GY 102 Final Exam Study Guide:
∙ Types of drought:
o meteorological – slightly lower rainfalls and slightly higher temperatures than usual
o agricultural – higher temp and lower rainfalls has started to impact agriculture
o hydrologic – lake levels will fall, shrinking back of lakes and rivers (we see changes)
o socio-economic – we can see loss of infrastructure (trees dying, wildfires, fish dying)
∙ know the water balance equation: Precip = Actet + surplus (+/-) ∆storage
o precipitation = actual evapotranspiration (potential – deficit) + surplus + change in soil moisture
∙ aquifer - A rock unit that can store and transmit water to a well or spring in useful amounts.
o unconfined aquifer – open to earth’s surface and to infiltration o confined aquifer – overlain by less permeable materials ∙ Porosity – amount of open pore space, %
∙ Permeability – how easy it is for liquid to pass through it o Permeable – allows passage of water – measure of Don't forget about the age old question of What is considered drastic weight loss?
interconnectedness of pores
o Impermeable – obstructs water movement
∙ Cone of depression – occurs in an aquifer as a result of over pumping, it is a cone in the water underground that affects structures above ground
∙ Hydrograph – a graph showing the rate of flow (discharge) versus time past a specific point in a river (example: 100 cubic feet per minute) ∙ Types of drainage networks:
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o Dendritic – many contributing streams, which are then joined together into the tributaries of the main river (veins in body, branches on a tree)
o Radial - streams radiate or diverge outward, like the spokes of a wheel, from a high central area (mostly in slopes like volcano or cones)
o Structurally controlled – altered by humans to fit our needs, usually erodes because it’s going against nature
∙ Base level – level below which a stream cannot erode its channel
∙ Types of streams:
o Braided – network of interweaving channels
o Low sinuosity – gently curved
o Meandering (high sinuosity) – very curved
∙ Oxbow lake – a curved lake formed at a former oxbow where the main stream of the river has cut across the narrow end and no longer flows around the loop of the bend
∙ Meander scars – a geological feature formed by the remnants of a meandering water channel (crescent shape), often formed during creation of an oxbow lake
∙ Causes of flooding:
o Ice darn
o Volcanic eruption
o Dam failure
∙ Glacier – large mass of ice resting on land or floating in the sea o Types:
Ice sheet – a permanent layer of ice covering an extensive tract of land, especially a polar region
Cirque glacier – a bowl-shaped depression on the side of or near mountains. Snow and ice accumulation occurs as the result of avalanches from higher slopes If you want to learn more check out Who are the only ones who moved out of the old world?
Valley glacier – originating in a cirque at a valley head or in a plateau ice cap and flowing downward between the walls of a valley
Piedmont glacier – occur when steep valley glaciers spill into relatively flat plains, where they spread out into bulb like lobes
∙ Glacial transport – glacier moves and sediment moves within it o Supraglacial – on top If you want to learn more check out What does deterrence mean?
o Englacial – within
o Subglacial – below
∙ Glacial moraine - accumulation of rock debris (till) carried or deposited by a glacier
o Lateral moraine – alongside of glacier
o Medial moraine – in middle of glacier
o Terminal moraine – at the end of the glacier
∙ Snow line – lowest elevation where snow remains year round ∙ Fjord – a long, narrow, deep inlet of the sea between high cliffs typically formed by submergence of a glaciated valley (common in Norway and Iceland)
∙ Cirque -
Some key concepts:
∙ What is the universal contaminant? Answer: sediment ∙ How does groundwater contamination move? Answer: down gradient ∙ Which drainage network is ideal? Answer: dendritic
∙ Which is more prone to flooding, rural or urban? Answer: urban ∙ What is the most catastrophic cause of flood? Answer: dam failure Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation?
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VERY WET CLIMATE VERY DRY CLIMATE