Comprehensive Study Guide
Comprehensive Study Guide 3623 Social Psychology
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3623 Social Psychology
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by Dana Bramlitt on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 3623 Social Psychology at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Thomas Carskadon in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at Mississippi State University.
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Comprehensive Soc. Psy. Study Guide from Chapters 112 Chapter 1 Social Psychology: Scientific study of how people think about, influence, and relate to each other. What are some big ideas in soc. psy.? 1. We construct our own reality. 2. Our social intuitions are very powerful, but they’re also perilous. 3. Social influences shape our behavior. 4. Personal attitudes and dispositions shape behavior. 5. Social behavior is biologically rooted. 6. Social psychology’s principles are applicable in many areas of our everyday lives. Social InfluencesWhere we grew up influences how we treat people. Standards of beauty also depend on where you are. 30% of our time is spent in conversation. How do values shape soc. psy.? Our values shape social psychology. They shape what we decide to look at, study, and what we draw from it. LabelingOur values come out by how we label things. Ex: In a war, we attack our enemy with bombs. However, there are innocent lives such as women and children in the way, but we bomb them anyway. We label the women and children as “collateral damage.” Contradictory beliefs about soc. psy. 1. Soc. psy. documents the obvious; therefore, making it trivial. 2. Soc. psy. is dangerous because it can be used to manipulate others. Is soc. psy. common sense? No. Common sense is invoked after we know the facts. “I knew it all along” phenomenon(Hindsight bias) it seems so easy that it should have been obvious in hindsight. Research Methods: 1. Correlation Researchstudy of naturally occurring relationships among variables. Provides info that cannot be obtained otherwise. May be positive or negative. Cannot determine causeandeffect relationships. 2. Survey ResearchSelfreport data gathered from a sample of the population of interest. Important considerations for survey research: Order of questions, response options, and wording of questions. 3. Experimental Research highly controlled research procedure in which the researcher manipulates one variable (independent variable) and then measures it’s effect on another variable (dependent variable) Correlations indicate a relationship, but not necessarily of cause and effect. Correlation research allows us to predict, but it cannot tell us whether changing one variable will cause changes in another. Sampling: survey procedure in which every person in the population being studied has an equal chance of inclusion. Wording of questionsThe wording of questions can influence answers. Even subtle changes in the tone of a question can influence the answer. Random assignment: The process of assigning participants to the conditions of an experiment such that all persons have the same chance of being in a given condition. Deception: In research, an effect by which participants are misinformed or misled about the study’s methods and purposes. Demand Characteristics: Cues in an experiment the environment that tell a participant what behavior is expected. Chapter 2 Spotlight effect: Thinking people are paying a lot more attention to you than they actually are. Ex: Dr. C’s paperclip Illusion of Transparency: Belief that our emotions are easily perceived by others. Selfconcept: The collection of things you know about yourself. Social comparison: Evaluating your own abilities and opinions by comparing yourself to others. Picturing ourselves with better or lesser people and comfort with them Effects of peer failure Relationship between success and selfesteem Labeling and selfconceptWe build other people’s labels of us right into our self concept. (Selfconcept: what we know and believe about ourselves.) Looking glass self our belief about ourselves about how we think people view/perceive us. Most people think that people think better of us than they actually do. Most people tend to hold back criticism. Individualist vs. collectivist societies Individualistic cultures give priority to personal goals over group goals. They are more likely to describe themselves with personal attributes. Collective cultures give priority to group goals over personal goals and are more likely to describe themselves with group attributes. Misexplaining and mispredicting our behaviorWe have the tendency to misexplain and mispredict our own behaviors. Mood study There is no correlation between the mood we are in and what we believe to be the reason. In the study, people record their moods and the reasons they think that they had them. Predicting our happinessPeople aren’t very good at predicting what would make them happy. And they’re not good at predicting what will make them unhappy. Who can and cannot predict the success of our relationships? Our friends are the best predictors of the success of our relationships. Don’t trust yourself on the odds of your success in a relationship. Planning Fallacy: Underestimate the time it will take you to complete something. Predicting our emotions We don’t predict our own emotions very well. Particularly, the intensity and duration of emotions. Impact bias: Overestimate enduring impact of some emotional causing event. Awareness of process vs results of our thinking We’re not very good at understanding our own thought processes. We’re more aware of the end results, but not the process that got us there. Ex: pros and cons of two cars. Control vs. explanation of behavior What controls our behavior is a different system than what explains our behavior. It comes from a different mental system. Over analysis and quality of decisions Dual attitudes (explicit and implicit) Selfesteem and academic performance What kind of encouragement/praise is effective? Feedback for failing students Comparison to others and selfesteem Friends, spouses, and effects on selfesteem Relationship between selfesteem and problems Early sexual activity and selfesteem Bad behavior and selfesteem Narcissism: A person has a high selfesteem and usually doesn’t care for others much. The Dark Triad 1. Machiavellianism 2. Antisocial personality disorder 3. Narcissistic Effect of insulting a narcissist they become highly aggressive and defensive. Narcissism, selfesteem, and empathyNarcissists typically have high selfesteem and lack empathy. The higher their selfesteem, the higher the aggression. Narcissism and insecurity