COM 202 Midterm Study Guide
COM 202 Midterm Study Guide COM 202A
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This 48 page Study Guide was uploaded by Taylor McAvoy on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COM 202A at University of Washington taught by Malcolm Parks in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 338 views. For similar materials see Intro to Communications II in Communication Studies at University of Washington.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Communications 202 Midterm Study Guide Weeks 1-2 Key Terms Source- The sender of a certain message who encodes the message. EX: Writer, TV producer, Advertising company Message- What the source encodes to the receiver. EX: Advertisement, public service announcement, conversation with your friend- what you want to tell them (can be intentional or unintentional) Channel- the medium through which the message gets sent and influence how the message is interpreted. EX: TV, radio, internet, app on mobile phone, speaking Receiver- person or group that gets the message and decodes it into meaning. EX: Audience, person you are talking to Feedback- a message the receiver creates in response to the sender’s message- source and receiver become interdependent and each behavior depends on others. EX: response to someone’s comment Noise- Distractions and things that interfere with the message reaching the receiver EX: radio static, loud conversations next to you, feeling of hunger distracting you from lecture Encoding- translating and/or expressing inner thoughts and feelings into observable behavior or words- not automatic and inner thoughts are often imperfectly expressed Decoding- interpreting and assigning meaning to the messages. Meanings are in people not in messages Selective exposure- the types of information and sources for information you seek rather than others EX: types of TV shows, music, people Selective attention- what we choose to think about deeper- can’t give equal attention to every bit of information- Things that guide our attention: 1. Potential threat or danger 2. Comforting familiar things 3. Vividness and novelty Selective perception- organize stimuli into patterns and interpret them by relating them to past experiences and expectations Selective memory- we forget most of what we say and do and memory is constantly reconstructed Transactive memory- social memory, how we use other people to remember things for us EX: asking a friend to remind you to do your laundry Transactive encoding- asking others to remember something for you- other people become external storage Transactive retrieval- thinking about who in a group is the most likely to have remembered something you forgot Co-constructed memory- when a group of friends have a shared experience, each pieces together what happened and different version of the story converge Contested memory- when these people in the group don’t agree on what happened EX: Coach Owens System 1- largely automatic and fast level of information processing that has helped us to respond quickly- fast math, assumptions, stereotypes System 2- slower, more effortful, deliberate processing when we really think about something and can over-ride errors of system 1- not automatic Baseline information- simple information we often ignore in quick evaluations EX: the number of farmers in the world is higher than librarians EX: only a bank teller is more common because adding a second criteria narrows the pool Semantic differential scales- a scale from good to bad, weak to strong, or passive to active something rates from 1-7 – how you assign things and people and make judgements Language- A collection of symbols, letters, or words with arbitrary meanings that are governed by rules and used to communicate EX: Words, drawings, carvings, gestures Denotative meaning- The most used, most agreed upon meaning for a word EX: dictionary definitions Connotative meaning- personalized meanings for a word, a meaning that reflects an identity and/or experience. The receiver’s connotative meaning will be different than the sender’s EX: sex- we all have meanings beyond the dictionary definition Temporal & spatial displacement- not in the here and now that creates social coordination, group cohesion, and deception. EX: recalling the past and planning the future Symbol- it represents something else that it does not resemble EX: the word bottle represents a bottle but it does not look like a bottle Referent- what we refer to when we think or say something EX: A girl sees a fluffy white puppy and says “dog.” A boy hears the word “dog” and thinks of the Husky mascot. The girl’s referent is the fluffy white puppy, the boy’s referent is the husky mascot. Semiosis- when we pair a symbol with an inner idea we want that symbol to refer to EX: calling a fluffy white puppy “dog” Sapir-Whorf hypothesis – The language we use determines our perception EX: the eskimos have 100 words for snow and we aren’t able to perceive the differences in snow. If we don’t have the word for it, we can’t perceive it Linguistic determinism- Language determines the way you think and perceive FOXP2 gene- a brain gene associated with language, was thought to mutate 50,000 years ago Regionalisms- different ways to say the same word or communicate the same idea EX: soda, pop, dope, coke, pepsi Dialect- a form of a language that shares much with the standard language but differs in ways more than accent or a few words but in grammar too EX: Appalachian English Technical jargon- specialized language to facilitate discussion on technical issues- makes communication more precise and enhances group cohesion EX: legal, professional, business, sports Slang- informal language used by people who belong to the same group or share and interest Specialized relational talk- similar to jargon but about relationships EX: nick names, insults, words and phrases, inside jokes Key Concepts Lecture 1: 1. According to the opening lecture, what is main thing that the study of communication about? - How we influence each other. No influence, no communication - We influence each other in many ways but words matter the most 2. According to the lecture on models of communication, where can we find meanings? - Meanings are in people and not in messages. - Messages are how we get to meanings but the receiver has to decode and interpret a meaning 3. According to Dr. Parks, what is the most important communication skill? - Anticipating how others are likely to interpret what you say and do and how others might respond to your message 4. Do sources always have to intend to communicate in order for communication to occur? - No, sources can send messages without knowing it – when silence says something to a receiver. The messages can also be decoded in a different way than the source intended and often are EX: someone wears something that they don’t know is distracting their message 5. In the opening class, Dr. Parks pointed out that many children born into poverty experienced a “communication disadvantage.” What was it? - Kids in poverty have less opportunities to talk and