Final Exam Psychology Study Guide
Final Exam Psychology Study Guide Psych 1010
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Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 1: Psychological Science Intuition – an immediate and automatic thought or emotion Hindsight Bias – the tendency to think one knew the outcome of a situation after having learned the results (“To know it all along”) Overconfidence – the tendency to believe one knows more than they actually do o Humans tend to overestimate performance and the accuracy of their knowledge o Can lead to problems in eyewitness testimony as humans cannot solely rely on intuition and common sense Tendency to Perceive Order in Random Events – tendency to believe one can create a prediction from a random sequence Scientific Method – A process to test ideas, observe them, and analyze the results through selfcorrection Theory – a predicted explanation of behaviors or events using previously known principles and observations Hypothesis – a testable prediction created from a theory that helps to accept or revise it Operational Definition – a phrase specifically worded to define a research variable Replication – to repeat a research study using the same operational definitions but different participants and situations in order to determine if the original findings extend further than the first experiment Case Study – a descriptive technique in which individuals and/or groups are studied directly and in depth to find and understand universal principles o Can be unrepresentative of entire population o Example: Phineas Gage Case Study Naturalistic Observation – method of observing and recording behavior in natural environments without manipulation or control of the situation Survey – method of receiving selfreported ideas or behaviors of a group through questioning a random sample o Can be used to study multiple cases yet is less in depth than other methods Population – the entirety of a group being studied which samples are drawn from Random Sample – a fairly representative group of an entire population where each member of the population has an equal chance of being selected for the experiment o Selection of participants is usually by chance Correlation – a measure of the extent that two factors vary together and how much either factor predicts the other Correlational Coefficient – statistical index of the relationship between two factors o Can range from 1.00 (completely negative correlation) to 1.00 (completely positive correlation) Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Experiment – a method of research where an investigator manipulates factors to observe their effects on a certain behavior or mental process Experimental Group – the group in an experiment that is exposed to treatment or tested factors Control Group – the group in an experiment not exposed to the tested factors which allows for a comparative group in order to evaluate the effect of the treatment o Both groups (control and experimental) share same characteristics except for the manipulated and tested factor Random Assignment – a way to assign participants to either the control or experimental groups by chance in order to limit differences between the groups at the start of the experiment Measures of Central Tendency – use a single score to represent the whole o Mean – the average of a distribution that can be shifted by an outlier o Mode – the most frthuent number in a data set o Median – the 50 percentile or middle score Measures of Variation – represent the relationship of numbers in a data set o Range – the difference between the largest and smallest score in a data set o Standard Deviation – the measure of how scores vary or deviate from the mean An observed difference is reliable when o There is nonbiased sampling o Observations are consistent o And more cases and data points are measured Statistical Significance – statistical statement of the likelihood that a result occurred by chance o Data must be reliable o The difference between groups must be significantly large Statistical significance indicates likelihood but not the importance of the result Chapter 4: Nature vs. Nurture Behavior Genetics – the study of the power and limitations of genetic and environmental influences on behavior and how heredity and environment contribute to the differences between humans Chromosomes – structures like thread that are made of DNA and contain genes o DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) – a molecule that includes the genetic information found in chromosomes Genes – biochemical structures of heredity inside chromosomes that synthesize proteins which build the body Protein assembly can be influenced or inhibited by the environment Genome – the instructions for creating an organism with the genetic material inside the organism’s chromosomes o There are 46 chromosomes in 23 pairs in the body; half are from each parent Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Behavior geneticists conduct two types of experiments through the study of twins and siblings 1. Control heredity and vary the environment 2. Control the environment and vary heredity Identical (monozygotic) Twins – develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two and creates identical genetic organisms o These twins have the same genes but can vary in the number of copies of those genes that they have o Different placentas in the womb may provide different nourishment for each twin Fraternal Twins – two separate fertilized eggs with separate genes yet the same prenatal environment Shared genes can correspond to shared experiences o Identical