Increase/decrease of narcissism in our society It is increasing in our society. Low selfesteem, choice of partners, and perception of partners They don’t choose less desirable partners. They greatly overestimate their partner’s view of them. Effortful selfcontrol: training yourself physically to do something (the right thing). Selfefficacy Sense that we can do something confidently. Selfesteem feedback vs. selfefficacy feedback Julian Rotter and Locus of Control your perception of what causes the outcomes in your life. 1. Internal locus of control you believe your experiences stem from yourself or your actions. You are the source and you control them. 2. External locus of control belief that the outcomes in your life come from external sources you can’t control. Nursing home studiesIn nursing homes, people are there to help, but how do you help? People in nursing homes aren’t left with choices to make. In the study, they divided the nursing home by giving some choices and others not so many choices. The morale of those who had choices increased, and so did their health. Choice and satisfaction Some people are stressed out with more options, and some are happier not knowing all their other choices that they missed out on. Finality of choice and satisfactionPeople are happier with decisions that aren’t reversible. Ex: marriage and divorce and how easy or difficult it is. Selfserving bias: Tendency to distort things to perceive ourselves in a more favorable way. Selfserving attribution: We attribute positive things to ourselves. When something goes right or wrong we believe it to be internal or external (respectively). Evaluation of contributions to group projects People overestimate their participation in the group. Self ratings in ability to get along with others Biased blindspot we think others are biased and we are objective. Belief in our selfserving perceptions We truly believe our own selfserving bias. We believe so much that we are willing to bet money on it. Illusory optimism: Adolescent invulnerability theory Young and can do anything without being hurt. False consensus effect Overestimate the degree to which the beliefs and behaviors of others are like ours. False uniqueness effect we believe our positive traits are rarely found in others. Positive and negative effects of selfserving bias It protects our selfesteem. But we are more likely to be sad, angry, and frustrated when continuously relating outcomes to external reasons. Groupserving bias: “Us” vs. “them”. We tend to be sensitive to anything negative of our group. When we see positive traits, we do not believe them to be true or honest. Selfhandicapping: Protect our selfimage by engaging in behaviors that excuse us for our failures later. Impression management: Carefully managed impression. We decide what people think of us. Selfpresentation: Expressing ourselves; behaving in such a way to create an impression. Selfmonitoring When we are constantly aware of the way we are representing ourselves, and making adjustments according to reactions. High and low selfmonitors People who are high selfmonitors tend to be social chameleons, which means that they change to what you’re putting out there. Chapter 3 Reality vs reality as we construe it We don’t respond to reality. We respond to it as we construe it. We respond to what we see. This happens when we perceive events and recall memories. Also, when we explain and judge events. And when we expect or anticipate events. Priming Activates certain associations in the memory. Social processing is automatic. Preconceptions have the greatest impact on us when multiple choices are available or many interpretations/possibilities are available. Sports fans and referees Preconceptions show up in sports. People (fans) believe officials favor other team. Death penalty study Experiment showed identical groups contradictory information about the death penalty. People clung to the side that agreed with them and ignored the other. Belief perseverance: The persistence of an initial belief even when it is discredited. Belief perseverance study Implant false belief; have people state why it may be true; then completely discredit original belief; people will not change their mind about original belief. Subliminal perception information comes into your brain but not your conscious. The more we have a belief, the harder it is to dislodge that belief. When we recall a memory, it gets reconstructed. Misinformation Effect: You can introduce new information to an event to change what people remember. Current vs. past attitudes People’s attitudes and beliefs may change over time, they actually think they’re consistent in their beliefs and attitudes. Rosy Retrospection: look back on things much more positive than you experienced them. Why does the older generation think there is something wrong with the younger one? Parents in each generation forget how immature they were when they were their children’s ages. Intuition: efficient and sometimes accurate. Most of the time it is wrong, but we believe it anyways. Schemas: mental concepts that guide our perceptions and interpretations. When does intuition work? When we have expertise in something. If there is subliminal perception, can there be subliminal advertisement? Yes, but it doesn’t work. It can’t change your behavior or anything that actually matters. Information Bias: Search for information that confirms our preconceptions, and ignore those that go against our preconceptions. How do you avoid/reduce overconfidence? Prompt feedback helps lessen our information bias Breaking projects down to accurately predict when things will be done Explain the opposite Heuristics making judgments/predictions on probability. Representativeness Heuristic assuming someone/thing belongs to a particular group if they resemble the typical member of that group. Availability Heuristic: Judge the frequency of something based upon its availability in your memory. Ex1: News plays up crime in the U.S., which makes it worrisome when it isn’t skyrocketing in actuality. Ex2: Flying in airplanes is dangerous is false. It is actually safer than a car. Ex3: After 9/11, all aircraft was grounded until new procedures were instilled. Thus, people drove more and actually caused 266 more people to die because plains weren’t in use. Probability Neglect: Worrying about things that are actually improbable, and not worrying about the actual probable events. Counterfactual Thinking: Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but did not. Effect of counterfactual thinking on sports Ex: Olympic medalists gold, silver, and bronze. Which is going to be the happiest? Gold. Which is going to be the least happy? Silver because he/she