   1​abreaction (getting people to express feelings) 2​insight (getting people to understand their feelings) Involves experiencing feelings towards a person because that person reminds you of someone else (ex~ feeling angry towards your wife because she reminds you of your mother). More likely to happen if the two people resemble each other, or if the relationship you have with those two people is similar and in therapy with the person’s therapist. Less likely to happen if you can see differences between the two people. Freud thought that was important because: General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm It allowed the therapist to help the client achieve insight by discussing feelings that the client had toward the therapist. (adv. Allowed discussion of feelings at that moment when the feelings occurred in the therapy room, which is much better than discussing feelings that happened a couple days ago {working with a memory of something}). Working in the here and now. Theory of Anxiety: argued that anxiety (fear) sometimes is a normal feeling, even useful. It is normal because it helps us avoid danger almost like an alarm (but only if there is a real danger). Realistic Anxiety: realistic only if there is something in the environment that is dangerous and is threatening the ego (origin is external). Neurotic Anxiety: things that make people scared that aren’t dangerous (ex. Fear of spiders). Anxiety has nothing to do with {the spider}, but something internal. Based on the ID threatening the ego. Free Floating: same as generalized, person feels anxious all the time Panic Attacks: occasional experiences of very intense fear, tend to be unpredictable, not triggered by anything specific. Many people who have these are afraid to do things in case of the embarrassment Phobias: fear of something specific, people develop phobias in order to avoid having panic attacks (like a coping mechanism, “scheduled” experiences of fear) Moral Anxiety: people don’t experience it as fear, but rather have the feeling of guilt (not something they’ve done, but something they have the intention to do). Arises from the person having the intention to do something (in the ego) and the superego judges the person and that makes the person feel bad. Theory of Depression Mourning: depression is a normal feeling in most scenarios (realistic). Wouldn’t put themselves down, they would just be upset. Melancholia: people get depressed and have no good reason for it. Argued that the difference between normal and abnormal depression is that in the case of melancholia the person also has low self-esteem. General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm **When all people lose something they experience contradictory feelings: love and anger. Love: desire for whatever it was they lost to come back. Anger: angry that what they lost is gone. Identification: when a person adopts characteristics of another person, how people try and resolve the loss, most times unconsciously. **Those who have a weak ego, when they identify with the person they lost they begin to direct all the feelings of anger towards that part of themselves that is the same as the other person Treatment: getting that person to express anger at something other than themselves (the therapist especially). This can be risky because the client could quit therapy out of anger. Alfred Adler -was a friend of Freud's, however they disagreed on theories and didn’t continue the friendship -mainly didn’t agree on the most important need that human beings have Freud: to experience pleasure and avoid pain Adler: to contribute in society, being useful in the group you belong to Social Interest -contributing in society -feeling fulfilled by being useful in your group -thought this was the most important need Problem: we see people who put in effort and try to be useful and help others, however we also see selfish people as well. Theory needs to account for selfishness, why do people become selfish? Inferiority and Superiority Complex Inferiorityeveryone experiences it from day one (during childhood years) with parents and older siblings with them being able to do more things than they can (maybe physical- overweight, being behind in typical growth and maturation) -If someone feels inferior then they feel that they don’t have what it takes to be helpful and contribute -Child soon develops a desire to compensate and prove themselves from their inferiority (proving superiority) Superiority:competitive, proving themselves: how they develop selfish-ness (nothing but an effort to prove superiority) -most people struggle with this -the healthy person is someone who is not competitive but knows how to cooperate with people and work together with others General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -if a person who experienced a relationship based on cooperation then they can overcome the inferiority and superiority complex In therapy he tried to develop a relationship with the client that stimulated a cooperative one so they could overcome whichever they felt -client comes in with a mindset of proving themselves and still become competitive with the therapist -focus is to establish the cooperative relationship to avoid the client becoming competitive **Adler’s most important psych contribution: his influence on the way we do therapy (once a week and 50 minutes longà didn’t want clients to experience feelings of inferiority or superiority based on how