twins are more alike in their behaviors, interests, fears, and brainwaves than fraternal twins o Identical twins are treated more similarly than fraternal o Bouchard Minnesota twin studies examine twins separated at birth The environment that is shared by a family’s children has no clear impact on their personalities o Environment influences religion, values, manners, attitudes, politics, and habits o Siblings only share half of their genes o Genetic differences between siblings are amplified as people react to the children differently o Siblings are born into slightly different families (i.e. the oldest sibling is born when the parents are at their youngest) Temperament – characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity that is genetically influenced o Temperament does not generally change from infancy to adulthood Heritability – the proportion of variation among individuals that is attributed to genes or the extent to which differences between people are due to genes Molecular Genetics – the study of molecular structure and function of genes o Genes are selfregulated – they go on and off in response to their environment Evolutionary Psychology – the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind through natural selection o Natural Selection – the inherited and variegated traits that contribute to reproduction and survival which are most likely passed on to continuing generations Men tend to spread their genes while women try to survive (in the past, childbirth was more dangerous and deadly) o Critics say there are less differences between men and women in gender equal societies and there are exceptions to the rules Criticisms Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Hindsight reasoning occurs – psychologists start with the effect and work backwards o Why should behavior be explained based on ancestors? o Attribute too much to genes over social consequences Responses o Organisms are not hardwired but flexible and adaptive o Rely only on principles of natural selection o The study of how we came to be does not dictate how we should be Chapter 7: Learning Learning – process of acquiring new information or behaviors through experience Associative Learning – learning that certain events occur together Stimulus – any event that evokes a response o Respondent Behavior – an automatic response to some stimulus o Operant Behavior – consequences produced by the environment are associated with a response (B.F. Skinner) Cognitive Learning – acquiring mental information by observing others and events as well as through language Classical Conditioning – learning in which one learns to link stimuli together and anticipate events that will occur from them o Ivan Pavlov (dog salivation experiment concerning neutral stimuli) led to John Watson’s behaviorism (the belief that mental life was less important than behavior) Neutral Stimulus – in classical conditioning, the stimulus that elicits no response before the conditioning occurs Unconditioned Response – an unlearned, natural response to unconditioned stimulus Unconditioned Stimulus – something that naturally and automatically triggers an unconditioned response Conditioned Response – a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus Conditioned Stimulus – triggers a conditioned response after association with an unconditioned stimulus Acquisition – the initial stage of learning or conditioning when one links a neutral stimulus and unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins to trigger a conditioned response o The neutral stimulus needs to repeatedly appear before the unconditioned stimulus o Classical conditioning is biologically adaptive and helps humans survive and reproduce o HigherOrder Conditioning – the conditioned stimulus is paired with new neutral stimulus creating a second conditioned stimulus (also known as secondorder conditioning) Extinction – the diminishing of a conditioned response when an unconditioned response does not follow the conditioned stimuli Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Spontaneous Recovery – occurs after extinction in which the extinguished conditioned response reappears Generalization – the tendency to elicit similar responses to similar stimuli of a conditioned response Discrimination – the learned ability to distinguish between conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal unconditioned stimulus, preventing generalization Pavlov’s work illustrated o Many other responses to many other stimuli can be classically conditioned in many other organisms (conditioning is related to biology) o Processes can be studied objectively (experimenters can isolate elements of behavior) o Specific applications have given insight on how to avoid or associate responses Pavlov’s ideas led Watson to believe that emotional behaviors are conditioned responses o Watson’s Little Albert Experiment 1920, participant was a little boy who was originally unafraid when showed a white rat At every sighting of the rat, experimenters would clang steel bars together making an unpleasant noise Little Albert acquired a fear of white fluffy objects Operant Conditioning – a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if it is followed by a reinforce or the behavior is diminished if followed by a punisher Law of Effect – behaviors with favorable consequences are more likely and behaviors with unfavorable consequences are less likely (Edward Thorndike) o Puzzle Box Experiment – cats were rewarded if the solved the puzzle and escaped the box, eventually took less time to escape with repetition o Led to Skinner’s work and interest in operant