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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Samantha Silseth

Final Exam Study Guide Psyc 2010

Marketplace > Auburn University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2010 > Final Exam Study Guide
Samantha Silseth
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This is the study guide for exam 4.
Intro to Psychology
Seth A Gitter
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Samantha Silseth on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psyc 2010 at Auburn University taught by Seth A Gitter in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 75 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Auburn University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Chapter  14  Psychological  Disorders   1.What  do  we  mean  by  the  Diathesis -­‐Stress  model  of  mental  health?  What  is  the  difference  between  a   diathesis  and  a  stressor?   The  diathesis  stress  model  is  a  way  to  figure  out  what  is  causing  a   psychological  disorder.  Diathesis:  a   vulnerability  that  makes  you  more  likely  to  develop  a  psycholog ical  disorder.  It  could  be  caused  by  a   biological  function  in  our  genes  or  an  environmental  factor  like  childhood  trauma,  going  to  war,  or   experiencing  emotional  abuse.  Even  if  you  lack  the  diathesis,  you  can  still  develop  a  disorder.  Stress  acts   like  a  catalyst  to  the  diathesis.   Low  infrequent  stress  leads  to  a  low  probability  of  emergence.  High   frequent  stress  leads  to  a  high  probability  of  emergence.   2.  What  do  we  mean  when  we  say  there  are  Biological,  Cognitive/Psychological,  and  Situational  causes   of  mental  health  issues?     Three  ways  to  Approaching  &  Understanding  Disorders :  Biological  factors:  influence  brain  chemistry  and   neurotransmission.  Cognitive  factors:  influence  thoughts,  attention,  and  behavi or.  Situational   experiences:  lead  to  the  development  of  the  disorder.   3.What  are  the  three  criteria  that  we  use  to  determine  whether  something  is  a  disorder ?   Must  have  all  3  of  the  following  criteria  for  a  behavior  to  be  classified  as  a  disorder:  Deviant:  Irregular   behavior,  makes  you  different  from  other  people.  Distressing:  behavior  that  hurts  you.   Dysfunctional/maladaptive:  behavior  that  interferes  with  your  life,  relationships,  and  job.   4.What  is  the  DSM?  What  does  it  provide  and  how  do  cli nicians  utilize  it?    The  DSM  is  a  classification  system  for  a  broad  range  of  disorders.  There  are  systematic  guidelines  for   each  disorder.  It  was  developed  by  the  APA  (American  Psychological  Association).  DSM-­‐V  has  already   been  developed  because   psychologists  are  constantly  gathering  new  information.   5.What  are  each  of  the  axes  in  the  DSM -­‐IV?  How  have  these  changed  for  DSM-­‐V?   o   Axis  I:  Acute  (symptoms  wax  and  wane)  psychological  disorders.   §   Depression,  Anxiety,  Schizophrenia   o   Axis  II:  Chronic  (daily  symptoms)  mental  disorders.   §   Personality  Disorder,  Developmental  Delays,  Schizophrenia   o   Axis  III:  General  medical  conditions  relevant  to  psychological  disorders.   §   Cancer,  Epilepsy,  Obesity,  Parkinson’s,  Alzheimer’s   o   Axis  IV:  Psychosocial  or  environmental  problems.   §   Unemployment,  divorce,  homelessness   o   Axis  V:  General  Functioning  (0 -­‐100).   §   Social,  psychological,  occupational   §   Rating  of  1  means  danger  of  hurting  oneself  or  others   §   Rating  of  100  means  superior  functioning       DSM-­‐V  Changes   o   No  Axis,  all  thrown  together.   o   No  more  Medical  Conditions  (ex:  saying  someone  is  bisexual  is  a  medical  condition)   o   GAF  is  gone  because  it  had  poor  psychometric  properties  and  lacked  conceptual  clarity,   it  was  replaced  with  WHODAS  (World  Health  Organization  Disability  Assessment   Schedule)  which  assesses   illness  related  to  disability.     6.  What  are  the  pros  and  cons  of  the  way  in  which  the  DSM  classifies  mental  health  disorders?     Pros:  high  agreement  among  various  clinicians,  useful  for  research  on  mental  health .  