develop communication skills than those in wealthier families- parents don’t model and talk and practice communication enough with their children 6. According to the first lecture, what kinds of talk are especially important for helping very young children develop language and social skills? - Modeling interaction before the child begins to speak - once the child talks, waiting for and responding to what the child says- engaging with and responding is key 7. According to the first lecture, what are the effects of expressing affection (kissing) more often? - More satisfied in relationships, less stress, lowered levels of cholesterol Lecture 2: 1. Perception involves a number of highly selective activities. Are we usually aware of these processes as they are occurring? - Not unless we stop to think about them 2. What is the reinforcement principle? How does it affect the way we process messages? - We seek information that agrees with our current views and avoid information that disagrees with them EX: if you dislike opera, you are likely to make decisions leading away from further discovery in the genre - This affects our selective attentions, exposure, perception and memory by making those things we select more familiar and easy for us to pay attention to, expose ourselves to, perceive, and remember 3. What are three principles guiding what we pay attention to? - Potential danger or threat- physical or social - Things that are comforting and familiar- instant gratification - Vividness and novelty, out of the ordinary 4. Be able to distinguish between selective exposure, selective attention, selective perception, and selective memory. - Selective exposure (what you seek) You choose some types of information and sources for information rather than others EX: Types of TV shows - Types of music- Types of people you avoid and seek- places you avoid and seek - Selective attention (what you dwell on) A 2009 study by Roger Bohn and James Short at the University of California in San Diego The average American consumes about 34 Gigs or about 100,500 words per day from media alone Leaves out conversations with other people and face-to-face interactions- lectures - Selective perception (organizing and interpreting perceptions) Once you orient to something, you next have to make sense of it and we do that through selective perception by: 1. Organizing the stimuli into patterns 2. Interpreting them by relating them to past experiences and expectations All perception is influenced by the context Examples of selective perception Poor sales of early bread making machines that got better after a more expensive model was introduced The more expensive model made the other models seem not as expensive and sales shot up Restaurants do the same things with menu items Putting high priced items on the menu to provide a context for other items - Selective memory We forget most of what we say and do, what happens We do a better job at remembering things that reinforce our previous perceptions that were particularly striking EX: something really mean someone said Memory is not fixed- It is like a book being revised by each new experience The memory of today will change over time Especially with social relations- like a book re-written with each new experience EX: Breakup- After time and a new relationship, you re-evaluate past perceptions of that person Police do about 75000 eye witness identifications every year- New York Times 2011 But eyewitnesses are often wrong a. About 1/3 are incorrect b. In one study of 40 cases in which convictions were overturned by later DNA evidence, 90% of involved mistaken eyewitness identification 5. How much information does the average American consume from media each day? - 34 Gigs or 100,500 words per day from media alone 6. Once we put something into memory, does it ever change? - Yes, memory is never constant and always being reconstructed to tell a better story 7. What do errors in eyewitness identification of crimes tell us about how accurate our memories are? How often are eyewitnesses wrong? - Our memories are often not very accurate even if we are fairly certain - Eye witnesses are about 1/3 incorrect 8. How does the fact that so much information is available via computer change the way we go about remembering things? - We are often less likely to remember something if we are told or if we think it can be found online - We put things in computer and phone planners and rely on them to remind us of appointments - Taking notes on a computer is not as effective in remembering material as writing them by hand 9. What would Plato say about our use of books and computers to remember things for us? - Plato would be outraged! He thinks that even writing things down and placing internal memory onto an external source diminishes our ability and strength in remembering Lecture 3: 1. What are positive steps you can take to overcome the biases of your tendency to think with “System 1”? - You can use mental reminders - Think about baseline information - Slow down and do the math - Think about the exceptions to your stereotypes 2. When you are trying to persuade others, what is the key question you should ask to determine if they are going to be responding with “System 1” or “System 2”? - Is my listener motivated to process my message in depth? 3. What should you do to be effective when trying to persuade people who are likely to respond with “System 1”? How about “System 2”? - If the listener is NOT motivated to process your message in depth, they are using system 1. You can: Portray yourself as an expert Focus on being attractive Phrase your message in terms of stereotypes and mental shortcuts Appeal to listener's emotions Make it easy for other's to respond the way you wish EX: Magazine renewal form "3 years (18 issues) $36.00- Best Deal!" Takes advantage of system 1 Bold letters, top of the list - If the listener IS motivated to process your message in depth, they are using system 2. You can: Help the listener by eliminating disractions Prompt listener to bring in prior knowledge Use logical arguments supported by evidence This is used in public speaking and debate- classic persuasion 4. In class, we explored our meanings for words such as “love” and “football.” What were the four ideas illustrated by these examples? - Each word, each perception instantaneously triggers a set of associations in the brain (system 1) It happens rapidly We have little conscious control over it - These associations don’t reveal inner secrets, but they do show the other words and ideas that are most easily available to you once you think of the first word or idea - No two people will have exactly the same set of associations (though there may be some overlaps) Overlaps are more common when people have closer longer relationships Overlaps are common among people who share the same culture and same pattern of media consumption - The associations you have for a particular word or idea are part of your meaning for it 5. No two people will have exactly the same meanings for a word, but some pairs have more meanings in common than others. What