Exam 3 Study Guide
Exam 3 Study Guide Hist 1010
Popular in World History 1
Popular in History
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ally Bradfield on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Hist 1010 at Auburn University taught by Donna Bohanan in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
European Reformations I I. Church before Luther The church was losing power and prestige with the Avignon Papacy and Great Schism. The clergy are somewhat corrupt due to powerful positions requiring high monetary status. The person responsible for dealing with confessions, etc. wasn’t trained well, ignored vows, and was potentially illiterate. With the religion of the people, they were very unchurched in remote areas with few religious resources and lack of the benefit of the sacrament. Many people were found on the surface Christians with Pagan (magical/superstitious) beliefs. It later combined Pagan superstitions with Christian beliefs. The church didn’t want to alienate the people to only Christianity when trying to convert. Christians were supposed to not work or observe a normal schedule on feast days. Peasants thought that the herbs they gathered on these days would have medicinal powers. The Indulgence Controversy prompted Luther to come forward for the Reformation because it had to do with purgatory. Purgatory was where the soul was cleansed to allow it into heaven later through painful purification. Indulgence: a remission or pardon for time in purgatory, recognition of good works within a lifetime. Pope Leo X had debt. They encouraged indulgences in the form of money for funding the church, corrupting the value and meaning of indulgences as they are also sold. Tetzel sold indulgences on street corners in Germany, encouraging Martin Luther to offer the Ninety-five Theses (95 points on the wrongs of indulgence selling) and nails them on the church door in Wittenberg where he was a priest and teaching. Begins Protestant Reformation. *Absenteeism, Pluralism II. Luther Born into a German and upwardly mobile family and very well educated to study law. He was struck by lightning and prayed to devote his life to the church if he lives. He chose the Augustinian Order that was very serious. He has a spiritual crisis when he began to have doubts about his own salvation. Once ordained, he went to celebrate Communion (miracle of Transubstantiation: idea that the ordained priest and transforms the bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ) and chokes and was temporarily unable to perform the ritual. His superiors suggest graduate school to help him with his crisis, going to Wittenberg. The letters of Paul inspired Luther’s theological revolution. Justification by faith stated that it didn’t matter what you did, it all came down to faith for salvation. It wrongs the concept of Purgatory and good works. He thought people would live better lives without the stress of salvation and from the grace of God. Scripture was the only source of Christian doctrine. He also reinterpreted the Sacraments, dropping 7 to 2 (Communion and Baptism) since they were the only ones mentioned in the bible. Introduced Consubstantiation of communion: the real presence of Christ coexisted with the bread and wine, leaving faith of the believer to determine the efficiency of the process. III. Spread of Protestantism Luther gets mad that people stop going to church because of the indulgences. Puts up 95 Theses stating why indulgence-selling is wrong. His ideas spread rapidly and widely due to the attention from the 95 Theses and the invention of the printing press by Gutenberg. Northern humanism also contributed with people like Erasmus that wanted to reform the clergy and people’s daily lives to more about ritual than works for the church. The election of Charles V (holy Roman emperor) also helped Luther in the end because the 300 principalities (of what would later be Germany and others) were loosely connected. A local prince rules them with Charles V above him as the holy Roman emperor (elected for a lifetime). They would also elect a Habsburg, a local ruling family of Austria, who would often get the title of the holy Roman emperor. The church asked Luther to answer questions in Rome and he agreed to do so in Germany to avoid death. The pope Leo X doesn’t want to see Charles V become the holy Roman emperor because he already has so much land from his family and he’d get too much power with the holy Roman empire too. The pope wants to get Frederick (Elector of Saxony) to vote against Charles’ election. Charles becomes holy Roman emperor when his grandfather dies because there aren’t any other presentable alternatives, even after two years. Charles was a strong Catholic but was too busy fighting wars like the Habsburg-Valois (French ruling family) Wars to unite Christianity over Protestantism as he wanted. The Ottoman Turks were a Muslim empire expanding rapidly as warriors towards Habsburg land. The Turks nearly defeated Charles and the Muslim threat became such a pressing issue that it took away from the problem of Protestantism. Suleiman the Magnificent is the commander of the Ottoman empire. Varieties of Protestantism I. Anabaptists Series of independent congregations that agree on things but don’t organize together, loose and general group/term. They saw themselves as a community of saints and believed that people were a member of the church by choice. You had to stand up and state that you’d been spiritually regenerated or born again to become a member. Anabaptists waited to baptize them after they did this because they said babies couldn’t have that yet, making them anti-infant baptism. They were extreme biblical