conditioning Operant Chamber – a chamber or “Skinner Box” used in research containing components an animal can manipulate in order to obtain food or water as a reinforce Reinforcement – event that strengthens the behavior it follows Shaping – reinforcers guide behavior toward closer approximations of the desired behavior o Discrimination allows more specificity in what triggers a response Positive Reinforcement – increase behaviors with positive reinforcers, when presented after a response it strengthens a response o Adding something desirable Negative Reinforcement – increase behaviors by reducing negative stimuli, when removed after a response it strengthens the response o Ending something unpleasant Primary Reinforcers – innately reinforcing stimulus such as one that satisfies a biological need Conditioned Reinforcers (Secondary Reinforcer) – stimulus gains reinforcing power through association with primary reinforce Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Reinforcing successive approximations or rewarding behaviors close to desired behavior Reinforcement Schedules – a pattern that defines how often a desired response will be reinforced o Continuous Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce every time Hard to maintain but behavior is acquired quickly o Partial/ Intermittent Reinforcement Schedule – reinforce part of the time Slower acquisition but greater resistance to extinction Fixed Ratio – reinforces after a specified number of responses Variable Ratio – reinforces after an unpredictable number of responses Fixed Interval – reinforces after a specific amount of time has elapsed Punishment – event that tends to decrease the behavior it follows o Positive – add unpleasant thing o Negative – take away a pleasant thing Drawbacks of punishment/physical punishment o Focuses on what not to do but does not give anything for desired behaviors o Suppressed, not forgotten, temporary state may affect/reinforce the parents’ punishing behavior o Teaches fear, severity of punishments is not as helpful as immediate and certain punishments o Teaches discrimination among situation, avoid where punishment occurs o Increases aggression by modelling to cope with problems Punishment works in natural and immediate consequences but does not when encountering delayed and distant threats Biological Influences Psychological Influences Genetic predispositions Previous experiences Unconditioned responses Predictability of associations Adaptive responses Generalization Discrimination Learning SocioCultural Influences Culturally learned preferences Motivation affected by others’ presence Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts An animal’s capacity for conditioning is constrained by its biology o John Garcia found it’s easier to learn associations to make sense for survival There is more to learning than associating a response with a consequence, there is also cognition o Classical – learning to predict, option to mentally break association o Operant – animals need immediate, humans understand delayed consequences Intrinsic Motivation – desire to perform a behavior effectively for its own sake o Sometimes reduced by external rewards and prevented by continuous reinforcement Extrinsic Motivation – desire to perform behaviors to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment o Use few rewards or lessen them over time Observational Learning – learning by observing others Modeling – observing and imitating specific behaviors o Bandura’s Bobo Doll Experiment – children imitated violence on toys after observing adults being violent o Vicarious Conditioning – experienced indirectly through others Mirror Neurons – frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so; the brain’s mirroring of another’s actions may enable imitation and empathy o Theory of Mind – we can grasp others’ states of mind Prosocial Behavior – positive, constructive, helpful behavior that benefits others and is taught through modeling o OverImitate – copy adult behaviors with no function or reward (mainly common from 8 months onward) Children with autism are less likely to mirror Antisocial Behavior – actions harmful to individuals and society o May become more violent than the average child if violence is observed o Under stress we do what has been modeled to us o Media violence leads to increased aggression Violence viewing effect explained by imitation and desensitization toward pain in others (fosters indifference) Chapter 10: Intelligence Intelligence – the mental potential to learn from experiences, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations o Can be whatever intelligence tests measure o Define intelligence by 1 or multiple Creative versus emotional Tests, environment, and group differences Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts General (G) Intelligence – general intelligence factor that underlies specific mental abilities and is measured by every task on an intelligence test (Spearman) o Do we have inborn talent that can be measured by a test? o Those who did well in one area did well in others Multiple abilities contribute to life success o Wealth, practice, connections, and hard work contribute to success Differing varieties of giftedness add spice and challenges Criticisms o G intelligence is proven o Talent does not determine success Emotional Intelligence – ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions Benefits o Delay gratification in long term goals o Success in career, marriage, and parenting Theories of Summary Strengths Considerations Intelligence Spearman’s G Basic intelligence Different abilities Abilities too