imagines how they could have had gold. Bronze is happy to have a medal more than to not have one. Illusory Correlation: When we perceive a relationship between events and there is not one at all or not nearly to the same degree. We remember more clearly the things that confirm our thoughts. Illusion of control: Perception that we can control events when we really cannot .Ex: lottery Regression toward the mean: Tendency for extreme events to be followed by more average events. Ex: sports illustrated curse Effects of current moods on memory of past events If you are in a bad mood, you tend to be more brutish. If you are in a good mood, you tend to be more loving and caring. Heider and attribution theory How we explain people’s behavior. Dispositional vs. situational attributions Dispositional personality/character based Situational situationally based Spontaneous Trait Inference: Effortless and automatic inference of traits in people. Make assumptions about character. Happens in 1/10 of a second. Fails to take into account situation. Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) : Our tendency to overestimate dispositional attributions and underestimate situational attributions. Intelligence and the likelihood making the fundamental attribution error The smarter you are the more likely you are to make a FAE. Actor/observer bias: When we are the actor, we focus on the situation, but when we are the observer we focus on the disposition. Cameraperspective bias: Suspect vs interrogator When shown the suspect, people believe confessions to be honest. When shown the interrogator, people believe confessions to have been manipulated. How the FAE changes over time It diminishes over time. FAE facts We are more likely to think situationally as we get older. Western cultures are more prone to make the error than eastern cultures. Can see the difference in political parties. Experimenter Bias: Unknowingly communicating with subject what they are expected to say. Selffulfilling prophecy: Predictions become true just because they are believed. Teacher expectation What teachers expect from their students comes true. They see what they want to see. 1968 Rosenthal Told elementary teachers that a certain group of students would bloom rapidly. He retested those students’ IQ scores and the result was an increase due to the teacher giving more attention to those that they believed would do better. It was replicated only 40% of the time. Effects of student beliefs about teachers Students were led to believe that a teacher they and was rated highly. Those students also rated those same teachers highly. They rated them higher than those who took the same teacher without being told how high the teacher was rated. Effects of idealizing a spouse or romantic partner Idealizing someone/something usually leads to disappointment. Effects of doubting a partner’s love If you worry about if someone loves you, you tend to distance yourself; so, it comes true that the person loves you less. You’re harming the relationship. Behavioral Confirmation: Selffulfilling prophecy where your social expectations lead people to behave in ways themselves that cause them to act on your expectations and confirm your expectations. Chapter 4 Attitudes and behavior which causes which? Behavior causes attitude more than attitude changes behavior. Our behavior causes our attitudes. Attitude: A favorable/unfavorable evaluative reaction toward someone, something, or some idea. It is rooted in our beliefs and exhibited in our feelings and intended behaviors. Attitudes don’t predict behavior. Ex: Is church a good thing? Yes, but do people actually go? Not necessarily. When social influences on us are minimal, attitude actually has a better chance of predicting behavior. Implicit (unknown) attitudes are better predictors than explicit (known) attitudes. Roles: A set of norms that define how people in a social situation ought to behave. Roles that we’re in dictate the expectations. Beware of power and roles. We tend to accommodate our audience, and we tend to believe what we’re saying. Footinthedoor Phenomenon: People are likely to comply with a large request if you first get them to comply with a small request. Lowball Technique: You offer someone something until you find out that they’re going to take your offer. Then once you have their interest, you don’t give them the offer but they still settle for the item you’re offering even if it’s not at the same deal. It’s hard to find people who have only succumbed to temptations only once than never at all. You will actually get someone to like you by asking them for a favor. You actually can legislate morality. Because we have laws in order to make people refrain from crimes and immoral behavior. Cognitive Dissonance: Leon Fesstinger came up with it. It often happens when our beliefs don’t match our behaviors. Change your behavior or change your attitude and beliefs to resolve cognitive dissonance. We are more likely to change our attitudes, beliefs, and values. Insufficient Justification: When we have this, we are likely to have cognitive dissonance. Postdecision Dissonance: Once you make a decision, you tend to perceive what you chose in higher value. And the one you didn’t choose wen down in value to you. Selfperception Theory: If we are not sure of our own attitudes, we infer from our behaviors. Over Justification Effect: Overly rewarding people for doing something they already like. They may find it less interesting or like it less. Don’t overly reward something that should already be rewarding in itself. Ex: Telling kids to play with toys and over rewarding them for it. It’s good to praise, but it’s not a good idea to (over justify) over reward them. Ex2: Paying kids money for doing well in school. You should encourage and use words of praise like “I’m proud of you” instead. Selfaffirmation Theory: When we do something we know we shouldn’t do threatens our selfimage. If we commit it we tend to see ourselves as bad. But we then say look at what I did that was good. Values Affirmation Theory: Dr. C’s theory that people look for opportunities to affirm their values. They like doing that. Usually in low cost to them but higher cost to others. Ex: Facebook and liking things that are good like veterans’ pages or breast cancer awareness. If you want to change something in yourself, start behaving as if you wanted to change. You will change. Chapter 6 Conformity: Changing our behavior and beliefs as a result of group pressure. Compliance: Outwardly going with a group but inwardly not going with a group. Acceptance: Behave the way people want you to and you actually believe in the way they want you to behave. Boredom makes you yawn. Sleepiness yields yawning, but we yawn more when we’re waking up. Another source that causes yawing is tension. Mass Modeling (Mass Hysteria): There was a plague between nuns of cat scratching fights. No explanation for what happened though. Auto kinetic Effect and UFOs Jay Alan Hynek’ was impressed by UFO sightings from honest and bright people like policemen, and resigned his job to prove that UFOs were real. S. Ash and effect of conformity pressure on perception Famous study of cards with 1, 2, or 3 vertical lines where the participant would have to match the lines. He hired people with only one actual subject to partake in experiments. 