GEOL 101 Test 1 Study Guide
GEOL 101 Test 1 Study Guide GEOL 101
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 at George Mason University taught by Mark Uhen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geology in Geology at George Mason University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Exam 1 Page 1 Exam 1 Study Guide Plate Tectonics Who came up with the original Continental Drift theory? Why did this theory fail? Think about what the theory lacked. When was the modern theory of Plate Tectonics accepted into the standard scientific narrative? What evidence to we have to support the modern theory? Think about geological structures and things found within rock. Earth’s Magnetic Field o Dip needles measure where you are on earth by sensing magnetic fields. What does it measure? Longitude or Latitude? o Are the poles stationary? o Magnetic poles on earth reverse in a process called Geomagnetic Reversal. What do we call the way it is now? What about when the poles flip? This isn’t a trick question, it has a very straightforward answer. Oceanic Magnetic Strips o Scientists can tell the orientation of the poles through time by looking at bands of rock in the sea floor. What causes these bands to form? o As new sea floor is being created at the ridge axis, old sea floor is being pushed away. What is this process called? How many main tectonic plates are on earth? Types of Crust o Continental – describe the key factors of this crust Thickness Density Composition o Oceanic – describe the key factors of this crust Thickness Density Composition Plate Boundaries – Describe the motions of plates in each type o Divergent Continental Rifting o Convergent Subduction/Slab Pull o Transform Exam 1 Page 2 San Andreas Fault System Hot Spots o Mantle Plumes under crust o When the magma rises enough to break through the crust, what forms? o Hot Spots don’t move, but the tectonic plates above them do. The Hot Spot keeps punching holes through the plate. What is an example of this occurring? Hint: It’s a state. Properties of Minerals Minerals can be defined generally as: o Naturally occurring o Solid at surface temperature o Orderly crystalline structure o Well defined chemical composition o Generally inorganic (organic having chains of carbon) Elements are substances that cannot be broken down into simpler parts, what are some ways to differentiate elements? Think about their atomic composition Atomic Structure Key Terms o Neutron o Electron o Proton o Isotopes o Ionic Bonds o Covalent Bonds o Metallic Bonds Mineral Formation o Crystallization – the formation of crystals. Name two ways crystals can form. o Polymorphs – Minerals of the same chemical composition but different crystalline structures. Name a mineral with two forms based on crystalline structure. Properties of Minerals – Define Each o Luster o Optical Quality o Color, Streak o Crystal Habit o Tenacity o Hardness o Cleavage, Fracture Mineral Classification o Silicates – Most Common – Form in SiliconOxygen Tetrahedrons – Make up most of earth’s crust – Easy to Form Exam 1 Page 3 Light Colored Silicates – Feldspar, Quartz, Muscovite, Clays Dark Colored Silicates – Olivine, Pyroxenes, Amphiboles, Biotite, Garnet NonSilicates – Calcite, Fluorite, Halite, Gypsum, Hematite, Chalcopyrite, Sulfur (Do not have SiliconOxygen Tetrahedrons) Igneous Rocks Name the most common igneous rock. Form in two mediums o Lava – On the surface of the earth – extrusive – fast cooling – no crystals o Magma – Below the surface of the earth – intrusive – slow cooling crystals Texture Factors for Classification o Size of Crystals o Relative Size of Crystals o Presence or Absence of gas bubbles o Complete lack of Crystals Igneous Textures – Describe each and identify whether the texture is more common with extrusive rocks or intrusive rocks. o Glassy o Vesicular o Porphyritic o Phaneritic o Aphanetic o Pegmatitic o Pyroclastic Study the following chart – Identifies different rocks based on composition and melting temperature. Define the terms following (hint: think color) Exam 1 Page 4 o Felsic o Intermediate o Mafic o Ultramafic Magma Origin – See Graph of Geothermal Gradient for Peridotite o Low temperature, any pressure: Solid Rock o High temperatures push rock to melt o Comparing the geothermal gradient to the melting curve for peridotite we see that the temperature at which it melts is higher than its surroundings at every depth. o Water can decrease the melting point Exam 1 Page 5 o Melting can also occur with decompression Subduction Melting o At a convergent boundary, which plate subducts? Oceanic or Continental? Explain why. o When this plate subducts, it returns to the mantle and melts. Bowen’s Reaction Series – no easy way to remember this, you just need to study it Types of Magma o Granitic – Continental Crust Melting – less common than basalt o Basaltic – Oceanic Crust Melting – tends to rise through lithospheric mantle Sedimentary Rocks Most common rock is _______ Formed from material derived from ________ rocks Three classes of these rocks, define each: o Detrital o Chemical o Organic Detrital Sedimentary Rocks o Texture – Sizes of particles within the rock. Put the following particle sizes into order from biggest to smallest: Silt Sand Clay Exam 1 Page 6 Gravel o Also name one rock for each of these particle sizes. o Poorly sorted rocks have a wide range of ______ sizes. o Angularity and Sphericity, defining the difference in shape in particles. An angular rock has sharp particles, spherical rocks have rounded particles. Chemical Sedimentary Rocks o Formed from a solution like water. Like in Limestone, water carries the minerals and it settles/crystals form when ___________ escapes the water droplet. o Name other chemical sedimentary rocks and the process they are made by. o Another process in which chemical rocks are formed is evaporation, Halite and Gypsum are created through the evaporation of sea water. Organic Sedimentary Rocks o Primarily made of _______ matter o When this material is compressed without much oxygen, it will rot and become Peat. o When you remove more water and compress more, Peat becomes _______. o Name the next two organic rocks formed from through the process of pressure. Lithification – Creation of these sedimentary rocks – Define the two methods of creation o Compaction o Cementation Environments where these rocks form – There are twelve, name the others. o Sand Dunes o Stream o Lakes o Caves o Glaciers Sedimentary Structures – Define each term o Strata o CrossBedding o Graded Bedding o Ripple Marks o Mud Cracks o Organic Structures
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