Cultural Anthropology Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide
Cultural Anthropology Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide 2597
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Popular in Intro to Cultural Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Melissa Metzgar on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 2597 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Professor Ehrensal in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
Reviews for Cultural Anthropology Cumulative Final Exam Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/29/16
Anthropology: -anthropos→ greek for human -ology→ any science or branch of knowledge **The science/study of humans What is Anthropology? -study of humans as human populations, biological entities, and cultural beings The Scope of Anthropology ● anthropology is holistic→ culture and biology, the past and the present Modern Humans ● Homo sapien sapiens emerge about 180,000 years ago ● Begin to spread around the world about 90,000 years ago ● Live solely by hunting and gathering until 10,000-12,000 years ago ● cultivation and later animal domestication occur ● Industrial Revolution begins about 1750 (250+ years ago) The Subdisciplines of Anthropology ● Biological/Physical Anthropology: primate and human evolution ● Archeology ● Linguistic Anthropology ● Cultural Anthropology History of Anthropology ● After 1450 is Europe’s encounter with “the other” ● Reports from explorers, conquerors and missionaries that people’s lifestyles and technology were radically different from the circum-mediterranean ● Evolutionism ● The idea of evolution of social and technological stages of society pre-date the idea of evolutionism in natural history (Darwin) ● Origins in European Social Thought: ● Europe’s expansion into the world after 1450 ● Archeological exploration of Europe in the 18th and early 19th centuries ● Lewis Henry Morgan and Ancient Society (1877) Lewis Henry Morgan and The Ancient Society (1877) -Believed in unilinear evolutionism -All humans lived in savagery: -Used stone tools -Hunters and gatherers, semi-nomadic -Some move from savagery to barbarism -Beginning of metallurgy -Crops, domesticated animals -Villages, some hierarchy -Some achieve civilization -Iron tools -Advent of cities -Invention of writing -Rise of kingdoms Later Evolutionism -After the publication of The Origin of the Species (Darwin 1859) and The Descent of Man (Darwin 1871) cultural and technological differences between groups were taken to infer biological (racial) differences between groups. -Evolutionism becomes racist and used to justify colonialism and imperialism Responses to Evolutionism in the 20th Century Franz Boas and The Development of American Anthropology -Born in Germany -Trained in Geography at a German University -Does fieldwork in Alaska and has contact with Inuits -Tries to get a job as an Ethnographer once returning to Germany -period of rising anti-semitism -comes to the US to find a job in New York -Winds up at the Museum of Natural History as the curator as well as a job at columbia -Develops a Department of Anthropology at Columbia University and “reinvents anthropology” Boasian Anthropology -Focus on anti-racism *culture is learned, it’s not biological -Holism and the four-field approach -Historical Particularism/Rejection of Evolution → studying specific peoples Cultural Relativism: We need to describe a culture in its own terms in order to properly understand it. “Race” -Used to use it in the way that we use the term ethnicity today -Shifts to being a biological category Racial Classification: The attempt to assign humans to discrete categories purportedly based upon common ancestry. (Focus has been on phenotypes of groups) What’s Wrong with Race? -There is more genetic variation within ‘racial groups’ than between the different groups -Physical traits that occur with ‘race’ occur gradually over space (clines) *you can’t put the world into discrete categories -Humans are a single species The Social Construction of Race -Race is a social category Hypodescent: The social practice of taking an offspring of a mixed background and assigning it to the lower social status of the two backgrounds. ex) Halle Berry, Barack Obama, Jessica Alba, Mariah Carey *Race is a social category, not a biological category* Example: Japan-”intrinsic racism” -You’re either pure Japanese or “other” -Aboriginal Ainu (original inhabiting peoples) -Okinawans -Outcast Burakumin -equivalent to untouchables -biologically the same as pure Japanese -Children of mixed marriages -Immigrants (especially Koreans) Fluidity of Categories -Brazil→ 40+ categories -phenotype -lifestyle (urban/rural) -Latin America (more broad) -Indio (Indian) -Mestizo (Mixed) -Blanco (White) *economic based to some degree Ethnography -Focuses on an intensive study of “the here and the now” -Attempts to understand the world from the Natives views -Extended period of living with the Natives -Study an identifiable place -Observation and participant observation Etic and Emic Etic: anthropologists ‘objective’ categories and explanations Emic: culturally relevant (local) explanation, understanding, or meaning Culture Definition: that complex whole when includes