literalists, meaning that they believed the interpretation of scripture should be by face-value and lived by the bible. They were also pacifists because they believed killing was wrong, making them even more unpopular. The Anabaptists were pushed out of the German empire but in general inspired other religions, like the Baptist churches, as they fled for refuge. II. Zwingli A Catholic priest with a church in Zurich that converts slowly to Protestantism because of Luther, taking his congregation with him. However, Zwingli believed in Consubstantiation rather than Transubstantiation as Luther did. He thought that Christ was merely spiritually and symbolically present in communion rather than physically. The two argue over this and Protestant leadership tries to settle their argument in Marburg by leaving them together. This failed miserably because they agree to disagree, proving that there will never be only one Protestant church. III. Calvinism John Calvin is a later but extremely impactful Theologian. He’s French and started his life studying in the church but decides to study law instead, discovering Christian humanists. He creates his own branch of Protestantism by challenging the ideas of the church with ideas of predestination and the Majesty of God, that God is all powerful and all knowing. Those who were chosen to go to heaven were called the Elect, and had to glorify God by being as good as they could be even though they didn’t know if they were chosen or not. Calvin also said if you lead a good life, you could take it as signs that you may be among the Elect. This sense of hope made Calvinism more popular and he also tried to spread it in Geneva, in Switzerland. Wars of Religion I. Explanations for Religious Violence Catholic violence against protestants due to the idea of collective salvation: (unofficial policy/concept) Catholics saw salvation as a community process that everyone is in together. They saw anyone who deviated from the norms of the community as a threat for everyone’s salvation, like Protestants. Many Catholics showed extreme violence towards the Protestants in order to save their salvation through murder and acts of violence. Protestants embraced martyrdom, as well as the Catholics on a less serious level. For Protestants, being a martyr was a sign of election and being part of the Elect for salvation. II. Patterns of Violence Both have distinctive forms of violence: Catholics continued violence on the corpses of the people they killed while Protestants practiced iconoclasm. Some believed that the Catholics did this to try to save the soul in Purgatory through purification and the cleanse of torment. Protestants, through iconoclasm, tended to destroy the icons of the church to return to a simpler form of Christianity because they feared that Catholics were worshipping the icons with idol worship, which was considered wrong by the bible. III. Example: French Wars of Religion The Catholics were a majority in France while the French Protestants, or Huguenots, were minority. The Royal policy was very Catholic and considered sacred. Henry II, the king, persecuted Protestants and encouraged citizens to do so as well by ensuring his policies through laws. This forces the Huguenots to hide in practice, but also to form a strong military because they found religious war inevitable. They later created laws of mediation that allowed Huguenots to live but did not allow them to practice their religion. The Protestants were encouraged by this and everything the Royals did in attempt to subdue the Protestants only made them stronger. House of Bourbons (Protestant) and House of Guise (Catholic) began at war when the House of Guise finds a town that has converted to Protestants and massacred everyone in the town. Charles’ mother (Catherine de Medici) finally finds a solution by marrying her daughter to Henry of Navarre, a Protestant. She freaks out and orders the death of all Protestants who had come to Paris for the wedding because her advisors believe that the marriage triggered a potential conflict and upper hand for the Protestants. The king ordered the death of Protestants by the Catholics, resulting in St. Bartholomew’s Massacre. Henry of Navarre was forced to convert to Catholicism after escaping capture, but later converts back to Protestantism. The crown eventually passes to Henry of Navarre because all of Catherine’s sons die. Henry struggles with the crown and converts back to Catholicism to further succeed. He then issues the Edict of Nantes, ending the wars and allowing toleration to the Protestants. They were allowed to live and work in particular areas but lack the same political rights and ability to practice religion. Europe Exploration and Colonization The Vikings went to settle in Newfoundland but found a problematic relationship with the Native Americans. Most Native Americans were completely unaware of the discovery of the Americas. Three Reasons for European’s Initial Failure to Explore and Colonize I. Feudalism: kept Europe weak and divided, no capital for resources for the exploration, self-sufficient economy II. Age of Faith: primary focus on how to get to heaven rather than how to improve life on Earth, III. Technological backwardness: little knowledge of mathematics Six Factors that led to European Exploration and Colonization I. The Renaissance: outward looking Europe, map making, learning and making the most out of life II. The Crusades: opened up European trade to exotic spices and silks III. Technological Advances: compass, astrolabe (navigational device), printing press all paved the way for exploration IV. Bubonic Plague: reduced competition for food in Europe V. Creation of