Cons:  implies   illness  which  can  lead  to  stigmatization,  cross -­‐category  diagnosis  (depression  and  anxiety),  catego rical   rather  than  dimensional   7.What  is  a  Mental  health  status  exam?     It  doesn’t  result  in  a  diagnosis;  it  is  a  snapshot  into  a  patients  psychological  functioning.   8.What  are  the  differences  between  a  structured  vs.  unstructured  clinical  interview?     Structured  is  a  series  of  questions  to  assess  presence  of  symptoms  (SCID)  based  off  DSM  criteria.   Unstructured  is  based  on  the   clinicians  past  experience,  can  have  errors.   9.  What  are  the  other  types  of  psychological  assessment  employed  by  clinicians?   Obsevational:  1.  Psychological  testing  (self -­‐report):  same  problems  as  all  self-­‐report  measures.     Faking  good  vs  faking  bad  (acting  like  you  have  more/less  symptoms  than  you  actually  do) .   2.  Neuropsychological  Assessment:  assess  planning,  coordinating  motor  responses,  and  memory.  Used   to  assess  impairments  with  particular  regions  of  the  brain   10.  What  are  the  key  features  of  Generalized  Anxiety  Disorder,  Panic  Disorder,  and  Specific  Phobias?   Focus  on  the  similarities  and   differences  between  each  disorder  (note:  You  do  not  need  to  know  each  of   the  specific  phobias  presented  in  lecture.  Those  were  just  examples)   Generalized  Anxiety  Disorder:   Constant  free-­‐floating  tension  &  ANS  (sympathetic  autonomous  nervous   system)  arousal-­‐  higher  HR,  pupils  dilate,  lasts  hours  over  days.  Free -­‐floating  means  anxiety  comes   about  for  no  reason,  no  trigger.     Panic  Disorder:  Sudden  increase  ANS  arousal  and  fear.  Feel  like  heart  will   explode,  very  fatiguing.  Higher   in  intensity  than  GAD,  but  doesn’t  last  as  long.  (5-­‐15  min).  Also  free-­‐floating,  can  have  a  trigger.   Phobias:    Ex)  fears  of  snakes,  spiders,  heights,  and  enclosed  spaces.  Intense,  irrational  fear  of  specific   objects  or  situations,  not  free -­‐floating,  most  easily  treated  disorder,  ends  when  you  get  away  from   object.     11.  What  is  the  difference  between  an  obsession  and  a  compulsion?  What  is  hoarding  disorder?   Obsession  (distress)=   unwanted,  repetitive  thoughts.  Compulsions  (even  more  distress)  =  repetitive   actions,  consume  time.  Hoarding  is  a  type  of  obsessive  compulsive  disorder   that  is  caused  by  anxiety.   12.What  are  the  key  feature s  of  the  mood  disorders?  How  do  they  differ  from  one  another?  For   depression,  make  sure  you  are  aware  of  the  accompanying  symptoms  in  addition  to  the  pattern  of   mood.  Characterized  by  emotional  extremes,  think  of  mood  as  a  sine  wave  and  deviations  from  it  would   reflect  a  mood  disorder.  Major  depressive  disorder :  most  common,  bad  mood  drops  really  low,   depressive  episodes  last  2  weeks,  it ’s  more  than  just  a  bad  mood.  It  can  be  a ccompanied  by  sleep   disturbances,  loss  of  appetite,  lethargy,  global  negative  self -­‐evaluation,  and  thoughts  about  death  or   suicide.  Dysthymia:  long  lasting  (2  yrs)  of  slightly  negative  mood,  less  extreme  than  a  depressive  episode     13.  What  are  the  positive  and  negative  symptoms  of  Schizophrenia?     Positive  symptoms  are  additional  things  other  average  people   don’t  experience  such  as   delusions/paranoia,  disturbed  perceptions/hallucinations  (usually  auditory  or  olfactory  rarely  visual),   disorganized  behavior  (odd  and  eccentric),  “word  salad”  their  sentences  don’t  make  sense.   Negative  symptoms  are  things  that  re gular  people  experience  and  people  with  schizophrenia  do  not   such  as  inappropriate  emotions,  lack  of  emotion  (anhedonia),  loss  of  interest  in  daily  activities,  lack  of   response.     Chapter  15  and  Therapy  lecture   14.  Who  receives  therapy?   People  with  psychological  disorders  diagnosed  by  a  licensed   psychologist  who  report  symptoms  and   experience  dysfunction;  People  dealing  with  life  stressors  such  as  a  death  in  the  family,  divorce,   occupational/academic  problems,  and  marriage  therapy ;  someone  hoping  to  improve  their  skills  like   study  or  social  skills  (they  visit  life  coache s).     15.  What  are  the  differences  between  biomedical  approaches  and  psychotherapy?  