often/long their sessions were). Also thought that the therapist shouldn’t have a social relationship with the client. **Freud used to meet with client’s everyday of the week without a time limit and developed friendships with his clients. Fritz Perls: Gestalt Therapy Started as a Freudian, later changed his ideas. Did significant work on developing ideas on aggression based on Freud's theory. Decided to separate and develop his own theories. Disagreed on the nature of human needs. Freud thought it was to feel good and avoid pain, while Perl's argued that we have all kinds of needs and isn’t as important to specify which need is most important because they all change moment to moment. Figure and background -Figure: Thought there is one need at any given moment that is more important than others: the need to focus on what occupies our thoughts and what we think is urgent. What is figure can easily change. -Background: the thoughts that are behind the figure that aren’t as important in that moment Orientation -it isn’t possible to satisfy their need unless something is done with their environment (ex. Being hungry and getting food) -depending on the need the person either needs to get something from the environment or get away from the environment Positive and negative cathexis -positive: if the orientation involves approach we experience that as desire, and that feeling of desire is the positive cathexis -negativeà if the orientation involves getting away from something we experience those feelings as negative cathexis Hierarchy of needs -the needs are organized in an hierarchy of importance -after the figure is satisfied then the next most important need becomes figure General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Gregory Bateson Qualities of the person vs. relationships -claimed that in psych we make a big mistake of trying to explain things we want to explain by focusing on the individual person, and develop theories based on personality qualities, which is a mistake because the kinds of things we try to explain are not qualities of individuals but they are reactions -Leadership is really a relationship between one person who is leading and at least one other person who is following, and if you don’t have that relationship you don’t have leadership -we should be focusing on interactions and relationships rather than personalities Symmetrical and complementary relationships -symmetry: is one in which the two people are both doing the same type of things and behaviors (these interactions escalate) (nothing new happens, it becomes boring) -complementary: the two people are doing behaviors that are opposite, but the one completes the other (leader and follower, no tension because there is no disagreement) Double bind theory -double bind: a way of communicating, you need 2 people who have an important relationship and one must be more powerful than the other (mother and son for ex.), the more powerful gives 2 demands that contradict each other Contradictory statements and schizophrenia -families of schizophrenics use double binds when they talk to each other, and argued that by doing this is causes schizophrenia Criticism of double bind theory -quickly became known that the theory was incorrect because several studies showed that double binds are very common amongst all families, especially when people have close relationships Importance of double bind theory -the theory generated a strong interest in studying families and using their relationships as an explanation for psychological problems Murray Bowen Historical family therapy -psychological problems develop because of the way that family members interact across generations -you have to look at the behavior of various generations of the family -a healthy person is one that becomes independent from the family of origin (emotionally, financially, etc.) and argued that people have psychological problems because they have difficulty separating from the family of origin General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Triangles -why people have difficulty separating from family of origin -happens every time two people have a problem with each other and a third person gets involved -the third person makes things better temporarily, but in the long run nothing gets resolved and perpetuates the problem -has effect on the third person because they feel that they have an important role to play in the situation and feel responsible for stopping the argument, and because of this feeling they may have difficulty separating from the family of origin -you have to establish a boundary so this doesn’t happen (especially within families) Existential theories Existential theories differ in many ways, but they all emphasize that essence is more important than existence. Essence vs existence -Essence- the way we define something. -things can be the same but have separate existence/history. -Existence sometimes has sentimental value; ex: you have a favorite ring and lose it. It is replaced with another ring, that is the same essence but has a different existence. -Scientists would focus on essence so they can apply theories to the whole group. -Existentialists reject that theory and say that the individual (existence) is more important. Fyodor Dostoyevsky -Science cannot predict human behavior -If there was a theory about all human behavior, humans would change behavior because they see it is a threat to their freedom. People don’t want