diverse Intelligence predicts abilities in tendency to correlate to be in a single varied academic intelligence factor areas Thurstone’s Primary 7 factors: word G score is not as Tendency to cluster Mental Abilities fluency, verbal, informative as 7 suggesting spatial, perceptual, primary abilities underlying g factor number, inductive memory Gardner’s Multiple 8 or 9 independent Other abilities Should all abilities be Intelligences intelligences with besides verbal and considered broad range of skills math are important in intelligence or are beyond traditional adaptation they less vital talents school smarts Sternberg’s Triarchic 3 areas predict real Reliably measured Less independent Theory world success: than believed with a analytical, creative, shared g factor, practical additional testing needed to test reliability Emotional Social intelligence is 4 components predict Stretches intelligence Intelligence key to success: social success too far perceive, manage, and understand emotions Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Intelligence Test – method for assessing individual mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others through numerical scores Achievement Tests – designed to access what a person has learned Aptitude Tests – designed to predict person’s future performance (capacity to learn) o SAT, ACT, GRE Francis Galton encouraged those of high ability to mate together o 1884 London Health Exhibition tested intelligence strength based on reaction time, sensory activity, muscle power, body proportions (people did not outscore each other and areas did not correlate) Late 1800s, Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes when all were required to go to school o 1905, Alfred Binet developed tests to determine children’s learning potential for when they came to school o Tested their mental age – chronological age corresponding to a given level of performance in tests StanfordBinet – American revision of Binet’s original intelligence test made by Terman at Stanford o Terman thought intelligence was inherited and determined education level with language Believed one should not reproduce if they are not smart Intelligence Quotient (IQ) – originally the ratio of mental age to chronological age multiplied by 100, contemporarily the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 o Relative to average performance of others the same age Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) – intelligence test containing verbal and performance subtests for children along with processing speed, perceptual organization, and working memory o Tested similarities, vocabulary, blockdesigns, letternumber sequences Psychological test must be standardized, reliable and valid o Standardization – defining uniform testing procedures and meaningful scores by comparison with the performance of a pretested group Shown by a normal curve with few high and low scores o Reliability – extent a test yields consistent results as assessed by the consistency of scores on two halves of the test, alternative forms of the test, or on retesting o Validity – extent to which a test measures intelligence Content Validity – extent a test samples behavior of interest Predictive Validity – success a test predicts the behavior it is designed to as assessed by computing correlation between test scores and criterion behavior (CriterionRelated Validity) Crystallized Intelligence – accumulated knowledge and verbal skills which increase with age Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Fluid Intelligence – ability to reason speedily and abstractly which decreases during late adulthood At age 4, intelligence tests begin predicting adult scores Why do more intelligent people live longer? o Intelligence facilitates more education, better jobs, and healthy environments o Encourages healthy living: less smoking, better diet and exercise o Prenatal events and childhood illness influence intelligence and health o Wellwired body fosters intelligence and longevity Intelligence scores of identical twins reared together are nearly as similar as the same person testing Identical twins brains have similar gray and white matter volumes and similar areas with verbal and spatial intelligence Where environment varies widely, environmental differences are more predictive of intelligence scores Adoption enhances intelligence scores of mistreated children o Neglect of child in extreme situations shows extreme results Intelligence of virtual twins has a +.28 correlation suggesting influence of shared environment Mental similarities between adopted children and adopted families wane with age to zero by adulthood when genes take over Schooling and intelligence interact and enhance later income o Boost chances of success o Aptitude benefits fade out over time Fixed Mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth Mindset – intelligence is changeable Motivation affects intelligence test performance Praising children’s efforts over ability encourages growth mindset and attributes successes to hard work Ability + opportunity = success Girls outpace boys in spelling, verbal fluency, locating objects, detecting emotions, and sensitivity Boys outpace girls in spatial ability, complex math problems, and math o Mental ability varies more than females’ meaning more boys at high and low ends of intelligence spectrum Prenatal hormones, genetics, biology versus sociocultural influences and social expectations all influence differences Genes of races are alike but environments differ When blacks and whites have same knowledge, they exhibit similar infoprocessing skills Schools and culture