What  are  some   examples  of  biomedical  and  psychotherapeutic  approaches?   What  are  the  key  features  and  differences   between  the  different  approaches  to  psychother apy  (Psychoanalytic,  Psychodynamic,  Cognitive,  and   Behavioral  therapies)?  What  techniques  does  each  specific  psychotherapy  employ?     Biomedical  therapies  (ex:  psychopharmacology),  Psychotherapy  (talk  therapy,  based  off  the   psychologist’s  theoretical  perspective),  psychodynamic  therapy,  client -­‐centered  therapy.  Drug  Therapy:   1950s  the  chemical  lobotomy  “Thorazine”  was  a  psychotropic  medication  and  like  other  drugs  it  acted  to   change  brain  neurochemistry  which  lead  to  deinstitutionalization.  Major  types  (have  fewer  side  effects   than  Thorazine):  (Side  note:  Psychopharmaceutical  drugs  target  nuerotransmitters )  Anti-­‐anxiety   (tranquilizers  &  beta  blockers)  increase  GABA  and  slow  thinking  ex)  Xanax ,  Antidepressants  increase   dopamine,  norepinephrine,  serotonin  ex)   Wellbutrin  and   SSRIs  like  Prozac,  Antipsychotics  block   dopamine.  Drugs  are  able  to  target  neurotransmitters  that  are  believed  to  cause  disorders,  effective  in   treating  a  variety  of  disorders,  cost  and  ti me  effective.  Psychoanalytic  therapy:  created  by  Freud,  “talk   therapy”  the  first  nonmedical  approach,  based  on  unconscious  drives  leading  to   maladaptive   behaviors/thoughts,  treatment  involves  uncovering  conscious  feelings  and  thoughts  (identify  the  cause   and  resolve  so  that  symptoms  will  go  away),  Use  free/word  association  and  dream  analysis  to  try  and   uncover  feelings.  Psychodynamic  therapy:  a  v ariation  of  psychoanalytic  theory  that  examines  the   patients  needs,  motives,  and  defenses  to  understand  what  causes  distress.  Still  embraces   “talk  therapy”   by  being  conversational,  focuses  on  childhood  events  and  relationships,  practiced  by   using  the  object   relations  theory  and  exploring  your  dreams,  fantasies,  and  day -­‐dreams.  Client-­‐centered  Therapy:   originated  from  humanistic  perspective  &  Carl  Rogers,  created  a  safe  and  accepting  environment  and   had  the  patient  and  psychologist  work  together  having  a  good  relationship .  The  core  features  of  it  were   unconditional  positive  regard  (judgment  free),  Empathy/genuineness,  and  motivational  interviewing.   Cognitive  Therapy:  Distorted  thoughts  lead  to  maladaptive  behaviors  and   emotions;  it  focuses  on   changing  thoughts  through  cognitive  res tructuring.  Behavioral  Therapy:  Behavior  is  learned  and  can  be   unlearned  using  classical  and  operant  conditioni ng  (Reward/Punish  behavior),  counter -­‐ conditioning/extinction.  They  may  have  to  teach  a  behavior  (ex:  soc ial  skills)  by  the  therapist  modeling   appropriate  social  behavior  and  through  role -­‐play.  Exposure  Therapy/Systematic  Desensitization  (used   to  treat  phobias)  Step  1:  make  a  fear  hierarchy  by  showing  the  patients  things   associated  with  their  fear.   Ex)  someone  with  a  fear  of  spiders:  a  spider  on  their  shoulder  would  be  a  100,  a  spider  on  the  table  in   front  of  them  could  be  an  80,  a  picture  of  a  spider  could  be  a  15,  etc.  Step  2:  expose  them  to  a  low   anxiety  situation  where  they  remain  calm  while  being  exposed  to  some  sort  of  stimulus  dealing  with   their  fear.  Step  3:  work  through  higher  anxiety  situations  until  the  patient  eventually  becomes   comfortable  enough  to  deal  with  their  fear .  Cognitive  Behavioral  Therapy:  corrects  distorted  thoughts   while  also  teaching  new  behaviors,   very  effective.     16.  What  is  cognitive  restructuring?   Correcting  distorted  thoughts   17.  What  are  the  strengths  and  weaknesses  as  well  as  controversies  surrounding  the  different   biomedical  therapies?   Electroconvulsive  Therapy  (ECT) : Works  for  severe  major  depressive  disorder ,  Used  as  a  punishment   during  the  ’50s  in  mental  institutions ,  negative  consequences   The  lobotomy  was  cutting  the  skull  open  and  severing  the  connections  between  the  prefrontal  cortex   and  other  sections  to  reduce  psychotic  symptoms . Some  side  effects  were  blunting  of  personalit y,   convulsive  seizures,  irresponsibility,  childishness,  and  incontinence .   