37% of all responses were conformity. ¾ of people conform at least once. He never told them to pick a certain answer, they chose themselves and people followed the same answering pattern. S. Milgrim: What circumstances would people do destructive things just because they were told to without group pressure? Milgrim wrote an ad in a newspaper asking for people to be in an experiment. He wanted to avoid having all university students as participants. Some university students were taken, some educated men, some business people, and all sorts of people except women. He believed that women weren’t reliable subjects. The Experiment: Two people arrive at his lab around the same time. One didn’t know anything, but the other was an actor made to look like a participant. They were told the experiment was on effects of punishment on learning. One was to be “learner” and one was to be “teacher”. The actor was always the “learner” while the actual participant was always the “teacher”. The actor was strapped into chair. The participant sat in front of a machine. The teacher reads word pairs to the learner. If the learner gives right answer, nothing happens. However, if he’s wrong, he gets and electric shock. Each time he makes a mistake, the shock goes up in voltage. Milgrim keeps encouraging the teacher to punish the learner. He used different ways to make the teacher to continue the experiment. 26 out of 40 men continued all the way through the experiment. Those who did stopped typically stopped when the learner demanded to stop. In the second experiment, he intensified the suffering of the learner and gave the actor a heart condition to see if it reduced the number of men continuing. 25 out of 40 continued because Milgrim told them to. He altered variables: shut off sound and sight between teacher and learner; put them both in the same room. The on variable where no one complied was where learner ran around the room after shock and teacher was ordered to drag him back. WWII Gas Chambers: Heimlich created these so that soldiers wouldn’t have to kill people by shooting them. They could not handle killing their prisoners, so this was an easy way for them to avoid killing their prisoners directly. Bomber Crews: dropped bombs on cities without much difficulty handling the guilt of killing because they were removed from the horrors of it. When Milgrim wasn’t in the room but over the phone, the number of men continuing with the experiment dropped. He did a study with nurses: What would you do if a doctor ordered you to give a dosage that you knew was a lethal overdose and could kill the patient? Most nurses said they wouldn’t go along with his order; however, 21 out of 22 in the experiment went along with a doctor’s order. He added 3 teachers where 2 were phony to the experiment. If the actual subject sees the two refuse, they will refuse as well. Conformity obedience isn’t always bad. Ex: 9/11 rescue people kept going into the building to get others out when they were ordered to and knew they might die. Importance of situation In one experiment people were asked what they would do if they were in a group of people that were blatantly making sexist comments. Most said they’d not allow it, and that they would say something. 5% said they’d let it go. 55% didn’t say a word. Holocaust: people agreed to kill Jews because they weren’t actually involved in the killing. Influences on conformity Ash proved that if just one person disagreed, the number of people who conformed decreased. Most people who conform don’t think other people influence them. Many decisions are either unanimous or split down the middle. Ex: politics The more you’re attracted to a group, the more you are likely to conform to that group. We assume that people our age don’t share our musical tastes, and we usually conform to what we think people our age likes. Our musical likes are influenced by conformity. If you have to make a public response, you are more likely to conform. Prior Commitment: Once people make a public response, they usually never back down from it. But they may change their future behavior, but not their current behavior. Two Types of Conformity 1. Normative Influence: Conformity in order to be accepted to avoid feeling embarrassed, being rejected, or have people think ill of you. You want to be liked. 2. Informational Influence: Conforming due to information, evidence, or facts. Because of what you learned not because you want to be liked. There was a study on the real time brain function (MRI): When participant would go along with the wrong answer and conformed, the brain region associated with perception was most active. If they didn’t go along with it, the brain region associated with emotion and emotional pain were most active. Is there a conforming personality? No. To a certain degree some personalities are more likely to conform but for the most part it is situation not personality. Notion of Reactance: Motive or process to protect or restore one’s freedom and available choices. If you see the opportunity to make a choice diminishing, it will make that choice more attractive to you. Ex: Obama is a gun dealer’s best friend. Because Obama is wanting to put restrictions on guns. Therefore, getting a gun is becoming harder to achieve. So, people want to take the opportunity to buy guns and ammo before they aren’t allowed to. Ex2: Police carsCrown Victoria since 1980s Finally, Ford stopped production of Crown Victorias. So, police tried to buy as many as they could. Sales went up as a result. Ex3: Who is it that wants to get drunk? Teens. Because they aren’t legally able to do it. So, they make more of an effort. After they no longer make the effort. Rivalries: The most intense rivalries are between groups that most closely resemble each other. Ex: MSU and Ole Miss. Chapter 7 Persuasion If something we think is good and like it, we consider it education. If something we think is bad and we don’t like it, we consider it propaganda. Education is more factually based. We assume that our beliefs and behavior are what we chose. Persuasion