knowledge, belief, arts, morals, law customs, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by homo sapien sapiens as a member of society. (Edward Taylor 1871) -all encompassing -shared→ not an individual trait -integrated→ pieces fit together -adaptive and maladaptive *culture is learned, it’s not biological *culture is symbolic, acceptances are all different Symbols A symbol is a particular kind of sign (something that stands for something else) where the sign is an arbitrary relationship to that which it refers to indexes - labels only exist because we established them to be what they are (verbally) Universal, General, and Particular Universal: traits that are found among all human groups General: regularities that occur in different times and places but not in all cultures Particular: traits that have very limited distribution *All human behavior is mediated through culture* *****Material from the 2nd Exam****** Language and Communication Non-Human Communication -Other animals (including other primates) -call system ● each call has only one meaning, which is always in the present tense ● particular calls only occur in particular environmental circumstances (ex. mating, breeding, territory, food) ● cannot be combined with other calls Human Communication -Language: a sign system based upon symbols -Based upon arbitrary learned associations between words and the things for which they stand -Functions as a system of classification and mental representation of the world The Origin of Language -Capacity to remember and combine linguistic symbols may be latent in apes -wouldn’t learn without human intervention -evolved about 12 million years ago -Recent genetic studies put language in homo sapiens approx. 150,000 years ago (had recognizable sounds, just not as many as we have today) Language, Thought, and Culture 19th Century Anthropology -”Primitive” peoples were culturally and intellectually “primitive” “primitive mind” and “primitive thought” → don’t think like us -”Primitive” people were not logical, thought magically or like children The Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (linguistic relativity) Sapir→ early Boas student Whorf→ industrial engineer -Boasian response to 19th century beliefs about how “primitives” thought Two Propositions: -Semantics and words (once we label something, it becomes that label) -Grammar (subject-verb-object language) The Structure of Language Descriptive Linguistics Phonology→ sounds that are used in a language, sound combinations, phonetics Morphology→ morpheme: a sound cluster that is a minimal unit of meaning ex) cats Syntax→ the study of the combination of morphemes into meaningful utterances (permissible and impermissible order) Beyond Just Sounds -Kinesics (body movement) -Paralanguage (variations in verbalization) Language in Use How to Do Things With Words -Performative speech acts -The speech act itself creates an outcome (ex. military commands) Sociolinguistics -Focus on linguistic performance (what people actually say) -how performance says something about the individual themselves (social stratification) Elements of Linguistic Performance -Bilingualism and code shifting -Style shifts -Dialects -Gendered speech contrasts -Social stratification/social class The Ethnography of Communication -examines the ways in which language is used in everyday interactions inside speech communities (pragmatics) -everyone belongs to multiple speech communities -who we have day to day interactions with -particular speech practices -Rules and Norms→ interactive rules (ex. school/classroom environment) -Language Socialization→ how people learn rules and norms -Performance and Poetics→ particular modes -Literacy and Literacy Practices→ how people use writing -Narratives and Storytelling→ how people tell a story -Language Ideology→ the beliefs about what kind of registers are appropriate → appropriate means of communication -Language and Identity→ how your speech reflects who you are -Language Policy (formal) → official decisions about appropriate means of communication -Language Revitalization→ efforts to keep a language in use *Language is the exemplar par excellence for the symbolic nature of culture. There are limited restraints from material culture. Language is the means by which we classify the world. The World of Goods: Exchange and Consumption Culture as a System of Classification -Culture usually operates at a less than conscious level (habitual) -shapes how we interact with the world -humans use symbolic meanings to communicate Goods Carry Social Meaning -Beyond utility → what does it do for me besides the cost -System of Social Communication → owning goods for display purpose ex) motorcycle noise levels differentiate by company and personality type of purchaser Reciprocity -occurs when exchange between relatively social equals Generalized Reciprocity -parental gift giving -giving something as a gift now in return for something in the unspecified future Balanced Reciprocity -when the giver gives something now and creates the obligation to receive something specific at some point in the specified or unspecified future ex) sharing of hunters and gatherers Negative Reciprocity -you are given something in attempt to disadvantage you/lower your social status -bettering the return gift you have to give Kula Ring -generalized and balanced reciprocity -system in the Trobriand Islands that occurs between island chiefs -Kula valuables: -red shell disc arm band -white shell armbands -can only be traded for other valuables -trade depends on the physical location of the islands to one another -anything you get you eventually trade -separate form of trade -creates a system of prestige and alliances Potlatching -regional exchange practice on the northwest coast of north america -high status accumulates goods to throw a potlatch (party) like food, elaborate blankets, and coppers -negative reciprocity -invite equal or higher status people -give away the goods you acquire, and the coppers are given away as pieces not wholes -get prestige in return for the potlatch Redistribution -one high status and lower status exchange -operates when goods, services or their equivalent (money) moves from the local level to the center money→ value marker -flow eventually reverses direction from the center to the periphery -the ability to demand tribute or taxes Unbalanced Exchange -one person benefits more than the other Markets and Profit Seeking -as much as the customer is willing to pay -selling for more than the cost to produce it Theft Exploitation -internships -servitude -slavery The Functions of Consumption -Sustenance/Utility -Symbolic -Identity/Branding -Solidarity→ alliance, part of a larger group -Distinction→ group clarification, knowing social value Arts and Expressive Culture Aesthetic Judgement→ judgement as to what is beautiful vs. what is ugly Definitions Expressive Culture→ manifestations of human creativity Arts→ music, performance, visual, literature Art→ object, event or other expressive form that evokes an aesthetic response outside the realm of the practical Art Emerges with Modern Humans -Blombos Cave→ South Africa (70,000 years ago) -Figurines in central Europe→ (40,000-10,000 years ago) ex. Woman of Willendorf -Cave painting→ France and Spain (35,000-15,000 years ago) -Paleolithic art is linked to reflect hunting -The making of art spreads with the spread of modern humans (Australia) -Petroglyphs→ SouthWest USA, South Africa and India Functions of Art -aesthetic pleasure (non-utilitarian) -trade and social relations (kula rings) -symbols of power and status (religious paintings) -ethical education -social controls/links to the supernatural Body Arts Human Decoration -marks of identity -marks of status -aesthetic appeal The Body Decorated (removable/not permanent) -hairstyles/treatments -cosmetics -decorated clothing/accessories Body Modification/Mutilation (permanent) -scarification (cutting the skin and packing it with clay or ashes causing scars) -piercing -binding, deformations of the skeleton (changing bone size, feet, head) -circumcision and subincision -tattooing *****Material from the third exam**** Belief In The Supernatural Magic and Religion -belief and rituals concerned with supernatural beings, powers and forces -belief in the supernatural is a cultural universal Why: -we don’t see it in other species -cultural understanding of the numinous -agnostic view: culturally relative means to explain the unexplainable Understanding The Supernatural Realm is Symbolic -The supernatural realm cannot be directly experienced -Requires mediation through objects or acts→ made into something physical Cross-Cultural Study of Religion and Magic -Social nature of beliefs and practices → who is included versus excluded, when-how-what happens, etc. -Manifestations/practice→ what happens, what objects are used -Meaning derived from practice Origins of Beliefs in the Supernatural -Circumstantial evidence → neanderthal burials (near east 90,000 years ago) -marked graves, intact bodies → european cave paintings (after 50,000 years ago) -hunting visual Expressions of Beliefs and Practices in Supernatural Beliefs -animism: the belief in the supernatural world animating the material universe -mana: -taboo (ritual pollution) → forbidden behavior → supernatural repercussions → you’ve done something and your spiritual self has become polluted/dirty and you need to find a way to get clean again Practices -Magic: application of a technique to create a particular outcome -Divination: technique to determine why something is the way it is -Rituals:scripted activities to placate of make the supernatural world do something Functions of Religion and Magic -Anxiety reduction -Control of the uncertain (the idea of at least) -Solace→ comfort and assurance -Social control→ policing Culture Is -learned -shared -INTEGRATED Types of Religion -the form of religion in sociendsto correspond to other formations of the social structure Shamanic Religion -most characteristics of foraging society (hunting, gathering) -animism, spiritual world -shamans → part time religious practitioner → healers (most common task) → illness is seen as supernatural disturbance in the natural world -spiritual mediation (mediums) -general divinations Communal Religions -more typical of farming societies -have shamans (leaders of communal rituals) -lack of full-time religious practitioner -several deities with control over nature (humans forms and spiritual) Olympian Religions -arise in state based societies with