18.  How  do  we  evaluate  therapies?  client  &  clinical  perceptions,  clients  could  drop  out  if  it  is  ineffective,   regression  to  the  mean  (peoples’  emotions  fluctuate  naturally  and  only  see  a  doctor  when  they’re   getting  out  of  hand  so  naturally  over  time  they  will  get  better  and  stop  going  ex:  cyclical  depression),   patient  motivation  is  important  (so  is  motivational  interviewing).   19.  What  is  an  Iatrogenic  treatment?  Be  careful:  some  therapies  work  and  others  are  benign  (doesn’t   help  nor  hurt)  and  others  a  harmful.  H armful  &  benign  therapy  is  iatrogenic .  Ex)  lilienfeld  ’07  and   repressed  memory  theory,  scared  straight  program,  and  the  DARE  program.     20.  What  are  the  different  routes  that  you  can  take  to  practice  therapy?  How  do  each  of  th ese  routes   differ  in  terms  of  how  the  therapist  will  approach  treatment  of  mental  health  disorders?   Treat  mental  health  issu es  with  biomedical  treatments   -­‐MD  psychiatry  or  Psychiatric  nurse  practitioner   Treat  with  psychotherapy   -­‐PhD/Psy.  D  in  clinical  psychology.  (Psy.  D  is  treatment  oriented  instead  of  research  oriented)  (deals  with   mild  disorders)   -­‐MSW/PhD  in  counseling  psych  (d eals  with  slight  stress)   Couples  counseling/  Parent  training   -­‐Marriage  &  family  therapist   -­‐Applied  behavior  analysis  (ABA)     Chapter  12  and  Social  Psychology  Lectures   21.  What  is  the  difference  between  a  dispositional/internal  attribution  and  a  situational/external   attribution?  Dispositional/internal  attribution  is  a  behavior  due  to  internal  reasons,  unique  to  the   individual.  Situational/external  attribution  is  a  behavior  due  to  external  factors,  a  product  of  the   situation  they’re  in.   22.  What  is  the  Fundamental  Attribution  Error  (FAE)?  What  is  the  Self -­‐Serving  Bias  (SSB)?     The  Fundamental  Attribution  Error  is  the  tendency  of  humans  to  attribute  strangers’  negative  behavior   to  their  personality  and  underestimate  situational  influences.  the  Self-­‐Serving  Bias  is  blaming  other  for   your  problems  but  praising  yourself  for  succeeding,  it  just  makes  your  life  easier.   23.  What  is  the  difference  between  acceptance  and  compliance?  What  is  the  difference  between   normative  and  informational  social  influence?  What  do  these  concepts  have  to  do   with  one  another?   Compliance  is  saying  yes  even  when  you   don’t  want  to  n  order  to  make  your  relationships  bett er  (ex:   you  want  dessert  but  your  friends  want  to  leave  so  you   don’t  get  dessert)  and  is  a  result  of  Normative   social  influence.  Informational  social  influence:  evidence  about  reality  that  we  receive  from  others,   results  in  acceptance.   24.  How  does  informational  social  influence  affect  helping  behavior?  What  do  we  mean  by  pluralistic   ignorance?  If  others  are  around  you  and  are  not  helping  out,  you  are  more  likely  to  not  help  out.   Pluralistic  ignorance  is  when  a  group  of  people  are  ignoring  someone  in  need  of  help.   25.  What  do  we  mean  by  diffusion  of  responsibility?   The  more  people  present  makes  you  feel  less  responsible  to  deal  with  someone  who  i s  ie:  drowning   because  if  they  drowned  you   wouldn’t  be  the  only  one  responsible.   26.  What  is  an  attitude?  How  do  social  psychologists  measure  them?  How  do  we  form  attit udes?   An  attitude  is  how  you  feel  about  something.  Psychologists  measure  them  by  the  mere  exposure  effect,   foot  in  the  door  theory,  and  low-­‐ball  effect.  We  form  attitudes   through  socialization  and  conditioning.   27.  How  does  behavior  influence  attitudes?   What  do  we  mean  by  cognitive  dissonance?  How  do  people   reduce  dissonance?  You  want  to  have  consistent  behavior,  if  you   don’t  it  makes  you  uncomfortable  and   you  need  to  create  a  reason  why  this  varied  behavior   is  ok  in  order  to  adjust  your  attitude  (cognitive   dissonance  is  the  uncomfortable  feeling  when  you   don’t  have  consistent  behavior).    


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