makes these “overlaps” more common? - Overlaps are more common when people have closer longer relationships with each other - Overlaps are more common among people who share the same culture and media consumption 6. What are the three basic dimensions of affective meaning? - Whenever you encounter a word, person, or object you assign meaning along three dimensions: Evaluative: good ←→ bad Potency: strong ←→ weak Activity: active ←→ passive 7. What kinds of product names are most memorable for people? - Sounds that require the speaker to open the mouth wider ex: Omega - Names that have a “plosive” sound ex: Prozac, puma, fiesta - Bestselling trucks: Ford F-Series, Dodge Ram, Toyota Tacoma 8. How do advertisers and others take advantage of our positive and negative associations to persuade us? - They use positive associations to distract customers from facts that would make the product look bad if they thought about it - EX: Coke introduces "handheld" new size of coke in 2011 - Aimed at convenience store market - Claims they were sensitive to hard economic times - If you think about it, the name doesn’t make sense - Consider price: 12.5 oz for 89 cents when 16 oz goes for 99 cents - New 12.5 oz bottle is 7.1 cents per oz but the 16 oz bottle is 6.2 cents per oz. that's a 15% price increase Lecture 4: 1. What are the essential characteristics of language? - Language is symbolic- it refers to or represents something else that it does not resemble Ex: the word bottle doesn't look like a bottle- words are symbols that stand for something else - Humans share a universal grammar that enables language acquisition among the very young- babies come hardwired to learn language Still helps language grow if it is encouraged, modeled, and practiced - Language allows the generation of an infinite variety of messages within a rule-governed system (grammar)- no limit to correct sentences - Language lets us communication about things not in the here and now: (temporal and spatial displacement) This creates: a. Social coordination- ability to work together in complex ways b. Group cohesion- feel a part of a group c. Deception- its not a language if you cant use it to tell a lie - create false reality Ex: recalling the past, planning the future - Language works in conjunction with nonverbal codes to facilitate multi-faceted, even self- contradictory messages a. Irony b. Strategic ambiguity/ equivocation c. Conflicted messages 2. Be able to define and recognize examples of these four levels of language: phonetic, semantic, syntactic, pragmatic - Phonetic- the sounds of language- every language has a distinct set of sounds - Semantic- words and word meanings - Pairing two things: inner meanings and arbitrary symbols - We pair a symbol with some inner idea we want it to refer to - EX: For her "dog" is the symbol and that actual fuzzy white puppy- the referent- the thing she refers to- puppy - For him, he may think of "dog" as "dawg" and think of the husky mascot- the referent- the thing he refers to - husky - Syntactic a. Grammar: set of rules and patterns for forming words into larger thought units like phrases and sentences Learning to diagram sentence structures will make you a better writer and thinker b. Word order matters "I am going tomorrow" vs "Am I going tomorrow?" Same words different order and different meaning - Pragmatic- refers to the way our use of language is affected by the social situation we are in - Grammar is about more than the order of words - It is more about the relationships among speaker, listener, objects, and actions- Grammar connects them all 3. Approximately how long ago did humans acquire language? - 50,000 years 4. What are two factors that may have helped humans to develop language? - Growing social and cultural complexity of interactions, relationships, and growing societies - FOXP2 gene associated with language centers in the brain started to mutate 5. What are three major functions of language? - A tool for influencing others - A tool for social bonding - Shapes the way we think and remember through words 6. Language allows us to communicate about events and things outside of the “here and now.” This helps create three very important things. What are they? - Social coordination- the ability to work together in complex ways like building a bridge - Group cohesion- feeling of belonging in a group - Deception- telling lies, creating false realities 7. What are two specific functions that jargon and technical language serve? - Makes communication more precise - Enhances group cohesion- sense of belonging to a group when you use the same jargon 8. What are the major factors that cause languages to change over time? (Hint: migration is one, what are the others?) - Migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, travel, communication- as the world becomes more inter-connected, language becomes more shared 9. According to lecture which of the world’s language families has the most speakers? What single language is spoken by the most people? - The Indo-European family has the most speakers with 3 billion - but Mandarin Chinese is the single language with the most speakers at 1.2 billion 10. What is the difference between a dialect and a language? What role does power play in distinguishing the two? - What’s the difference Not just having different words or pronunciation No clear line between dialect and language Calling something a dialect is about politics and culture as much as language - "He been done work" vs "he finished work earlier" - People who view "Black English" as poor English make a political judgement Comes down to power Linguist Max Weinreich (1945) "A language is a dialect with an army and a navy" Language ↓ Family ↓ Dialect 11. What level of language changes to fastest? Slowest? - Dialect changes the quickest based on region and groups of people, then families and then the language itself. EX: French and Italian eventually deviated enough from Latin to become their own languages 12. How many languages are spoken in the world and what proportion of them are in danger of going extinct? - Between 6,000 and 7,000 languages are spoken and roughly half of them are in danger of going extinct Week 3 Key Terms Culture- A unique combination of rituals, religious beliefs, ways of behaving that unify a group of people Co-culture- A group that exists within a larger, dominant culture but differs from it in one or more significant ways (replaces “subculture” because of negative connotations) Social identity theory- Surface factors count and small differences can matter a lot. We use standard approaches to communication and focus on visible things to instantly classify in-group and out-group members. This triggers differences in the way we feel about and interact with people. In-group vs. out-group- A group of people who are similar to us vs different Individualism-people see themselves as independent, favor personal goals and values over group goals and values. They think that it is right to follow personal beliefs and to leave groups if they have differences. They value directness and clarity Collectivism- People see their identities in terms of the group, prioritize relationships over individual goals, and emphasize loyalty to group over personal desires, and follow group norms and rules. They value indirectness if it preserves "face" for the group Vertical cultures- emphasize power differences, hierarchy, acceptance of inequalities between individuals and groups, loyalty to one's own group Horizontal cultures- seek to minimize power differences, reduce hierarchy, inequalities not seen as fixed, emphasize equality between people Shibboleth-A word whose pronunciation identifies the speaker as being a member or not a member of a particular group EX: Haiti- French/ Creole Dominican republic- Spanish October 1937- The Dominican Republic president Rafael Trujillo wanted to get rid of people of Haitian decent who lived along the border so he ordered his soldiers to hold up a spring of parsley and ask what it was. They assumed that the people who could not pronounce the word correctly were Haitian. Those who failed were killed. 