is inevitable. Our beliefs come from somewhere. The study of persuasion came around during WWII. Classical Steps in Persuasion 1. Get people to pay attention 2. Make sure they comprehend what it is that you want them to do. 3. You got to get them to believe it. 4. You have to get them to remember it. 5. You have to get people to change their behaviors. Two Routes of Persuasion 1. Central Route: Focused on facts and information. You put information in front of people and get them to think about it. 2. Peripheral Route: Focused on cues to trigger acceptance. It is the more emotional route. Ex: endorsing something that someone you know likes. A lot of consumer behavior includes spontaneous thought. Ex: You go shopping at Kroger to buy marinara sauce. There are a lot of choices. You buy the brand you recognize or that you think is good. This is an example of Peripheral Route. Central Route leads to more enduring change. Partly because when you are presented with facts and information, you are processing it. Peripheral Route leads to more temporary change. It is superficial. It tends to work when a person doesn’t have enough time or interest. Ex: sex education videos. The communicator is important because who is telling you something matters if you listen or not. Believability: The more you believe, the more you are persuaded. Perceive Expertise: If someone is an expert and trying to sell you something, then you are likely to be persuaded. If you believe they are experts that is. Sleeper Effect: Sometimes noncredible material can influence people. We tend to remember content of what we’re told longer and better than the source of the message. If someone with no believable influence tells us something, we don’t believe it until after time passes and the sleeper effect kicks in. Then we assume it was a better source than it is. Trustworthiness: To appear trustworthy you should: Look a person in the eyes when talking; don’t be shiftyeyed. Don’t appear to try to persuade the person The faster you talk, the more they’ll believe you. Connection between selfesteem and persuasion: Medium selfesteem: persuasion works best on those that have a medium level of selfesteem. Low selfesteem: persuasion doesn’t work because those with lovw selfesteem don’t pay attention. High selfesteem: doesn’t work either Is there a significant difference in your and your parents’ way of living, values, or tastes? It is trues that generations have different attitudes. Life Cycle Explanation: When you reach an older age you may think like that of your parents or other older generations. Generational Hypothesis: We form our attitudes when we’re young and keep them for the rest of our lives. There is more evidence for generational hypothesis to be true. Ex: music tastes. The attitudes formed at a young age are enduring and don’t typically change. Counter argument: Preparing for response to something in an argument. Ex: Ministers tell you what an atheist may say and what you can say in response to them about your belief in God. distraction is a good counter to counter argument. Cults: happen to more ignorant people, younger people. Exposing those in a cult to a severe attack will only strengthen their cause in the cult. Attitude Inoculation: making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing the to small doses of the arguments against their position. It will work but not 100%. Like teen smoking “just say no.” Ads and children: ex: Ads play on kids view of certain toys by showing them the toys that kids will love (shows the kids happy) in the ad. Thus, making the kid ask the parent to buy the toy. Chapter 8 Groups: Two or more people who for a significant amount of time interact with and influence each other and perceive one another as being a group “we”, “us. “ What is the effect on us in the presence of other people? Social facilitation: presence of other people causes us to do something better. Ex: public speaking: audience 6 or 600 people listening, which would make you do better at public speaking? It would depend on how comfortable you are a t public speaking to begin with. Arousal (heart beating, muscle tensing in the presence of people) will make the most likely response happen. Effects of crowdingbeing put really close together vs far apart: If people are pushed close together, the natural attitudes (personality) will be intensified. Ex: friendly people will seem friendlier; annoying people will seem more annoying. If pulled apart, they seem less intense. Ex: friendly people seem less or just friendly. The effects of other people around are strongest when we feel like we are being judged. Social loafing: people individually are less interactive in a group. It is why communism seems like a plausible idea. People loaf less when people see the task more appealing a real challenge. Deindividuation: taking away individuality; loss of selfawareness and selfrestraint in situations fostering arousal and enmity. There was a study about what would people do if they came upon someone threatening to commit suicide by jumping from a building above them. They said they would intervene. However, when they encounter these people at night, they are less likely to persuade them to not jump. Another study about shots and students: The students getting the shot were covered with a sheet, so that you cannot see their identity. In that case, those were given double shots. At the big game, people lose selfrestraint; deindividuality. The Risky Shift: People in a group are riskier. People individually won’t take those risks. Group Polarization: discussing in a group, you become stronger. Moralistic ignorance: a misconception about what others are thinking, feeling, and doing. They are often wrong. Ex: Most MSU students think that other students are drinking more than they actually are. Bay of Pigs Fiasco: Cuba Fidel Castro was apart of the freedom fighters/guerilla fighters that overthrew the Batista regime. Castro took power and was seen as a good guy, but then he came to promote communism, which made him a bad guy to the U.S. During the Cold War, Russia supported Castro. The U.S. response was for the Kennedy administration to take refugees, train them, and send them back to Cuba to overthrow Castro. Cuba knew they were coming though and massacred them except a fewm who were taken as prisoners. America owned up to what they had done, and tried to pay the ransom for those prisoners. All of this made Irving study group think. What sorts of groups lead to group think? When we have amicable and cohesive groups that are isolated from other view points, and there is a direct leader that makes it clear what they want. Others discuss how that person is right and leads to group think. Illusion of invulnerability: thinking that one cannot be harmed If there is an unquestionable belief in a groups morality and rightness, that’s when group think happens. Also, when there is rationalization in past decisions. And close mindedness to other views. Conformity pressure can also lead to group think “you go along to get along.” Selfcensorship: when you are internally disagreeing and don’t say anything in opposition. When information is being controlled or suppressed. The illusion of unanimity: thinking you’re the only one disagreeing and everyone would be against you if you spoke up. How do you prevent group think? 