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GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide

by: Conner Jones

GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide GY 102

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Geography > GY 102 > GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide
Conner Jones
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Pitts GY 102 final exam study guide
Earth System Processes
Mary Pitts
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Conner Jones on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GY 102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Mary Pitts in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 102 views. For similar materials see Earth System Processes in Geography at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 04/29/16
GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide: Key Terms:  Types of drought: o meteorological – slightly lower rainfalls and slightly higher temperatures than usual o agricultural – higher temp and lower rainfalls has started to impact agriculture o hydrologic – lake levels will fall, shrinking back of lakes and rivers (we see changes) o socio-economic – we can see loss of infrastructure (trees dying, wildfires, fish dying)  know the water balance equation: Precip = Actet + surplus (+/-) ∆storage o precipitation = actual evapotranspiration (potential – deficit) + surplus + change in soil moisture  aquifer - A rock unit that can store and transmit water to a well or spring in useful amounts. o unconfined aquifer – open to earth’s surface and to infiltration o confined aquifer – overlain by less permeable materials  Porosity – amount of open pore space, %  Permeability – how easy it is for liquid to pass through it o Permeable – allows passage of water – measure of interconnectedness of pores  Sand  Sponge cake o Impermeable – obstructs water movement  Clay  Butter icing  Cone of depression – occurs in an aquifer as a result of over pumping, it is a cone in the water underground that affects structures above ground  Hydrograph – a graph showing the rate of flow (discharge) versus time past a specific point in a river (example: 100 cubic feet per minute)  Types of drainage networks: o Dendritic – many contributing streams, which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (veins in body, branches on a tree) o Radial - streams radiate or diverge outward, like the spokes of a wheel, from a high central area (mostly in slopes like volcano or cones) o Structurally controlled – altered by humans to fit our needs, usually erodes because it’s going against nature  Base level – level below which a stream cannot erode its channel  Types of streams: o Braided – network of interweaving channels o Low sinuosity – gently curved o Meandering (high sinuosity) – very curved  Oxbow lake – a curved lake formed at a former oxbow where the main stream of the river has cut across the narrow end and no longer flows around the loop of the bend  Meander scars – a geological feature formed by the remnants of a meandering water channel (crescent shape), often formed during creation of an oxbow lake  Causes of flooding: o Snowmelt o Precipitation o Ice darn o Volcanic eruption o Dam failure  Glacier – large mass of ice resting on land or floating in the sea o Types:  Ice sheet – a permanent layer of ice covering an extensive tract of land, especially a polar region  Cirque glacier – a bowl-shaped depression on the side of or near mountains. Snow and ice accumulation occurs as the result of avalanches from higher slopes  Valley glacier – originating in a cirque at a valley head or in a plateau ice cap and flowing downward between the walls of a valley  Piedmont glacier – occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb- like lobes  Glacial transport – glacier moves and sediment moves within it o Supraglacial – on top o Englacial – within o Subglacial – below  Glacial moraine - accumulation of rock debris (till) carried or deposited by a glacier o Lateral moraine – alongside of glacier o Medial moraine – in middle of glacier o Terminal moraine – at the end of the glacier  Snow line – lowest elevation where snow remains year round  Fjord – a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley (common in Norway and Iceland)  Cirque - Some key concepts:  What is the universal contaminant? Answer: sediment  How does groundwater contamination move? Answer: down gradient  Which drainage network is ideal? Answer: dendritic  Which is more prone to flooding, rural or urban? Answer: urban  What is the most catastrophic cause of flood? Answer: dam failure Key diagrams: VERY WET CLIMATE VERY DRY CLIMATE


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