marked social stratification -full-time religious specialists -polytheistic -deities in human form -prominent in many non-industrial states around the globe Monotheistic Religions -all supernatural phenomena and power are manifestations of a single supreme being -historically had a limited geographical distribution in what we would now call modern Iran and Persia (the “middle east”) Religion and Change → like political organization, religion helps maintain social order → like political energy, religious energy can be harnessed for change and revolution Revitalization Movements -invading culture puts pressure on the original culture & breaks-down traditional institutions & a group emerges to revitalize the diminishing culture Syncretisms -invading culture purposely wants to impose and diminish the original culture -attempts to preserve original culture in a way that’s masked to look like the invading culture Anti-Modernism and Fundamentalism AM: religious movement from beginning of Industrial Revolution in European Societies that takes where society was and where it was going and rejects those beliefs F: 20th century phenomenon based in an alienation from the perceived secularism of the modern culture that typically uses modern technologies Adaptations to Modernity -Deism: spread from French thinkers to Britain and the Americas → flourishes in the mid 1700s → typically educated individuals → how the universe works → belief in a creator and in creation, however the deity removed himself from the world after creation of the universe to create a world of men → men like Thomas Jefferson, George Washington, Ben Franklin -New Age: multicultural relativist thing → adaption to a multi-belief system -Spirituality: non-theistic forms of traditional religion → moved away from organized religion -Secular Humanism and Atheism Marriage and Kinship Kinship -symbolic determination of who are relatives and who are not -only partially related to biological relations Why It’s Important: Three Social Functions -Inheritance rights (most often material goods) -Social obligations to kin -Who you can marry (culturally different) Kinship and Descent Descent Group: a group claiming to have a common ancestor Family of Orientation: family you’re born into Family of Procreation: family you marry into Descent Groups -you frequently marry outside of -reckoning descent → unilineal descent ~only reckon kin through 1 of your parents (matrilineal or patrilineal, other side is “ignored”) → bilateral descent ~through both parents (our system) → clan system ~membership based on stipulated member claim ~no traceable lineage required, only legit logical claim Kinship Calculation→ answers: who are your relatives? Genealogical Kin Types vs. Kin Terms Kin Types: description of actual relationship, imposed from outside the culture Kin Terms: description of the relationship from those within the culture Kinship Terminology Lineal -Collateral kin (horizontal on family tree: brothers, sisters, cousins) -Linear kin (vertical on family tree: mom, dad, grandparents) -Affines: related through marriage, step relationships Bifurcate Merging Terminology -splitting terms between maternal and paternal lines -use same terms to label people of the same gender (mom, her sisters, her female cousins, and vice versa) -same levels of respect and authority to those with the same term Generational Terminology -single term applied to all male or female relatives of a single generation (older or younger respectively) Bifurcate Collateral Terminology -distinction between Marriage as Group Alliance -Bride Wealth (Bride price) -paid by groom’s family to the bride’s family -found in patrilineal societies -buys the rights to the children (progeny price) -Dowry -paid by the bride’s family to the groom’s family -the woman’s property is held in trust by first her father and then her husband -an “insurance policy” passed from mother to daughter incase they become widowed and there’s no son to rely on India→ requires the groom to take economic liability for the woman -Durable Alliances - sororate: the requirement to provide a replacement wife by the family of the woman who dies or if the woman can’t reproduce -“Sister” exchange Forms of Marriage Monogamy: union between 2 people (lifetime, sometimes serial) Polygamy: union between more than 2 people Polygyny: one male and multiple females Polyandry: one female and multiple males *found in the mongolian herding peoples where a group of brothers marries one woman and paternity is ascribed to the oldest brother. Nuer Same-Sex Marriage (Sudan) -east african cattle peoples -patrilineal society -if a man has no sons, then he ascribes the role of son to a daughter, whom he then marries off to another woman after giving his inheritance to his “son” Nayar (India) -matrilineal and matrilocal (bride stays in town of family of orientation) -men are professional soldiers that aren’t always home -marriages are arranged -when men return they ask to take up residence with a woman (may not be his wife) and he places his shield outside to mark his territory while he’s there -the woman’s husband then needs to stay somewhere else and she takes on the role of being this other man’s wife -ascription of paternity is always to her actual husband, not