GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide:
∙ Types of drought:
o meteorological – slightly lower rainfalls and slightly higher temperatures than usual
o agricultural – higher temp and lower rainfalls has started to impact agriculture
o hydrologic – lake levels will fall, shrinking back of lakes and rivers (we see changes)
o socio-economic – we can see loss of infrastructure (trees dying, wildfires, fish dying)
∙ know the water balance equation: Precip = Actet + surplus (+/-) ∆storage
o precipitation = actual evapotranspiration (potential – deficit) + surplus + change in soil moisture
∙ aquifer - A rock unit that can store and transmit water to a well or spring in useful amounts.
o unconfined aquifer – open to earth’s surface and to infiltration o confined aquifer – overlain by less permeable materials ∙ Porosity – amount of open pore space, %
∙ Permeability – how easy it is for liquid to pass through it o Permeable – allows passage of water – measure of
interconnectedness of pores
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o Impermeable – obstructs water movement
∙ Cone of depression – occurs in an aquifer as a result of over pumping, it is a cone in the water underground that affects structures above ground
∙ Hydrograph – a graph showing the rate of flow (discharge) versus time past a specific point in a river (example: 100 cubic feet per minute) ∙ Types of drainage networks:
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o Dendritic – many contributing streams, which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (veins in body, branches on a tree)
o Radial - streams radiate or diverge outward, like the spokes of a wheel, from a high central area (mostly in slopes like volcano or cones)
o Structurally controlled – altered by humans to fit our needs, usually erodes because it’s going against nature
∙ Base level – level below which a stream cannot erode its channel
∙ Types of streams:
o Braided – network of interweaving channels
o Low sinuosity – gently curved
o Meandering (high sinuosity) – very curved
∙ Oxbow lake – a curved lake formed at a former oxbow where the main stream of the river has cut across the narrow end and no longer flows around the loop of the bend
∙ Meander scars – a geological feature formed by the remnants of a meandering water channel (crescent shape), often formed during creation of an oxbow lake If you want to learn more check out What are the types of deterrence?
∙ Causes of flooding:
o Ice darn
o Volcanic eruption
o Dam failure
∙ Glacier – large mass of ice resting on land or floating in the sea o Types:
Ice sheet – a permanent layer of ice covering an extensive tract of land, especially a polar region
Cirque glacier – a bowl-shaped depression on the side of or near mountains. Snow and ice accumulation occurs as the result of avalanches from higher slopes
Valley glacier – originating in a cirque at a valley head or in a plateau ice cap and flowing downward between the walls of a valley
Piedmont glacier – occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb like lobes
∙ Glacial transport – glacier moves and sediment moves within it o Supraglacial – on top Don't forget about the age old question of Who are the largest user of apple gadgets?
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o Englacial – within
o Subglacial – below
∙ Glacial moraine - accumulation of rock debris (till) carried or deposited by a glacier
o Lateral moraine – alongside of glacier
o Medial moraine – in middle of glacier
o Terminal moraine – at the end of the glacier
∙ Snow line – lowest elevation where snow remains year round ∙ Fjord – a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley (common in Norway and Iceland)
∙ Cirque -
Some key concepts:
∙ What is the universal contaminant? Answer: sediment ∙ How does groundwater contamination move? Answer: down gradient ∙ Which drainage network is ideal? Answer: dendritic
∙ Which is more prone to flooding, rural or urban? Answer: urban ∙ What is the most catastrophic cause of flood? Answer: dam failure
VERY WET CLIMATE VERY DRY CLIMATE