20,000 people were killed during a five day period. Anything can function as a shibboleth- pitch, pace of speech, even dress can mark a cultural group Ambient communication- Atmospheric and just there. Ambient communication are those things that we take for granted. EX: culture as ambient communication. Cultural assumptions form a basis for ways of convincing people, and for evaluating what they say and who they are. Culture is a tool kit for creating shared meanings Kinesics- Body movement and facial expression. A. Affect displays (affect = emotion) • Displays of emotion on the face, but may involve other parts of the body as well • We are capable of thousands of expressions but Six most recognizable are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness • Seem to be universal, Panhuman= displayed the same across cultures • Some cultures value open display of emotion and others do not • Basic six expressions are shared in all cultures but some triggers are different • May also involve body changes like blushing or stomping feet B. Emblems • Gestures that have more or less standardized meanings and can substitute for words C. Illustrators • Gestures that go along with and reinforce verbal messages • Not standardized and cannot stand alone • Always go with speech • We use illustrators even when the person we're speaking to can't see us- cell phones D. Adaptors • Nonverbal movements involving touching one's own body • Thought to be related to anxiety of attention to some other inner state E. Regulators • Nonverbal movements that control the pace or direction of interaction • May include gestures, facial expressions, body orientation, tone of voice • People use them to signal it is their turn to talk, they do not want to be interrupted, they want to leave or come closer-- turn taking cues Examples • Dance is the ultimate form of regulation- cues from partner • Basketball- the no look pass • The too small dorm room or kitchen- learn other person's cues Chronemics- The organization and use of time for communication • Includes our expectations for how time should be organized- one activity at a time (monochromic) vs multi-tasking with several activities at once (polychromic) EX: texting when we should be talking Includes rules and expectations about: • How events should be sequenced (can you just ask someone out or should you text first?) • How long events should last (How long do you have to stay at the family dinner table after you've finished before you can leave?) • How quickly something should happen (how long can you delay responding to a text or voice message?) Paralanguage / paralinguistic codes- vocal but nonverbal • Includes pitch, rate, inflection, volume, pronunciation, silence • We often judge people according to slow/fast, loud/soft, • Influences our attention • Judgements of intimacy, power • Can be sounds alone (cries, lauging) but usually accompany speech Proxemics- The use of space and distance to send messages • Humans are territorial and mark defined space • We judge status based on how much space someone controls- ex: office vs cubicle • Space when we talk to people is different based on our relationships with them- public, social, personal and intimate space • These distances when speaking to people are culturally influenced • Affects comfort and relationship • Proxemic codes are very sensitive to individual, gender, and cultural differences Tactile communication-communicating using touch a. The first communication code we learn b. Touch from caregivers is essential for babies and infants to thrive c. Touch is important both in rituals and in expressing support and affection d. Large cultural and gender differences in the use of touch • Women touch and are touched more often • Women touch men more than men touch women • Large cultural difference - (Spanish > U.S. > Japan) e. Touch also conveys power- the more powerful people touch the less powerful people • Being touched inappropriately is also linked to abuse and discrimination Territoriality- Humans are generally territorial and mark our spaces. Goes with proxemics. Personal space- Space when we talk to people is based on our relationships with them. Personal is reserved for people you are close with, not strangers Affect display- (affect = emotion) • Displays of emotion on the face, but may involve other parts of the body as well • We are capable of thousands of expressions but Six most recognizable are happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness • Seem to be universal, Panhuman= displayed the same across cultures • Some cultures value open display of emotion and others do not • Basic six expressions are shared in all cultures but some triggers are different • May also involve body changes like blushing or stomping feet Emblem- Gestures that have more or less standardized meanings and can substitute for words Regulator-Nonverbal movements that control the pace or direction of interaction • May include gestures, facial expressions, body orientation, tone of voice • People use them to signal it is their turn to talk, they do not want to be interrupted, they want to leave or come closer-- turn taking cues Examples • Dance is the ultimate form of regulation- cues from partner • Basketball- the no look pass • The too small dorm room or kitchen- learn other person's cues Adaptor- Nonverbal movements involving touching one's own body • Thought to be related to anxiety of attention to some other inner state Illustrator- Gestures that go along with and reinforce verbal messages • Not standardized and cannot stand alone • Always go with speech • We use illustrators even when the person we're speaking to can't see us- cell phones Vocal cues / Paralanguage Turn-taking cues- Part of regulators- body signals and movements, and facial expressions to dictate who’s turn it is to talk. EX: moving mouth before speaking to indicate you want to jump in a conversation or eye brow flashes to do the same Monochromic- One activity at a time Polychromic- multiple activities at a time (multitasking) Objects & Artifacts as codes