matter Different ethnic groups have experienced golden ages Genetically disposed racial differences and social influences make the test biased Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Stereotype Threat – selfconfirming concern that one will be evaluated based on a negative stereotype Competence + diligence = accomplishment Chapter 11: What Drives Us: Hunger, Sex, Friendship, and Achievement (Appendix A) Motivation – a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior toward a goal Instinct – complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned o Human babies behaviors are less prescribed by genetics DriveReduction Theory – the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need o Motivated to reduce drives o Drive – aroused or tense state related to physical need Pushes us from the inside while incentives are external o Homeostasis – the tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state or the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level Incentive – positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior YerkesDodson Law – principle that performance increases with arousal to a certain point beyond which performance decreases o Humans seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs – pyramid of human needs beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higherlevel safety needs then psychological needs become active (Maslow) Glucose – a form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues o When glucose is low, we feel hunger o Semi starvation leads to more thoughts about food o Stomach contractions occur when hungry Rat study shows rats without stomachs continue to eat o Receptors in the indigestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus which send out appetite hormones Set Point – the point at which “weight thermostat” is set o When the body falls below this weight, increased hunger and lower metabolic rate combine and restore lost weight o The body uses energy to adjust weight when it drops or increases Part of knowing when to eat is the memory of our last meal Body chemistry and environmental influence taste preferences In culture, we tend to avoid unfamiliar foods (neophobic) Ecology of eating o Presence of others amplifies natural behavior tendencies o Portion size and unit bias occurs with similar mindlessness Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Food variety stimulates eating Buffet Effect – more options leads to eating more The US obesity rate has doubled in the last 40 years Obesity increases the risk of diabetes, high blood pressure, heart disease, cancer and arthritis Takes less food to maintain fat once it is gained o Fat is an ideal form of stored energy o In the past, those with body fat were more likely to live without food o Eating less slows metabolism o Formerly obese person will have to eat less than average person to prevent weight gain Weight resembles biological parents Genes explain 2/3 of body mass (identical twins have similar weight) o Genes burn calories, convert them to fat, signal when full, and can lead to fidgeting or movement If you are predisposed to fidgeting, you are likely to weigh less Sleep loss leads to obesity Social influence, if a friend is obese you’re more likely to become obese o Weight discrimination is more likely than race and gender discrimination o People that are obese are more likely to feel depressed and isolated Change food and activity levels can help monitor weight Testosterone – male sex hormone found in both sexes that stimulates the growth of male sex organs during fetal period and develops male sex characteristics during puberty Estrogen – sex hormones (estradiol) secreted greatly in females contributing to sex characteristics Sexual desire is not as tied to hormone levels in humans as it is in animals Females are more sexually active during ovulation and less when testosterone is low o Rise in testosterone and estrogen in women leads to a rise in testosterone in the men around her 14 to 19 year old females are more vulnerable due to immature biological development and lower levels of protective antibodies Brain is the most sufficient sex organ Psychological and sociocultural factors are greater than biological influences Adverse effects of sexually explicit material (repeated exposure to erotic stimulus lessens the response through habituation) o Rape acceptance o Devaluing partner o Diminished satisfaction Men fantasize about sex more often, more physically, and less romantically Mass media norms of unprotected promiscuity o Stereotypical portrayals of sex Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o More sexual content allows people to perceive peers as sexually active, develop sexual attitudes, and experience early intercourse Sexual restraint o High intelligence o Religious engagement o Father presence o Participation in servicelearning programs Sexual Orientation – enduring sexual attraction to members of one’s own sex (homosexuality), the other sex (heterosexuality), or both sexes (bisexual) o Neither willfully chosen nor willfully changed o 34% of men and 2% of women are homosexual o Discrimination, rejection, and isolation lead to higher risk of mood disorders and anxiety We have a need to affiliate with others and become attached to others in enduring and close relationships Questions concerning the causes of homosexuality o Is it because of a domineering mother or absent father? o Is it because of hatred for the other sex? o Were they molested as a child by a homosexual? o Is it due to the level of hormones in their blood? Differences begin in the prenatal period and can be