to the biological father Two Spirit (North America) -someone who is biologically one gender but identifies as the opposite (transgender) -widower with children usually marry them so they have a maternal figure in the house taking care of motherly duties Group Marriage (The Oneida Community) -experiment in christian community -property held in common, women become property of the husbands -all adult men are married to all the adult women -consensual free love (heterosexual) -raise kids by the community -paternity is ascribed to the community Open Marriage (contemporary scandinavia) -divorce rates extremely low -economic unit households -one couple is married, has kids, and once they are raised and on their own they develop an open marriage with a lack of exclusive sexual access to each other Polyamory (contemporary north america) -multiple partners of mixed gender -share sexual access amongst all n moms and dads relatives -terms for each relative respective to each side (different term for uncle on moms side than on the dad’s side) -used to specify the relationship -least common form of terminology Descent, Marriage and Residence Rules Patrilocality -patrilineal association -male stays with family of orientation after marriage -women come and live with the in-laws -womens labor moves the household -women centered households (polygyny) Matrilocality -women stay in moms location -men move in with in-laws -almost always in matrilineal societies -property in control of women Neolocality -young couple set up their own household -the pattern we are used to in the united states Summary -Kinship focuses on the family of orientation -Marriage focuses on the family of procreation -In most societies, relationships to ancestors and kin are the key relationships in social structure -Jural rights concerning transfer of property and social position Categorizing People Societies sort people into categories → categories are socially constructed (symbolic) but have material consequences (stratification and inequality) → based on markes characteristics (gender, class, race/ethnicity) Sex and Gender sex→ biological trait, physicality, sexual dimorphism (marked difference in primates in size between male and female) gender→ traits a culture assigns to and inculcates in males and females, vary with adaptive strategy Recurrent Gender Patterns (Male) Almost Always – Hunting – Smelting Ores/ Metalworking – Lumbering/Working Wood – Making Musical Instruments – Building Boats – Working Bone, Horn and Shell – Mining and Quarrying Usually – Butchering – Collecting wild honey – Clearing land – Fishing – Tending large animal herds – Building houses – Preparing the soil – Making nets – Making rope Recurrent Gender Patterns Recurrent Gender Patterns (Male or Female) • Making fire • Body mutilation • Preparing skins • Gathering small land animals • Planting crops • Making leather products • Harvesting • Tending Crops • Milking • Making baskets • Carrying burdens • Making mats • Caring for small animals • Preserving meat and fish • Loom weaving • Gathering small aquatic animals • Making Pottery Recurrent Gender Patterns (Female) • Gathering Fuel (e.g. firewood)• Making drinks • Gathering wild vegetal foods • Dairy production (e.g. churning) • Spinning • Doing the laundry • Fetching Water • Cooking • Preparing vegetal food (e.g. processing cereal gra Gender Among Foragers -generally men hunt and fish while women gather -when men contribute more of the food, gender stratification is higher -when gathering is prominent, gender stratification is more equal Domestic Public Dichotomy -among foragers activities are less separated than among food producers -when separated, public activities carry more status Sex-Linked Roles -division of labor is related to what your physicality and biology is ex) women of childbearing age summary→ gender equality was a more likely ancestral pattern Gender Among Horticulturalists -the growing of crops using human power Gender roles and stratification among cultivators vary widely depending: -descent and post-marital residence -percentage of diet derived from cultivation -productivity of men and women Women are the main producers (do most of the cultivating labor) -50% of horticultural societies women do more of the cultivating work (weeding the gardens) than men -33% have an equal distribution between men and women -17% of horticultural societies men do more of the cultivating work Matrilineal, Matrilocal Societies -reduced gender stratification Matrifocal Societies -mother centered social arrangements (households) (polygyny) Patrilineal-Patrilocal Societies -dispersed female kin -increased gender stratification Gender Among Agriculturalists -the growing of crops using machine power (the plow) -women generally lose their roles as primary cultivators -growing distinction between domestic and extra-domestic labor - change in marriage and residence patterns (return to monogamy) Gender and Industrialization -full separation of domestic and public spheres -early industries -everybody went to work -social reforms and work/labor laws then come into effect -mandatory schooling soon follows -division of productive roles Men: productive/earning Women: domestic
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'