a. Personal artifacts • Hair styles, jewelry, body art, piercing, clothing • Objects that are associated with us as individuals b. Shared artifacts • Things we use with others • Houses, offices, cars a. Public artifacts • Architecture, urban design, and things typical of place or culture • Ex: Seattle is associated with Pike's Place Market Key Concepts Lecture 5: Culture & Communication 1. Prof. Parks said that culture was becoming both less important and more important at the same time. How could that be? Because we are having more and more diverse interactions and intercultural experiences 2. What are two factors that create cultural fragmentation and mixing? Cultures and Co-Cultures mix and influence each other as never before in history Fueled by migration, isolation, invasion, colonization, travel, and communication 3. Explain the idea that “culture is the stuff everybody takes for granted” Culture is ambient and is often in the background of our lives It is information that you hear many times and in many places It is information that you assume everybody knows The paradox is that you are not aware of what you take for granted so the most important things to explain to someone from a different culture are the hardest to explain because we take them for granted 4. Why do “surface factors” sometimes make a big difference in intercultural communication? Social identity theory- surface factors count because we use them to instantly classify in-group and out- group members which triggers differences in the way we feel and interact with people Example: Jay-Z calls out Charlie Rose on his show in Dec 2010 in his mispronunciation of Tupac 5. In class we said that differences between cultures were often difficult to talk about. What was that? Differences that are the hardest to talk about are the ones we take for granted and are often just there in the background. EX: a handshake is completely normal and polite in the US but it would be extremely inappropriate for a man not of her family to shake a woman’s hand in Pakistan 6. What was Prof. Parks’ advice for improving communication with someone from another culture? How can we improve communication between cultures 1. Understand our own attitudes and prejudices- avoid ethnocentrisms 2. Don’t stereotype 3. Be sensitive 4. Value diversity What works 1. Positive attitude: curiosity and sense of humor, managing one's own anxiety 2. Actively seek and give descriptive feedback- what you mean- ask questions 3. Pay particular attention to non-verbal expressions 4. Ask for help when needed 5. Focus on shared tasks- on what each person is trying to accomplish- build on shared ways of doing things • Don’t need understanding of other's culture to work together • Do understand how each approaches a task 6. Find preferred codes- writing may be better than speaking sometimes 7. Most important: focus on the individual not the culture Communication with another person from another culture is just like communication with someone from your own culture only more so 7. Be able to give examples of highly individualistic and collectivist cultures. Individualistic- North America, Europe, Australia Collectivistic- South America, Russia, Asia This model doesn't sort out nice patters in people because most people fall somewhere in the middle between individualism and collectivism Individualism- people see themselves as independent, favor personal goals and values over group goals and values. They think that it is right to follow personal beliefs and to leave groups if they have differences. They value directness and clarity Collectivism- People see their identities in terms of the group, prioritize relationships over individual goals, emphasize loyalty to group over personal desires, and follow group norms and rules. They value indirectness if it preserves "face" for the group. Vertical cultures- emphasize power differences, hierarchy, acceptance of inequalities between individuals and groups, loyalty to one's own group Horizontal cultures- seek to minimize power differences, reduce hierarchy, inequalities not seen as fixed, emphasize equality between people 8. Be able to explain this sentence: “Culture is a toolkit for creating shared meanings.” Cultural assumptions form a basis for ways of convincing people and for evaluating what they say and who they are- using culture as a toolkit means better understanding of how our own culture works and the idea that others may be different from ours. Culture is a group’s way of shortcutting communication. Kind of like an inside joke, we understand a shared meaning that others do not. 9. What is the “paradox of intercultural communication”? The paradox is that the most important things we may have to tell someone from another culture about our culture is the hardest to talk about because it is ambient. There are certain parts of our culture that are assumed like shaking someone’s hand. Lecture 6: Nonverbal Communication 1. What are the six basic displays of emotion on the face? Happiness, surprise, fear, disgust, anger, and sadness 2. What nonverbal code is processed in the same area of the brain as language? Affect displays 3. Chronemic codes are based on rules and expectations about three things. What are they? Chronemics- The organization and use of time for communication • Includes our expectations for how time should be organized- one activity at a time (monochromic) vs multi-tasking with several activities at once (polychromic) EX: texting when we should be talking 4. What is the first communication code humans learn? Tactile communication 5. How does the use of touch differ according to differences in gender, power, and culture? Tactile communication- communicating using touch a. The first communication code we learn b. Touch from caregivers is essential for babies and infants to thrive c. Touch is important both in rituals and in expressing support and affection d. Large cultural and gender differences in the use of touch • Women touch and are touched more often • Women touch men more than men touch women • Large cultural difference - (Spanish > U.S. > Japan) e. Touch also conveys power- the more powerful people touch the less powerful people • Being touched inappropriately is also linked to abuse and discrimination Technology and tactile communication • Smartphones that vibrate when you get a text or call • Feedback on video game controllers • Like-a-Hug- demonstration project by Melissa Kit Chow at M.I.T 6. How good are we at spotting others’ lies from their nonverbal communication? Humans are very poor lie detectors and even the machines we make are poor because they detect physiological changes, not intent 7. Are there any nonverbal cues that reliably signal deception? no Week 4 Key Terms Communication code- The types of communication we use like language, nonverbal codes, and specializations Multicoders- Humans are unique in their ability to communication in many different ways, using many different codes at the same time Repeating (codes)- when either code could stand alone, but you use both EX: Saying “three” while holding up three fingers Emphasizing (codes)- When one code makes another more or less intense EX: raising your voice while saying “this is really important” Complementing (codes)- Neither code can stand alone and they make a message together EX: all the elements of an outfit coming together to make a certain look Contradicting (codes)- one code and confuse another EX: saying “I’m not mad” while your voice is still angry Self-concept- All the answers a person gives to the question “who am I?” Self-esteem- The evaluative component of self-concepts- how we judge ourselves Assimilation effect- ignoring the small differences between message and our self-concept- we tend to think that their idea and our idea of ourselves is close enough and tend to blend the two ideas together- however this occurs in a small range Contrast effect- treating larger differences as if they were even bigger than they actually are • We do this most of the time • When we think a message challenges how we see ourselves we interpret it in ways that discount and ultimately reject the message • By challenging source's motives • By challenging source's expertise • By saying the circumstances are unusual • By simply ignoring or forgetting Upward social comparison- look more often at people who appear to be doing better than you Downward social comparison-look more often at people who appear to be doing worse than you Symbolic Annihilation- people who to an extent were not represented in the media so these groups were annihilated from representation Key Concepts Lecture 7 - Ambiguity, Clarity, & Complex messages / Myth of Body Language 1. Be able to describe and identify examples of each of the four ways that communication codes can fit together. Four basic ways that codes can be related 1. One code can repeat or duplicate another- either code could stand alone • EX: holding up 3 fingers while saying "three" • EX: shaking your head while saying "no" 2. One code can emphasize another (make more or less intense) • EX: raising your voice while saying "this is really important" • EX: Looking angry while saying something critical about another person • Look for a nonverbal to gage the importance of a verbal code 3. One code can complement another- neither can stand alone, need both to interpret the message • EX: all the pieces of an outfit come together to form a look • EX: how the elements of a room design come together to create a certain atmosphere or aesthetic 4. One code can contradict another • EX: Saying "I'm not mad" in a still angry voice • EX: looking at watch while telling the other person that you want to hear what they have to say • EX: wearing casual, soiled clothing while speaking a professional way to a group • Messages can be undermined by clothing choices that don’t fit the context 2. What makes a message ambiguous? Be able to identify examples of each way that a message can become ambiguous. Four ways a message can become ambiguous 1. Content is contradicting or difficult to interpret • EX: when someone asks you about your relationship and you don’t quite want to answer but also don’t want to be rude -- "we're fine" "its going along" 2. Ambiguous if it is not clear that the opinion being expressed are those of the speaker • EX: same scenario "most people say we're doing well" • Shifted the source away from the speaker 3. Create uncertainty about whether your message is intended for the listener • EX: Give a verbal response but also avoid eye contact or make it unclear that the response was really directed at the person asking the question 4. Give an indirect answer or one that changes the topic • EX: "well, we're going to Becky's party on Saturday" 3. Clarity is generally good, but in what situations could ambiguity actually be helpful? Five reasons people often choose to be ambiguous 1. Politeness- you don’t want to lie but being completely honest would hurt someone's feelings and being silent would be rude so you have to say something • EX: ugly sweater gift -- "So Sweet!" "You shouldn't have" 2. Self-protection- you don’t want to lie but being completely honest would lead to criticism or punishment • EX: did you mail the bills "I've got it" 3. Maintaining privacy- an open response would violate privacy of an individual or relationship • EX: not ready to tell specifics of a relationship 4. Your feelings are still unsettled- trying to be too clear forces you to make decisions before you are ready to • EX: initial feelings about a person may be strong but very changeable over time • When you don’t know how to feel about the subject yourself 5. Managing receivers with conflicting expectations • EX: Letting different people read into a meaning how they want to • EX: politicians do this to appeal to a more diverse audience 4. In what ways do nonverbal codes differ from verbal codes (language) ? Four differences between language and nonverbal codes 1. Language is more standardized • Education- dictionary- slang 2. Language has inner structure • Grammar and words that nonverbal codes do not have 3. We usually exert more conscious control over words than nonverbal codes 4. Very few nonverbal expression can be simply translated into words- exception: emblems 5. What is the problem with thinking about nonverbal communication as “body language”? Sometimes trying to follow "body language" does not add anything new It recycles and re-packages obvious information Body language that signals deception doesn’t work and believing in it makes the person easier to lie to By focusing on a single interpretation, body language book encourage you to a. Assign meaning where the source may not have had any meaning b. Assign one specific meaning when there were many other interpretations possible This limits you as a communicator EX: the shoe fondle in the definitive book of body language Thinking about nonverbal codes like language can get you into trouble 6. What were Prof. Parks’ “keys to understanding nonverbal codes”? Four real keys to understanding nonverbal codes 1. Think about how they all fit together- focus on pattern- how the small things form something bigger 2. Think about how they fit within language- is it repeating? Emphasizing? 3. Recognize that nonverbal codes do not always have to "mean" something 4. Remember the context Lecture 8: Self-Concepts and Communication 1. We have many self-concepts. Are they all equally important? No, the one’s that come most quickly to mind tend to be the most important to us 2. Be able to recognize examples of how people express different self-concepts, or aspects of themselves, in different situations. Different situations bring out different self-concepts Examples: • family vs friends • Online vs face-to-face • Same person at different times • Especially online when it is anonymous Some self-concepts are more important to us than others 3. What’s the difference between a direct message and an indirect or implicit message? 