1. If you’re the leader, you need to be impartial and don’t tell your opinion. “Here’s the issue, what do you think?” 2. Encourage critical evaluation. Make sure people look for things that are wrong. Make it someone’s job to look for that in your course of actions. 3. Occasionally subdivide the group break into small groups and write down conclusions/thoughts and come back to bigger group with those ideas. 4. Welcome and actively seek critiques from outside experts who aren’t apart of decisionmaking process (critical critiques). Ex: Honda Civics are cheaper than others and generally good cars. Consumer reports (rate items that people buy) are highly influential. Honda has a new civic, so they came out with a cheap civic, but it wasn’t as good as other cars. They began redesigning after their sales dropped, and enlisted help of consumer reports before the design was finished. 5. Before implementing decisions, have a cooling off period. Let the group go its separate ways and then bring them back together. Ask if it still seems the right thing to do. When do groups give you better decisions? Ex of good: In the hospital, it is better to have a group watching over the patient. It will give you a better result to have more people watching over a patient than only one person. Ex of bad: In the case of an accident or crime. A group of eye witnesses will lead to various accounts of the event, and they will more likely have something inaccurate. Another ex. associated with the first ex. A clinic/hospital has more than one doctor to figure out what’s wrong with a patient, which will gain better care for the patient. Another good ex: Weather forecast you have several people giving you data and info on the weather Minority Opinion someone whose opinion doesn’t match others. People with minority opinions tend to be liked less. Minority Slowness Effect If you know your opinion isn’t what others think, you may censor yourself. You should go ahead and speak though! If you really believe you’re right, you have a chance to be influential by being: 1. Humble 2. Confident 3. Persistent Also, check things out to see if you’re right. If you’re in the minority and you get someone on the majority to agree with you, you will be able to change more peoples’ minds. Traditional Theories about Leadership 1. Task Specialist Focused effectively on what neede to be done. 2. Social Leader Tended to the needs of followers. 3. Great Man Theory of Leadership Some people are born to lead and it’s a man usually. 4. Transformational Leadership These days, leadership is focused on transformational leadership. It’s where the leader motivates people to identify with common good. Tries to make them see why they are doing this is good and that it matters. Truly great leaders can be both a task specialist and social leader. Characteristics of Transformational Leadership 1. Energetic 2. Charismatic 3. Confident 4. Extroverted 5. Articulates high standards 6. Inspires vision 7. Is generous in giving personal attention Chapter 9 Prejudice Preconceived, negative judgment about a group and its members; against race, sex, age; stereotypes ImmigrantsThe U.S. is usually against them. Weight Obesity; especially. Weight prejudice is actually stronger than race or gender prejudice. Stereotypes Giving attributes to all of a certain group. Almost always inaccurate and very resistant to new information. Even if they are partially true they are still stereotypes and not true of all. Explicit prejudice: you know you have prejudices against others Implicit prejudice: you don’t know, but you are unconsciously doing and it is influencing your behaviors. Racial prejudice: All races are a minority. Genetically, skin color is an extremely trivial difference. Most people believe that other people are prejudice. White and prejudice: 44% believe others are, but only 1% think they themselves are. In 1942, less than 1/3 of all white people and less than 2% of southern white people were for integration. More recently, 90% believe in integration. White people compare present situation to how it was in the past. Black people compare present situation to the ideal way it should be. Chicago car buying experiment: Car buyers were sent to different car dealers compare the deals on popular cars that every dealer had in Chicago. These deals were based on race and sex. A white male pays less than anyone else.A white female pays more than the white male. A black male pays two times as much as the white male.A black female pays three and a half as much as the white male. Resumes with African American sounding names were sometimes overlooked, which kept them from getting a job. Traffic Stops Black motorist are four times more likely to be searched. Three times as more likely to be restrained, and two times as more likely to be arrested/ taken to jail. Dick and Jane: Jane’s just a girl. She can’t do the same things. She doesn’t know as much. Etc. Gender Stereotypes are worse than racial stereotypes. Women believe gender stereotypes as much as men do. Men and women actually like women better than men though. Ethnocentrism The belief in the superiority of your own ethnic/ cultural group and disdaining/put down other groups. Adorno came up with the Authoritarian personality. This is where some people had the personality that favored strict obedience to rules. And strong hate towards others who didn’t follow rules, and had prejudice against any other groups. ReligionIn about every country, the leaders invoke religion to uphold status quo. So that they can say they are right and God is on their side. There is more segregation in churches than anywhere else. Among Northern American Christians, church members express more racial prejudice than nonmembers. Any minister/priest will tell you there are two types of people: 1. Show Christians those who show up around holidays. Those type of people are more likely to be prejudice than those who go regularly. 