Nation-States: status and wealth for successful explorers, more goods and markets for merchants VI. Missionary Efforts: spread Christianity Early European Exploration: The Mediterranean and the Atlantic Fringe I. Atlantic fringes: Canary, Medira II. Sugar Plantations: permanent settlement allows the creation of sugar plantations. Import Africans as slaves to work on the plantations. III. Vivaldi Brothers: discovered Africa and India Portugal I I. Nation-State: easy to control borders, closer access to the New World, wanted to find a fast route to the East and pay less for goods from African nations II. Early Exploration a. Cape Verges b. Sao Tome c. Principe Portugal II I. Slavery: consequence II. Sailing Techniques III. Volta do Mar: straight isn’t always the best way of getting somewhere IV. Lateen Sails: navigation easier, voyages shorter V. Prince Henry the Navigator: supported learning and exploration, launches research Columbus and Spain I I. Christopher Columbus: no one is interested in financing his expedition II. Ferdinand and Isabella: willing to finance Columbus’ expedition, low risk and high reward deal. Got national pride and glory as well as the royal fifth: 20% of profits from the expedition. Columbus gets glory and money. Columbus and Spain II I. October 12, 1492 II. La Espanola III. Tainos: Columbus thought he was close enough to India so he called them Indians, led to the extinction of their people due to disease and the Spanish labor policies IV. West Indes Wider Consequences I I. The Columbian Exchange: exchange of goods and ideas that has occurred from discovery to present, mostly immune to diseases, Doctrine of Discovery gave control to Spain over the New World II. Treaty of Tordesillas: Spain gets nearly all of the Americas while Columbia gets a body of water and Brazil/Portugal III. A Changed Europe: greater interest in discovery IV. America: honeybees, razorback hogs Magellan and Cook I. Magellan II. Circumnavigation III. Cook: contributed to geographical discoveries of the Pacific, killed by the people of Hawaii Trade and Southeast Asia I. Portugal: no permanent colonies II. England and the Dutch: more influence, build trading posts, rid the Portuguese, advantages of faster and cheaper ships and more efficient organization with the joint-stock company III. Joint Stock Companies IV. Conquest Russian Consolidation I. Expansion II. Siberia III. Explorers: discover Alaska and sail far French Absolutism Absolutism exercises complete control and power through one leader. This was determined by a Devine right. Monarchs were limited in power because they didn’t have control while absolute monarchs possess more power but develop over time. I. Henry IV Henry IV (of Navarre) was the first of Bourbon monarchs, entering leadership in the middle of the religious wars. He ended the wars by converting to Catholicism, creating the Edict of Nante (giving Protestants religious toleration). The Duke of Sully was Henry’s finance minister tried to balance the budget by putting the king on an allowance and, due to the lack of uniformity, Sully tried to make tax collection equal and uniform so everyone would finally pay the same. He knew that his tax reform would cause tax revolts, he attempted to ease everyone into it province by province. A Catholic assassinates the king and disables this tax reformation method from spreading. II. Louis XIII Louis XIII was only 9 years old, so France has a regency: where another relative rules in the name of a minor. Louis’ mother (Henry’s wife) Marie de Medici is regent. France had been doing well financially, and Marie ruins it by paying off the people who revolted against the crown and she also recalls the tax collectors that Sully had sent out. When Louis becomes of age, he begins to rely on Cardinal Richelieu. Louis and Richelieu try to recentralize and grow the state’s power. They continue tax collection policies from Sully and Henry. The Protestants feared Marie would get rid of them, so they became extremely violent and rebellious, so Richelieu sent Catholics to seize La Rochelle to defeat the protestants and kill them. In addition, they revoked the part of Edict of Nante that gave them military rights to defend themselves. Richelieu introduced the Intendants, bureaucrats sent to each province to snoop for him, the 30 tyrants of France. III. Louis XIV Louis XIV was only 5, so his mother Anne of Austria was also his regent. Her minister Mazarin was her right hand man. The Fronde occurred, a civil war revolt against absolutism, and lasted for five years. Bureaucrats and peasants supported this to get the intendants off their shoulders and for equality of taxation. It was ended by the government but it overall scared France into submission and shapes the perceptions of Louis XIV and his intentions for absolutism to avoid another Fronde. Louis waited until Mazarin died so that he could enforce personal rule to give himself the control to make all decisions. He builds the palace of Versailles as a control mechanism to keep the nobles from rebellion by making them live with him. With the upper-echelon of nobleman living with him, he creates a system of manners and way of behavior in Versailles that enables control of behavior by desire to be highly ranked. Those who misbehaved were punished by gossip later that night between many nobles. He also made himself the centerpiece as a reward of those who acted properly to be around him. Louis reformed his military with one uniform for the whole army and creates the first veteran hospital. He also revoked the Edict of Nantes because he couldn’t handle the Protestants that wouldn’t conform.
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