1. Shapes how we see others' messages a. Direct messages from others • What other communicate directly to us • Grades, awards, other kinds of behavior directed at us as feedback • Nonverbal or verbal • Markers of success or failure or standing b. Indirect, implicit messages • What we imagine others think of us based on how they act • What we infer based on how they respond to us • EX: that person that never seems to have time to talk may seem like they are avoiding you 4. How does the reinforcement principle help explain why self-concepts are so hard to change? Reinforcement principle- we prefer to associate with people who will accept us- that is who will reinforce our self-concepts We generally select other and interpret messages to reinforce our existing views Doesn’t matter if your self-image is positive or negative This explains why self-concepts are so hard to change How do self-concepts change? 1. Small increments (small steps, takes time) 2. Large number of messages (same message frequently) 3. Variety of sources- especially those who support new self-image (changing self-concept may mean change in social networks) 4. Conscious effort to override our own defenses by seeking unbiased assessments and focusing on counter examples 5. When somebody says something that challenges how you see yourself, what are four ways you might mentally discount and ultimately reject the message? • By challenging source's motives • By challenging source's expertise • By saying the circumstances are unusual • By simply ignoring or forgetting 6. What are some of the risks of using social network sites often for social comparison? Example- Facebook for social comparison Social comparison is easy on most social network sites with ever changing updates about others' lives constantly There is so much information that we have to be selective Upward comparison: look more often at people who appear to be doing better than you Downward comparison: look more often at people who appear to be doing worse than you Neutral: little social comparison Research says the more time spent on Facebook is linked to more upward comparison and less downward comparison So how does frequent upward comparison effect self-esteem? Research says the more likely you will feel inferior to others an there is a risk factor for depression How does frequent downward comparison effect self-esteem? Research says there is a temporary increase in self-esteem but long term downward comparison makes you feel defensive/ less secure and there is also a risk factor for depression Research also shows that being in a bad mood leads to more downward comparisons but most comparisons are upward regardless of mood and the negative effects are the greatest for heavy users who use Facebook for social comparison frequently 7. Digital media allow both individuals and advertisers to project strong, positive images. How does this complicate social comparison? Comparison is complicated • By others' tendency to present themselves in positive ways • Images of others are often highly manipulated in the media Comparison is further complicated by differences in cultural representation in the media • What if you rarely see people who you identify with in the media In the 1970s George Gerbner looked at how minority groups were represented on TV and coined the term "Symbolic Annihilation" • Minorities and women were and to an extent, still are greatly under-represented in the media 8. What are three types of symbolic annihilation that one might find in mass media? Be able to recognize examples of each. Comparison is further complicated by differences in cultural representation in the media • What if you rarely see people who you identify with in the media In the 1970s George Gerbner looked at how minority groups were represented on TV and coined the term "Symbolic Annihilation" • Minorities and women were and to an extent, still are greatly under-represented in the media Feminist theorist Gaye Tuchman identified three types of symbolic annihilation 1. Omission- don't see your group represented at all 2. Trivialization- the group is there but represented as unimportant - stereotypes 3. Condemnation- the group is there but represented as bad or evil 9. How do self-concepts influence our choice of friends, people to associate with? Influence who we associate with, choose as friends, get close to In general, we prefer to associate with people who are like us a. A form of selective exposure- seeking contact with people who are similar to us b. We prefer those with similar age, ethnicity, economic position, political beliefs, tastes, interests, etc. This is true across cultures- group members stick together Reinforcement principle- we prefer to associate with people who will accept us- that is who will reinforce our self-concepts We generally select other and interpret messages to reinforce our existing views Doesn’t matter if your self-image is positive or negative This explains why self-concepts are so hard to change How do self-concepts change? 1. Small increments (small steps, takes time) 2. Large number of messages (same message frequently) 3. Variety of sources- especially those who support new self-image (changing self-concept may mean change in social networks) 4. Conscious effort to override our own defenses by seeking unbiased assessments and focusing on counter examples Week 5 Key Terms Relationship- The way we communicate is the relationship rather than the other way around What each person says and does is related to how you think and feel inside Interdependence- how much and in what ways we influence each other in our relationships- the extent to which each person’s behavior depends on what the other person does or says Patterns of interdependence also set expectations in motion- like contracts Explicit contracting: if you do this, I’ll do this Implicit contracting: my roommate goes out every Sunday night to study with her boyfriend so I expect I have the apartment to myself Sunday nights Secret tests: We set up personal tests that the other person is not be aware of • Examples • If he forgets my birthday one more time, it's over between us • Taking a new partner to meet the parents or group of friends Relationships can have too much interdependence Codependence: when both partners are drained by the demands of the relationship • EX: If you live with an alcoholic, you are affected by it in many ways and you learn how to shape your life around them to not anger them, not talk about certain things Depth of interaction- • Expressing feelings and judgements about each other • Sharing more personal information • Becoming sexually intimate • Revealing negative information about ourselves • Being open about habits others may disapprove of The exchange of more personal, subjectively important information and behavior Taking larger risks, putting more resources into play, greater consequences Can be either positive or negative- becoming more intimate or becoming more hurtful Breadth of interaction-range of things in the relationship Three aspects influence this 1. Variety of topics discussed EX: you go a certain barber every so often- you first talk about sports and weather, then start talking about hobbies and jobs, then family and friends There is a big expansion even if they are safe, surface topics 2. Variety of behaviors