2. Those who go regularly. Historical ministers/priests were at the forefront of civil rights movements. Many times, conformity took force in prejudice. There are many who don’t feel hate/ prejudice but they go along with it anyway. They won’t say anything either. People tend to follow the existing norms. Faceism Take a look at magazines. 2/3 of male photos are devoted to the face. Less than 1∕2 of photos of women will be devoted to the body. CartoonismStudy on who shows up in cartoons. Psychologists looked through cartoons from WWII1987. There were 50,000 cartoons that they looked at. How many depicted an African American? They found one cartoon that showed someone who was African American. Scapegoat Theory of prejudice people may feel personally/economically frustrated, which may lead to blaming minorities and aggression towards them. Ex: When cotton sales were low African Americans were blamed and usually were murdered. When cotton sale were high they were less murders. Realistic Group Conflict Theory prejudice results when groups have to compete for resources. We typically have ingroups and outgroups. When people need to belong, they tend to go with outgroups. When their needs are met, they are less likely to be prejudice. Cognitive Theory of prejudice is a byproduct of cognitive efficiency. They outgroup homogeneity effect (homogeneous) tend to perceive the members of out group as similar to each other. As we see members of our own group different from one another. This leads to stupid thinking and questions. Ex: It’s like asking a white person what kind of car they’d like to buy. They say corvette, so then the thought is that all white people like to buy corvettes. Ownrace Bias We tend to think that people of other races look alike even though we don’t see our own race as looking the same. We tend to be able to tell characteristics and differences better of our own race than just their physical characteristics. People are more accurate at recognizing people of the same age, and able to tell the differences between them better, too. Whoever is the most distinctive in a group will be attributed with certain qualities/characteristics. People tend to define us by our most distinctive character and by whatever is the most unusual thing about us. Distinction does tend to fee selfconsciousness.Stigma Conscious Where a person expects to be picked out for discrimination. Stigma stereotype us in a negative way.Power of vivid cases makes us overestimate the frequency of certain things or people. Ex: How many muslims are in the U.S.? 0.6%; 1 out of every 200 people Group serving bias a bias that helps our group against another. If another group screws up, they think that’s how it is with that group. But with ourselves, it was because of something else. Us=situational Them=dispositional Just World Phenomenon Tend to operate on the assumption that the world is fair. If you’re good, good things will happen to you. And vice versa. Chapter 10 Aggression: Physical/verbal behavior intended to hurt and harm. Century Aggression: There are some genetic influences in human beings that can make them aggressive. Alcohol reduces selfcontrol/awareness and it inhibits judgement. But your violent/social parts of the brain are still working, which can cause you to be aggressive. Testosterone and aggression The connection is very strong in people. The more testosterone a person has, the more aggressive they are. Age and aggression After age 25, testosterone levels gradually decrease. Therefore, your level of aggression goes down with age. High levels of testosterone are associated with aggression, delinquency, and drug abuse. Certain aggressive behaviors boost the levels of testosterone. Ex of sports and testosterone Basketball/soccer fans had their testosterone levels tested after watching their team win, which showed that they had an increase in their testosterone levels. If they watched their team lose, the levels decreased. Frustration and aggression Theory Frustration doesn’t lead straight to aggression, but creates anger and arousal that may turn into aggression depending on the situation. Frustration is defined as blocking one’s goal. The source of frustration is relative deprivation not looking at the level of people similar to us, but looking at the level of those with more than us. Like comparing ourselves to those who have more money or success. Ex: college athletes work hard, generate a lot of money, but don’t get anything but education. Then they’re asked to keep playing and to start earning money for that. So maybe they’re offered three billion to come play for a team and it sounds great until…. The next year the team finds a new athlete to recruit and offers them a team position for five billion, which angers the prior athlete with one three billion. Aggression is often times learned because it often pays off (you get what you want). Ex: the bully gets the lunch money Observational learning where you learn behaviors through watching someone else. Harsh physical punishment of kids leads to aggression. 30% of abused kids are abusive to their own kids later on. Absence of a father greatly increases odds that a kid will dropout of school, run away, and will be involved in bad groups and doing bad things. Dr. C’s opinion when aggression is universal, it must be genetic. Aversive experiences arouse us emotionally and make us aggressive. Physical pain and aggression Azerin put two animals in a cage together and shocked them, which caused them to instinctively attack each other. He also found frustration caused the same effect in animals. Aversive stimuli creates aggression. Ex: cigarette smoke and bad odors can lead to a person to act more aggressive. Also high temperatures can cause aggression. There was a study on baseball and high temperatures. The most dangerous part is for the batter during this time because the batter is usually going to get hit by a pitch in higher temperatures. The number of batters hit was 2/3 greater when the temperature in the ballpark was 90 degrees or higher. Temperatures under 80 degrees makes it less likely to happen. There were less riots in the winter than the summer when we look back on all the major riots in our history. Guns in U.S., we have over 200 million guns. Half of all murders are committed with a handgun. These guns are more likely used in your home than defending your home. 3 times more likely to be used for murder in your own home. 5 times more likely to be used for suicide. 