genetic or due to hormones or antigens in the womb o Fraternal birth order effect o Female fetus is exposed to more testosterone and male fetus exposed to low testosterone Causes attraction to same sex and physical traits of the opposite sex Affiliation Need – need to build relationships and feel part of a group Helped survival, those that bond reproduce and nurture offspring and cooperate during hunting Autonomy – sense of personal control and competence o Competence – belief in one’s abilities or skills Feelings of love activate brain reward and safety systems Social isolation leads to mental decline and ill health Ostracism – deliberate social exclusion of individuals or groups o People first attempt to restore acceptance, then become depressed, then withdrawal o Elicits increased activity in brain areas that respond to physical pain Less social people spend more time online Online profiles give accurate visions of true self Narcissism – excessive selflove and selfabsorption Online socializing and gaming leads to lower grades Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Achievement Motivation – desire for significant accomplishment, mastery of skills or ideas, control, and attaining a high standard o Calling – fulfilling and socially useful activity Grit – in psychology, passion and perseverance in the pursuit of longterm goals o Desire achievement and willing to work hard Work satisfies needs o Income satisfies the drive for food and hunger Flow – completely involved and focused state of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time resulting from optimal engagement of one’s skills o Engaged, immersed, and challenged o Boosts selfesteem, competence, and wellbeing IndustrialOrganizational Psychology – the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing behavior in work places o Personnel Psychology – focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal, and development Predict job performance through tests, past work, sample work, and structured interviews Strength based selection system that matches strengths and tasks and assesses performance and values employee performance feedback Strengthsbased selection system Interviewers presume people are what they seem to be in the interview situation Structured Interviews – asks same jobrelevant questions of all applicants each of whom is then rated on established scales o Organizational Psychology – examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change Motivation, satisfaction, and engagement help to understand the productivity of leadership and team work Positive moods at work enhance creativity, persistence, and helpfulness Task Leadership – goaloriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals Social Leadership – grouporiented and builds teamwork, mediates conflict, and offers support o Human Factors Psychology – explores how people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use Design of body and function of the mind are taken into account in designing products Chapter 12: Emotions, Stress, and Health Emotions – response of the entire organism including physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and conscious experience Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts JamesLange Theory – theory that experience of emotion is the awareness of physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli CannonBard Theory – theory that emotionarousing stimulus triggers simultaneously physiological responses and the subjective experience of emotion Two Factor Theory – theory that to experience emotion one has to be physically aroused and cognitively label that arousal (SchachterSinger) o Spillover Effect – emotions carry over into other events Emotions follow two different brain pathways o High Road – responses go through the thalamus to the brain cortex to be analyzed before sent out via the amygdala o Low Road – responses skip the cortex and go directly from the thalamus to the amygdala Theory Explanation of Emotions Example JamesLange Emotions arise from our We observe heart racing after awareness of our specific a threat and then feel afraid bodily responses to emotion arousing stimuli CannonBard Emotion arousing stimuli Heart races at the same time trigger our bodily responses we feel afraid and simultaneous subjective experience SchachterSinger Our experience of emotion Interpret our arousal as fear depends on two factors: or excitement depending on general arousal and conscious the context cognitive label Zajonc; LeDoux Some emotional responses Automatically feel startled by happen instantly without a sound in the forest before conscious appraisal labeling it as a threat Lazarus Cognitive appraisal The sound is “just the wind” sometimes without our awareness defines emotion In crisis, the sympathetic division of autonomic nervous system mobilizes the body for action When crisis passes, parasympathetic division calms the body as stress hormones leave the blood stream The brain can detect subtle expressions yet finds it difficult to perceive deceiving expressions Women are more likely to show empathy and describe themselves as sympathetic Paul Ekman studied isolated people in New Guinea and their facial expressions in response to certain statements o American college students could identify their emotions Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Facial expressions are universal Cultures differ in how much emotion they express o Cultural differences exist within nations Facial Feedback Effect – tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings such as fear, anger, or happiness o Forced expressions influence how we