Exam 4 Health study guide
Exam 4 Health study guide HEA 102-010
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Cassie Ferree on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HEA 102-010 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dina Hayduk in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 151 views. For similar materials see Intro to Health/Wellness in Health Sciences at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Exam 4 Study Guide What does SMART in SMART goal stand for? - Specific - Measurable - Attainable - Realistic - Time Stamped Define Psychosocial Health - A complex interaction of one’s mental, emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions including past and present experiences Define Mental Health - The successful performance of mental functions resulting in productive activity Define Psychosomatic - The influence of the mind on the way the body functions Body Mind Environment What are elements shared by mentally healthy people? - Support system – enrich lives of others - Recognizing not everything is perfect - Sense of worth – feel good about themselves - Ask for help when needed - Comfortable around other people - Ability to control tension and anxiety - Ability to meet demands of life - Curb hate and guilt - Maintain positive outlook - Recognizing what makes them smile - Value diversity - Appreciate and respect nature What is the mind-body connection? - Happiness : a key to well-being What are components of subjective well-being? - Satisfaction with well-being - Relative presence of positive emotions - Relative absence of negative emotions - Internal locus of control - Developing an attitude of gratitude What is the self-actualized person? - The state attained when a person has reached his or her full potential - Proposed by Maslow as the level at which people achieve transcendence - State of well-being that come from finding purpose and meaning of life What are the 3 components of happiness and positive psychology? - Positive emotion and pleasure (savoring sensory experiences) - Engagement (depth of involvement with family, work, romance, and hobbies) - Meaning (using personal strengths to serve some larger end) What is the difference between a stressor and stress? - Stressor is a physiological thing, it’s the thing that stresses you out What is the difference between a eustressors (positive) and a distressors (negative)? - Different for every person, based on personal experiences, more experience the more likely you’ll know how to deal with certain stressor What is an example of a distressor? - Money - Work – finding a job, working full time and going to school - Grades - School work What is an example of a eustressor? - Hanging out with friends - Travelling - Sports - Exercise What is the general adaptation syndrome? - This is what happens to your body when your body perceives a change What are the three stages and a description of them? - Stage 1 – Alarm (Fight, Flight, or Freeze) a. Sudden physiological changes for quick response to stressor; fight it or escape from it b. Sympathetic Nervous System c. Stressor causes our muscles to tense, jaw to hurt, headaches, blood clotting increases, heart rate and blood pressure increase, hearing increases - Stage 2 – Resistance a. Body adapts and returns to homeostasis (state of stability and balance) b. Parasympathetic nervous system c. Way to interrupt stress response – nap, video games, sports, exercise, breathing, .b mindfulness, short walk, water, talk with friends, music, color (if not done, we get stuck in stage one) - Stage 3 – Exhaustion a. Body does not return to balance b. Can cause you to fall asleep in class, tired all the time, depression, compromises immune system c. Want to intervene before this stage occurs What are ways to cope with stress? - Need a lot of them, not just one - Can use: exercise, walking, sports, breathing, friends, music , color , nap, .b mindfulness How does your class define spirituality? - Connectedness to something, some place, or someone - Being one with something - Strong belief - Sense of calmness - Sense of mind *spirituality and religion are not the same, but for many people are interrelated. Many different ways they can be interrelated. Spirituality is a health dimension but religion is not. What is spirituality? - Moving toward great authenticity or “spirituality is a journey toward wholeness”, developing an “attitude of gratitude”. (Official definition on pg. 69 of health book) What are some assumptions about spirituality? - Connection – to something outside of self (Ex: god, higher power, “life force”) self, others, nature, and the interconnection of everything; wholeness OR to self - Inner peace – gives your brain a chance to relax *generally spirituality experiences happen by surprise How does your class define religion? - Belief in higher source of power - Belief and following a higher power - Movement to worship divine being - Set of beliefs - Way of life - Personal beliefs - Organized group of people with similar beliefs