to feel predictable. -Because of the need to have freedom, there could never be a theory on how humans are going to be have. Jean-Paul Sartre -Did not like conventional ways of classroom teaching; would want to students in cafeteria and talk about everything besides school. -In-itself vs for-itself: in-itself entity doesn’t have ability to make choices for itself, for-itself does. Humans are for-itself. -Anything you do is a choice if you could have done something else; doesn’t matter if its conscious or not. General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -The only thing humans don’t have the choice in and the only limit on freedom is death. -Self deception: Usually we aren’t aware of the full extent of our freedom and we do things without questioning it. We deceive ourselves by thinking that we have to do the things we do. This reduces anxiety about making choices and whether or not we are making the right choices. According to Sartre, if a person is stressed they are more aware of what is going on and their choices. -Fear of Freedom: some people find freedom threatening because they are afraid of responsibility. If you are fully free you are the “author of your own life”. People don’t like this idea because they like to blame things other than themselves when they run into problems. -Responsibility: we are responsible for everything that happens to us. The way we experience things is the outcome of our actions which are the choices we made and we are responsible for those outcomes. -We are responsible for everything in the world because something could have been different if we chose to do something else. Things are the way they are because we made them that way and we are responsible. Irvin Yalom Denial of death: Yalom worked with terminally ill patients and thought they would be depressed and talked about death but found they talked about things they liked doing and wanted to make most of time they had left. -He argued that most people live in denial when it comes to death. We live under the illusion as if we’re going to live forever, this reduces anxiety about death. -By living like this, we lose sight of the important things and get hung up over meaningless stuff. -He argued that People have psychological problems because they take life for granted and don’t appreciate its importance. -In his therapy he tried to get people to focus on and do more meaningful things. Because we are in denial of our death, we never tell people things we really want to or do things we really want to do Unfinished business -the problem is that life doesn’t work that way and we leave needs unfinished -the unfinished business distracts us from what should be figure in that moment -ex) leaving in the middle of an argument to go to an important class and not being able to focus on the material in class, but rather you’re focusing on the argument still -this lack of resolve results in the accumulation of unfinished businesses that makes it almost impossible to satisfy any needs and the cycle continues on General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm Conflicts -we are presented with situations that involve multiple needs at one time Thinking does not solve problems, it makes them worse -you can’t satisfy a need or solve a problem by thinking -the only way to solve anything is to do something in the environment -because of unfinished businesses people have a hard time resolving situations in that moment Here and now -you can only solve problems in the real situation, not by talking about it afterwards Empty chair -sometimes in therapy a client brings up a problem with somebody and that person isn’t there, the discussion of the problem only makes things worse -because of this Perls developed the empty chair technique -don’t discuss the fight, but rather take an empty chair and place it across from the client & ask them to tell that “person” anything they wanted to tell them -Perls would then say to go to the chair and pretend that you are the other person and answer yourself, and the cycle would continue -did this because he thought it was better to simulate the real situation rather than to talk about the problems **Perls also used to encourage/demand people to only talk about the present moment. He did therapy in groups and focused on one person at a time. He asked them to talk about what they are feeling right in that moment. **Gestalt Therapy: an existential/experiential form of psychotherapy that emphasizes personal responsibility, and that focuses upon the individual's experience in the present moment, the therapist–client relationship, the environmental and social contexts of a person's life, and the self-regulating adjustments people Victor Frankl Logotherapy: -a type of therapy that focuses on meaning, the basic principle is that people have difficulties because of the kind of meaning that they attribute to things (either good or bad) and it is that attachment of meaning that creates problems and overcome problems in life General Psychology Final Exam Tuesday, May 3rd at 2pm -anxiety is one of the most common experiences that creates psychological problems for people -as the person be


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Kyle Maynard Purdue

"When you're taking detailed notes and trying to help everyone else out in the class, it really helps you learn and understand the I made $280 on my first study guide!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.