feel Behavior Feedback Effect – tendency of behavior to influence our own and others’ thoughts, feelings, and actions Chronic hostility is linked to heart disease o Anger leads to higher heart rate, sweating, rises in testosterone, and blood flow to the brain Individualist cultures encourage people to vent o Groups see anger as a threat to harmony Catharsis – in psychology, the emotional release of aggression or the theory that releasing aggressive energy through action or fantasy relieves aggressive urges o This is a myth, expressing anger breeds more anger Happiness leads to more life success o Better decision maker, more cooperative, healthier, more tolerant, social FeelGood, DoGood Phenomenon – people’s tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood o DoGood, FeelGood Phenomenon Positive Psychology – scientific study of human flourishing with the goal of discovering and promoting strengths and virtues that help individuals and communities to thrive Subjective WellBeing – selfperceived happiness with life used with measures of objective wellbeing to evaluate quality of life AdaptationLevel Phenomenon – our tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our prior experience Relative Deprivation – the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself Happy people tend to o Have high selfesteem o Be optimistic and agreeable o Have close friendships o Have work that engages skills o Have religious faith o Sleep well and exercise Stress – process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging o Stressor – a situation we view as challenging o Appraisal – deciding if it is a stressor o Stressor leads to appraisal leads to response leads to coping Stressors Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts o Catastrophes on a large scale o Significant life changes and transitions o Daily hassles o Low social status and power General Adaptation Syndrome – the concept of the body’s adaptive response to stress in three phases, alarm, resistance, and exhaustion (Selye) o Alarm Reaction – the sympathetic nervous system is activated o Resistance – hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol) and the full body engage to meet the challenge (fight or flight) o Exhaustion – vulnerable to illness Tend and Befriend – under stress, people provide support to others and bond to seek support from others o More frequent with women Health Psychology – contribution to behavioral medicine Coronary Heart Disease – clogging of vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries Type A – competitive, harddriving, impatient, verbally aggressive, angerprone people Type B – easygoing, relaxed people Coping – alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods ProblemFocused Coping – alleviate stress directly by changing the stressor or the way we interact with it EmotionFocused Coping – avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to stress reactions Learned Helplessness – hopelessness and passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events External Locus of Control – the perception that chance and outside forces determine our fate o Less motivation to achieve and more anxious Internal Locus of Control – we control our own fate or free will o Achieve more, cope better, less depression o Locus – place SelfControl – control impulses and delay short term gratification for greater longterm rewards Aerobic Exercise – sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness and helps to alleviate depression and anxiety o Reduces heart disease, cognitive decline, early death o Improves the management of stress Relaxation can speed healing o Lifestyle modification – control diet, medication, and exercise for survivors of heart attack Meditation can reduce suffering and improve awareness, insight, and compassion Religiously active people tend to live longer Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 13: Social Psychology Social Psychology – the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another Attribution Theory – explain behavior by crediting either situation or person’s disposition o Attribution – a conclusion about the cause of an event Fundamental Attribution Error – the tendency for observers, when analyzing others’ behaviors, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition When we explain our own behavior, we are sensitive to situation o Attribute good actions to our own good reasons Attitudes – feelings, often influenced by beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events Persuasion efforts take two forms o Peripheral Route Persuasion – occurs when people are influenced by incidental cues such as a speaker’s attractiveness o Central Route Persuasion – occurs when people focus on the arguments and respond with favorable thoughts FootintheDoor Phenomenon – tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request Role – set of expectations in social position defining how one ought to behave o Zimbardo’s Stanford Prison Experiment – people took on the roles of either a prison guard or a prisoner and led them to act accordingly The guards were violent and mean toward the prisoners and the prisoners acted subordinate Even when pretending a role, we tend to adopt the attitudes and become the roles Cognitive Dissonance Theory – act to reduce discomfort and dissonance we feel when two of our thoughts and cognitions are inconsistent Conformity – adjust behavior and thinking to coincide with a group standard People are more likely to conform when they o Feel incompetent and insecure o Are in a group of at least three people (medium sized) o Are in a group where everyone