Cultural Anthropology Non-Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology Non-Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 77 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Stratification and Inequality Status: relative social standing or position Achieved Status -a particular position obtained because you’ve done something to earn it (passively or actively) Ascribed Status -a particular position obtained because of who you are, it’s part of your Identity (kings, queens, etc.) Differential Status -access to things others don’t have ex.) prestige, power, economic resources What Causes Stratification? -Once people start growing their own food we begin to see stratification -the ability to create excess food→ status differences (occupations) Degrees of Inequality Egalitarian Societies -most foraging societies -all adults are more or less equal -where status differences exist is typically from achieved status -differential access to prestige Stratified Societies Rank Societies -agriculturalists and herders -differential access to power and prestige (once obtained it can’t be taken away -achieved rank (need to do certain things) -inherited rank (only certain people have access to do the things to obtain the rank) Class Societies -state level societies -differential access to prestige, power, and economic resources -social class position defines the prestige, power, and economic resources that you can have -open class system (possibility of movement up or down in class) -closed systems (category you’re born into is the one you will be In forever) ex) caste systems in southern asia Politics and Political Systems Political System -the element of social organization which functions to regulate the interrelations among groups and their representation -in traditional societies, the basic unit of political organization is kinship and descent Anthropological Perspective On The Political -variation in: -authority structure -power (formal and informal) -dispute resolution/legal systems Functions of the Political Systems -decision making -conflict resolution -social control Social Control -means by which a society enforces appropriate behavior ex) laws, norms, taboos/religious dictates Norms -implicit understandings about how people should behave -learned through the process of socialization (becomes habitual) -become explicit when broken or violated -”informally corrected” Taboos/Religious -explicit: created by supernatural author -when broken: supernatural consequences Laws -explicit: human author(s) -policing/enforcement function -judicial function Levels of Political Integration Typology based upon forms that traditionally include: bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states. Bands -small kin based organization where all members are related by either kinship or marriage -typical organization of foragers -upward limit: about 100, downward limit: 40-50 -atomic/extended families -group decision making (influence) -no formal leadership or laws -social control: norms/taboos Tribes -typically associated with horticulturalists and pastorals (animal herders) -development of village life -organize village life or membership be descent groups (multiple) -how to manage relationships between descent groups -elders of local kin groups tend to have considerable influence Tribal Political Organization -lineage systems (elders make decisions) -age-set systems -headmen and “big man” (an achieved status, not inherited) Chiefdoms -a structure that integrates more than one community -”incipient aristocracy” → chiefdom is a permanent political office → chief often has a judicial role -not making laws, still based on tradition -represent systems with differential access to status and privilege (not everyone can be the chief) States -an autonomous political unit -encompassing many communities within its territory and having centralized government (always have defined borders/territories) -have the power to collect taxes, draft men for work/war, and decree/enforce laws Archaic-Egypt, Mesopotamia, Maya, Andean, India China, etc.) -rise about 5,500 years ago -”rise of civilization” -production of food and food excess -stratum endogamy (marry within the group) -closed class society Cultural Traits of States -stratification (marked, always at least 2 classes) -the presence and acceptance of stratification is one of the key Features distinguishing a state (people accept where they are) -only in states do elites get to keep their differential wealth Specialized Functions Found in All States -population control (the census, border protection) -judiciary -enforcement of laws (permanent military institutions) -fiscal (taxes and tribute collection) Social Control in States → elements of the social system involved in the maintenance of any norms and regulation of any internal conflict -formal socialization -Hegemony→ convincing the ruled that what you’re interested in is what they are interested in -the state maintains a monopoly on violence -resistance→ from the citizens of the state -public vs private transcripts -ritualized resistance -weapons of the weak Adaptive Strategies -means by which a group adapts to its situation to provide at least the necessities Why Adaptive Strategies? -in the last 90,000 years modern humans have spread into all possible ecological niches ex) arctic north, hot deserts, cold deserts, rain forests, high altitude What is Special? -95% of modern human existence adaptive strategies didn’t change -single adaptive strategies allowed the species to spread across the globe -only in the last 12,000 years have adaptive strategies changed -adaptive strategies have correlated with other aspects of social organization Foraging -until 12,000 years ago all human societies foraged (aka hunted and gathered) -dependent on the environment -requires knowledge of available food stuffs -typically requires a nomadic or semi-nomadic existence -foragers have “minimal” material possessions Understanding Foragers -at 10,000 b.p. The human population was about 5 million individuals globally -most environments would have been much more food rich than environments in which modern foragers live(d) -adoption of cultivation is much more irregular than once thought -”modern” foraging groups -have been pushed into marginal territories -live in contact with other peoples and rely on some degree (or a great degree) on non-foraging sources of food The Social Organization of Foraging Band-organized Societies -a group of individuals related by kinship or marriage -usually 100 or less people -size can increase and decrease seasonally if necessary -little or no specialization of labor (maybe gender divided) -little to no social stratification Subsistence Strategy and Specialization/Division of Labor -Foraging Societies -some division of labor by gender/age -all able bodied adults and kids who are old enough engage primarily in food quest activities -time committed is a function of the environment Foraging Societies -food sharing -little evidence of inter-group aggression -tend towards friendly & cooperative relations with other foragers Cultivation -Neolithic Revolution: 10-12,000 years ago -Global change in climate (drying, seasonality as we know it) -Grass-like plants begin to mutate -sticky seed pods→ stick to the plant, allow them to be gatherable The Cultivation Continuum Horticulture -low power/human hand power -requires shifting plots Agriculture -power intensive labor -advent of the plow -permanent plot Horticulture → use of simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks Social Organization -can support villages -people settle down -ability to produce food surplus and store food -gendered labor division ex) women and children do the weeding -some part-time specialization of labor Agriculture -labor and land intensive cultivation -can support larger villages, towns, and cities -ability to produce food surpluses -move to full-time specialization of labor → increased stratification Subsistence Strategy & Specialization/Division of Labor Cultivation -allows the production of food surplus -free some people from food production activities, at least part time -allows for specialization of labor Animal Husbandry -domestication of animals follows the development of cultivation -a number of horticultural societies mix cultivation with hunting &/or fishing Pastoralism *based upon the herding of livestock Patterns Nomadism -only economic activity is raising livestock -tribal based -minimal material possessions -various limiting fertility practices -moving on a regular basis -always requires trade Transhumance -mixed economy, part lives in a village while the other herds -village will cultivate (women, children, elders) -herders will handle livestock (men, older boys) Production in Non-Industrial Societies -division of labor by age and gender -production by handicraft -degree of specialization varies Work in Pre-Industrial Societies -focuses on subsistence societies -is embedded in other social institutions -is communal, for the most part Industrialism -a period in human history that begins after about 1750 in Europe Characteristics of Work in Industrial Societies -high degree of specialized labor -highly gendered -strong link to social status -work is carried out in the ‘workplace’ -division between the domestic and non-domestic -time oriented, clock becomes important -systems of authority are specific to workplace -relations with peers are important Summary Between 90,000-45,000 years ago modern humans spread across the globe in almost all conceivable ecological niches using foraging as a subsistence strategy while remaining a single species. About 12,000 years ago some societies domesticated plants and then animals, and began producing their own food. The changes in subsistence strategies had profound effects on the social structures of modern humans.
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