What is religion? - an organized community of faith, have an official creed (Determined by those in power to do so) What does religion provide? - Myth, symbol, sacred story that tell ultimate truth through story, metaphor, or art - Ritual and ceremony that celebrates in community some of life’s most important transitions - Guidelines on how to live a spiritual life Why is spirituality a dimension of health? - Stress reliever - Lower blood pressure - Integrates different aspects of the human experience - Potential for shared community - Less cardiovascular disease - Less depression - Less anxiety - Enhanced immune function - Longer life What is spirituality not? - An escape from reality How can unmanaged stress hormone negatively impact? - Compromised immune system - Our ability to burn fat - Our cardiovascular system (blood thickening) - Wounds are slower to heal - Our gastronomical system - Our moods How does stress and the college student go together? - Sense of anxiety - Sleeping difficulties - Short temper - Headaches or dizziness - Recurring colds or minor illnesses - Inability to concentrate What is the difference between humor and comedy? - Comedy – coming from outside, could be power-play (put someone down to make them feel better), jokes - Humor – coming from within, what we find funny, based on experiences Does laughter enhance health? Studies have suggested: yes - Stressed people become less depressed with humor - Students who use humor as a coping mechanism experience positive mood - Jokes, especially shard, increase social cohesion - Enhanced the immune system - Increases Tcell count What are physical benefits? - Boots immunity T cells and B cells - Lowers stress hormones - Decrease pain - Relaxes your muscles What are mental benefits? - Adds joy and zest to life - Eases anxiety and fear - Relieve stress - Improves mood - Enhances resilience - Increases endorphins What are social benefits? - Strengthens relationships - Attract others to us - Enhances teamwork - Helps defuse conflict - Promotes group bonding How do you lighten up? - Smile - When you hear laughter, move toward it - Bring humor into conversations - Be more spontaneous - Tongue twisters Ask yourself: - Is it really worth getting upset over? - Is it worth upsetting others? - Is it that important? - Is it that bad? - Is the situation irreparable? - Is it really your problem? Normal Eating Disordered Eating Eating Disorders What is normal eating? - Eating 2-3 meals a day - Balanced diet - Portion control - Eating when you’re hungry/ stopping when you’re full What are different types of eating disorders? - Men have eating disorders too but they aren’t diagnosed as quickly as women because they don’t realize men can have them too 1. Anorexia nervosa a. Restrict food – unhealthy diet b. Fear of being fat c. Obsess over food but don’t indulge in it d. Distorted body image e. Use “picky eating” as a defense mechanism f. Can be very defensive when confronted about it, could lead to isolation because they don’t want to deal with people asking about it g. Women lack to go through menstruation and imbalance of hormones (estrogen) h. Loss of bone mass, they can have bones of 60 year olds 2. Bulimia nervosa a. Purging (excessive exercise, vomiting, and laxatives)/ unhealthy way of getting rid of calories and food b. Binge-eating c. Can be restrictive/normal eating that leads to a binge (typically food that they wouldn’t eat when restricting, ex: ice cream, cake, candy) that leads to guilt that leads to purging and start the cycle over again d. Distorted body image e. Typically of a normal weight 3. Binge eating disorder a. Excessively eat too much when not hungry b. Eat till point they are uncomfortable c. Unhealthy eating d. Eating rapidly e. Not in front of people, secretive f. Can be caused by stress g. Can be overfat 4. Muscle dysmorphia a. Feel they aren’t “big” enough b. Exercise excessively c. Never satisfied d. Distorted body image 5. Orthorexia 6. EDNOS: Eating disorders not otherwise specified Mental Illness Describe schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders - Delusions, hallucination, disorganized speech or behavior - Losing touch with reality - Schizophrenia has a strong genetic component - In most cases, symptoms of the disease can be controlled with medication - Person with illness many times doesn’t realize it is occurring Why do people abuse substances and become addicted? - Feeling pain then uses something to numb the pain Describe mood disorders and some examples of them - Known as depressive or affective disorders - Among the most common mental disorders around the world - More than 20 million adults in the United States suffer from a depressive illness, affecting more women than men - Examples include: major depressive disorder (depression), bipolar disorder (manic episodes), dysthymia What are some things o-morbid conditions that can be associated with depression? - Anxiety disorder - Substance abuse, including: alcohol, nicotine, and other drug addictions - Cardiovascular