agrees (unanimous) o Admire the group’s status o Have not already committed to a response or belief o Know others are observing o Are from a culture that encourages respect for social standards Normative Social Influence – influence resulting from a person’s desire to gain approval and avoid disapproval Informational Social Influence – influence resulting from willingness to accept others’ opinions about reality Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Milgram’s Shock Experiment – the participant or “teacher” gives increasing shocks to a confederate “student” for every wrong answer they give o While the teacher was egged on by the experimenter, the confederate screams in pain o More than 60% complied with the shocks until the final volt Obedience was highest in the experiment when o Person giving orders was close and had authority o Authority figure supported by prestigious institution o Victim was distant and depersonalized o No role models for defiance Social Facilitation – improved performance in simple or welllearned tasks in the presence of others Social Loafing – the tendency when in a group to exert less effort when trying to attain a common goal than when one is individually accountable Causes of social loafing o Less accountability o Individual contributions are expendable o Free ride on others’ efforts Deindividuation – the loss of selfawareness or selfrestraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity Group Polarization – the enhancement of a group’s prevailing inclinations through discussion within the group Groupthink – a mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives Prejudice – unjustifiable and usually negative attitude toward a group and its members o Generally involved stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and predisposition to discriminatory action 1. Stereotypes – generalized belief about a group of people 2. Emotions 3. Predispositions to act/discriminate Discrimination – unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group and its members JustWorld Phenomenon – the tendency for people to believe the world is just and people get what they deserve and deserve what they get o Social Inequality – groups have fewer opportunities and resources than others Social identities lead to contrast with other groups o Ingroup – “us” or the people with whom we share a common identity o Outgroup – “them” which is different and apart from the ingroup o Ingroup Bias – the tendency to favor your own group Scapegoat Theory – prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame Thinking habits that reinforce bias lead to o Confirmation Bias – we don’t look for counters to our stereotypes Aggression – any act intended to harm someone physically or emotionally Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Neural systems either inhibit or facilitate aggression o Damage to the frontal lobes increase aggression o Amygdala is stimulated Hormonal changes o More testosterone leads to irritability, impulsiveness, and low tolerance for frustration o Alcohol leads to higher likelihood of violence FrustrationAggression Principle – principle that frustration (blocking of an attempt to achieve a goal) creates anger which creates aggression The media models sexual and regular violence o Sexual aggression seems less serious o Rape myth o Coercion into sex o More harmful toward women o Social Scripts – culturally modelled guide for how to act in various situations Rely on them when we are unsure of how to behave Proximity breeds liking o Mere Exposure Effect – repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases the liking of them Friends are more likely to have things in common o We like when someone likes us o Reward Theory of Attraction – we like those whose behavior is rewarding to us Passionate Love – aroused state of intense positive absorption in another usually at the beginning of a love relationship Companionate Love – deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined Equity – people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it SelfDisclosure – revealing intimate aspects of oneself to others Bystander Effect – tendency for bystanders to be less likely to give help if other bystanders are present o Diffusion of responsibility o Fewer help when others are available Best odds of helping someone occur when o Person appears to need or deserve help o Person is similar to us o Person is a woman o We just observed someone being helpful o We are not in a hurry o We are in a small town or rural area o We feel guilty o We are not preoccupied o We are in a good mood Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Social Exchange Theory – social behavior is an exchange process to maximize benefits and minimize costs Reciprocity Norm – the expectation that people will help, not harm, those who have helped them Social Responsibility Norm – the expectation that people will help those needing their help Conflict – perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas between people or groups Social Traps – a situation in which conflicting parties, by pursuing selfinterest over the good of the group, become caught in mutually destructive behavior MirrorImage Perceptions – mutual views often held by conflicting people as where each side sees itself as ethical and peaceful and views the other side as evil and aggressive Positive contact (exposure, interaction, familiarity) can lead to acceptance of minority groups Superordinate Goals – shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation Chapter 14: Personality Personality –
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