10,000 homicides each year in the U.S. In Australia, it’s about a dozen. U.K. 2 dozen. Canada had just 100. Pornography it is at least 13 billion a year industry. Viewing porn leads to a greater acceptance to the rape myth, which is that they did something to bring it on herself. It’s not only found in men but women as well begin to believe the myth. 75% of women raped by a stranger is reported, but almost 100% of rape is with someone they know was not reported. TV today more people are watching TV. Over three years and 10,000, six out of ten shows showed violence. Fights in shows are highly unrealistic, but it leads people to think it’s real/possible. IN all the violence on TV, 58% of the victims in TV express no pain, which makes it unrealistic. But it makes people more likely to partake in similar violence. Kids spend more time watching TV than they do at school/ at any other activity in their waking moments. By the end of elementary, a child has seen 8,000 or more murders on TV and well over 100 thousand acts of serious violence. One study looked at convicted people and gathered the information that 9 out of 10 got their ideas from TV and 4 out of 10 actually used the same methods they saw on TV. Television the rate of homicide doubled after TV was introduced. In places where TV came later, nothing increasing those rates of homicide had happened until TV was introduced. Bobo doll and TV kids watch a film of an adult beating the doll, which had the same effect as if the adult was in the room and beating the doll. The kid still beat the doll when he/she got upset. APA and NiMH they came to the irrefutable conclusion that kids who watch violence on TV actually do violence in their life. The strength of effect of TV on violence is stronger than passive smoking on getting lung cancer. The same goes for doing homework on grades. Desensitization the more violence you watch, the more normal it becomes. 19772003 47% of 13 to 17 year olds believed there was too much violence in 1977. But as years passed by, there was a decrease in that belief among 13 to 17 year olds to 24%. Video games the more people play video games with violence, the more aggressive they become. That conclusion is also irrefutable. Girls spend 8 hours/wk on avg on video games while boy spend about 12 hours/wk on avg. 59% of girls purchased violent video games while 73% of boys purchased violent games. Both say that violent games are their favorite. Military uses video games to make sure soldiers pull the trigger and kill their enemy in combat later on. Violent video games more than nonviolent games increase physiological arousal, aggressive thinking, aggressive feelings, and aggressive behaviors. And a decrease in prosocial behaviors. The greatest effects come from the most violent video games. You may not have hurt anyone, but observing the effects across America, it becomes evident that it effects people to hurt others. Catharsis Hypothesis Engaging in violent behavior that is harmless. Like touch football. It will relieve you of those aggressive emotions. However, this hypothesis isn’t true. You temporarily feel better, but longterm you may become more aggressive. Ex: You’re at the football game watching among the crowd. You see players clash. Those players don’t just do that during a game. They do that every week in practice, so they don’t become less aggressive. Ex2: A man wants to have sex but the woman doesn’t. He gives her lines to influence her to do it. The woman finally comes up with a compromise. She says she will do it, it will be the best he’s ever had, and then he will have it out of his system. Which is completely not true. Thus, the catharsis hypothesis does not work. Group influences One study was on giving another person the authority (they were asked how much another person should be given) to determine how much another person should be given in a shot. The person advises more for someone else. The greater numbers in a group, the greater potential for aggression. Rwanda Their governing body buys two million machetes and gives them to two million people so they can massacre as many of the tombseeking people as they could. Retaliation Getting even, will it make you feel less aggressive or happy? No, it makes you more aggressive. When harsh punishment works If the punishment is strong, happens promptly after the event, and combined with reward for good behavior, then it works. That explains why the death penalty doesn’t work or reduce crime. What will be more effective? Punishment severity or apprehension? If increase probability that someone being caught by 50%, that actually reduces the crime to as much as if you doubled the punishment. You need to make punishment more certain than severe. Chapter 12 Altruism getting a big, unexpected reward activates pleasure centers of the rain, but so does giving rewards activate the same centers of the brain. The feel good, do good phenomenonwhen we feel our best, that’s when we will be most kind and giving to others. If you are down/depressed, you can empathize with others in need, which means you can give more to othersFalse If you truly follow the path that makes you happy, you will find what you’re looking for. You will also be better at what you pursue if it makes you happy. The most unselfish thing you can do is to pursue your own happiness because when you feel good, you will give more to others. Vietnam 63 different soldiers were awarded the medal of honor for throwing themselves on top of a grenade. 59 of them died. If there is no altruism, why did they do that? Holocaust people took risk to save people they didn’t know from terrible horrors. 50,000 gentiles saved over 200 thousand Jewish from the Nazis. Bystander Effect People are least likely to help in presence of others. To some degree you are less likely to be helped in a big city vs a rural area. The responsibility to act diffuses through the crowd. In order for someone to help, the necessary conditions are 1. They must notice there’s an emergency. 2. They must interpret it as an emergency. 3. They must assume responsibility. 4. They must take action. People are more likely to help if they have a model, role, skill, or trained in helping with the situation. Princeton Theological They took people training to be ministers and told them they needed them to go to a building on campus to preach a sermon about the Parable of the good Samaritan. But they only had five minutes to get there. So, they put someone moaning on the sidewalk that was in their path across campus. If they were in a hurry, only 1 in 10 stopped to help. If they weren’t hurried, 2/3 of ministers stopped. There’s little correlation with personality and helping someone. It’s all situational. Gender roles Breaking up a fight: men will help; women will help if there is no risk. But gender has a small effect. Religion if people are religious (go to church frequently) will they help? Yes, they are likelier to help and give. If you make people feel guilty, they are more likely to hlp and
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