disease - OCD – obsessive compulsive disorder - SAD -Seasonal affective disorder - ED - Eating disorder What are some facts about depression and gender? - 8-11% of all men - 19-23% of all women - Twice as likely in adolescent and adult females vs. males - Hormonal factors may contribute to increase in women - Equal rates for males and females in college What could people with major depressive disorder (depression) experience? - Chronic mood disorder - Feelings of extreme and persistent sadness or despair - They feel discouraged by life - 15% attempt and or succeed in suicide *sadness and depression can coexist but, depression sticks and doesn’t go away; sadness can be resolved over a period of appropriate time What are risks of depression? - Interaction of biology, learned behaviors, experiences, cognitive factors - Chemical and genetic processes may be predisposing factors What are some signs and symptoms of depression? *True depression is NOT a natural response to crisis and loss *People will not snap out of depression by using a little willpower - Loss of motivation or interest in pleasurable activities - Loss of sex drive or interest in close interactions with others - Fatigue and loss of energy - Sleeping too much or too little Describe anxiety disorders. - Panic attack: apprehension or intense fear - Recurrent unexpected panic attacks - Phobias: intense fear of a situation or object, invoking immediate anxiety - Generalized anxiety disorder: worry about routine matters - Obsessive-compulsive disorder: persistent, intrusive thoughts, impulses, or images that cause intense anxiety or distress What are some statistics on suicide? - College students are more likely to attempt suicide than the general population - The 2 ndor 3 leading cause of death in 15-24 year olds What are some warning signs of suicide? - Recent loss and inability to let go of grief - Changes in personality and/or behavior - Diminished sex drive - Change in sleep and/or appetite - Expression of self-hatred - May exhibit elation after making a plan for suicide What are some ways you can take action? - Monitor the warming signs - Take ALL threats seriously - Let the person know you care - Listen - Don’t keep secrets - Ask directly, “Are you thinking of hurting yourself?” - Don’t belittle the person’s feelings - Help them to think of alternatives (go on a walk, you are not the clinician) - Tel the persons friends, family, and a counselor What are examples and a description of self-injury/self-harm/self-mutilation/self- injurious behaviors? - Examples: cutting, burning, scratching, branding, picking, hair-pulling, and head-banging - Individuals often have a history of co-existing conditions: sexual abuse, physical abuse, eating disorders, depression - Feel numb so they inflict pain so they are able to feel something themselves Cancer What is cancer? - A term used to describe over 100 different diseases, uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells Why do you think the rate of cancer is so high in the US today? - Tobacco products/ smoking anything in general - Different foods (diets high in red meat, processed meat, processed food; diets high in sugar) - Tanning (natural or non-natural) - Alcohol - Genetics - Better screening techniques What are some facts on cancer? - ½ of all men and 1/3 of all women in the US will be diagnosed with cancer - Men more likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer - Women more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer - 1 in 4 deaths are from cancer - 1.3 million new cases diagnosed - Lung cancer is #1 killer for both men and women (prevention-researchers theorize: 90% of all lung cancers could be avoided by not smoking) What are some things that put you at greater risk for cancer? - Smoking among greatest for almost ALL cancers - High animal protein diets - High refined sugar diets Types of Cancer What is breast cancer? Describe it to me a. 1 in 8 women b. Risk increases with age c. Risk factors supported by research d. Prevention (self-exam (after menstruation) and mammography) e. Different types and different treatments f. Males get breast cancer too What is skin cancer? Sun Bathers Beware a. Most common of all cancers. It accounts for nearly half of all cancers in the US b. 2 million cases of skin cancer c. Treatable: basal or squamous d. Virulent: malignant melanoma What are three ways you can safely enjoy the sub and outdoors? - Wear sunscreen (30 minutes before you go outside, and then reapply over time) - Wear a hat, long sleeves, to protect exposed areas - Avoid being directly in the sun during 10am-2pm (hottest time of the day) rd True or false: colon and rectum cancer is the 3 most common in men and women - True Describe testicular cancer a. Ages 15-35 at greatest risk b. Cause is unknown c. Undescended testicles present a great risk d. How and when should men examine their testicles? (see Figure 13.4), feel the testicle, should be done monthly, better to do after a warm shower
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