exchanged, displayed in the relationship- show more aspects of yourself 3. Variety of settings in which the interaction occurs EX: You go to the gym every day at the same time and see a common person, the two of you start talking, one day he asks you out to lunch, there was a shift in the setting A sign that a relationship deteriorates is when you close off certain topics, limit how you behave, limit settings Amount of communication The amount or frequency of communication is important because • More frequent interaction increases interdependence • Significant changes in amount of interaction are seen as relational evolutions - ex: first big talk • More frequent interaction signals continuity in times of crisis • Continuity means that the couple will continue the relationship even if things are hard in the moment • EX: starting to talk again after a fight Predictability/ Understanding - Communication is driven by a desire to manage uncertainty and to achieve some optimal level of understanding Trust and dependability are all about how you manage uncertainty • The feeling that you know how the other person is going to act • The feeling that what they do and say makes sense to you • The feeling that you know how to respond to them Signs of deterioration are not knowing why someone does or says something or that they are unpredictable But wait, don't we also like surprises, new things? Yes but in a particular way We only like good surprises If we think knowing might make us unhappy, we prefer not knowing (uncertainty) - this is the major reason for silence in relationships Code specialization -As relationships develop, people don't just talk about new things, they talk about the same things differently and develop specialized and personalized ways of relating to each other Three ways communication changes as relationships develop • Abbreviation- shortening, leaving things out EX: completing each other's sentences or making specific shortened references like "palm springs '14" Downside: when the relationship is in trouble, it can be harder to communicate • Substitution- nonverbal expressions take the place of words (looks) • Specialization- special nicknames, terms of endearment, code words EX: 4/20 how the term came into being is debated but stoners everywhere know it is the weed holiday Commitment Three aspects of commitment 1. Personal desire to continue the relationship (personal commitment) 2. The belief that the relationship ought to continue (moral commitment) Ex: If you believe that divorce is wrong or to stay together for the kids 3. The belief that it would be difficult to end the relationship (structural commitment) Examples: • Staying with a bad roommate because you have a lease • Barriers getting out of personal relationships - the horror of dividing up property • Prof found public records of divorce and found that people stayed together for a long time before getting a divorce because of the expense and hassle • You want to break up but all your friends are his friends too so it would disrupt your social network Aren't there a lot of cultural and gender differences in relationships? • The dimensions themselves are universal but there are many cultural differences in how these dimensions are expressed Criticism -attacking the other person's personality or character a. Generalizations: "you never" "you always" "you're the kind of person who " b. Demands for explanation: "why are you so…" c. Arguing about how to argue: "I refuse to listen when you use that tone of voice" Criticisms are about the person Complaint- About the behavior and not the person- EX: “I’m upset you forgot to take out the trash” rather than “you never take out the trash” which would be a complaint Defensiveness -seeking to excuse of justify oneself, portraying yourself as the victim, warding off a perceived attack • Making excuses (external circumstances beyond your control forced to act in a certain way) • "It's not my fault" • Cross-complaining: meeting your partner's complaint or criticism with a complaint of your own • "You forgot to take out the trash" "yes but you forgot to make the bed" • We are better at recognizing other's defensiveness than our own • Yes-butting: start off agreeing but end up disagreeing • Undercuts proposals and ends up in a spiral • Whining "that's not fair" • Responding to proposed solutions with counter-proposals Stonewalling -refusal to engage in topic, withdrawing from interaction • Silence • Indirect answers • Very short answers • Changing the subject • Making a subject "off-limits" for discussion • Removing oneself physically Especially damaging when done as punishment Contempt- attacking your partner's sense of self- abusive language and nonverbal behavior that places them beneath you – The most toxic of the harmful messages • Insults and name calling • Sarcasm, mockery, hostile humor • Dismissive nonverbal cues such as sneering, rolling eyes, curling upper lip Arguing about how to argue- setting the terms of the argument with no authority “I refuse to listen to you when you use that tone of voice” Cross-complaining -meeting your partner's complaint or criticism with a complaint of your own • "You forgot to take out the trash" "yes but you forgot to make the bed" Yes-butting- start off agreeing but end up disagreeing • Undercuts proposals and ends up in a spiral Key Concepts Lecture 9 - Connecting with Others: Relationships as Communication 1. Think of examples of how interdependence changes as a relationship develops and deteriorates. One example: John used to consult his girlfriend Tracy before making plans for poker nights with the guys and Tracy used to consult John before her outings with the galls. Their relationship started slowing down and they are slowly losing interest in each other. Now neither John nor Tracy consult each other when they make plans with friends and have arguments about it. 2. How do the expectations created by interaction in relationships sometimes result in “contracts” between relational partners? What forms do they take? Explicit contracting: explicitly stating an ultimatum or agreement EX: “If you cook, I’ll clean up after” Implicit contracting: Making a non-spoke contract based on behavioral habits EX: my roommate goes out every Sunday night to study with her boyfriend so I expect I have the apartment to myself Sunday nights When the contract is broke and the roommate decides tonight is not the night to spend studying with the boyfriend, you are upset because you made plans even though neither of you had talked about it Secret tests: We set up personal tests that the other person is not be aware of Examples If he forgets my birthday one more time, it's over between us Taking a new partner to meet the parents or group of friends- not as secret as surprise 3. In general terms, what is it that happens when the depth of interaction increases? Think of examples but also think about what your examples have in common. When depth of interaction increases we… - Express feelings and judgements about each other - Share more personal information - Become sexually intimate - Reveal negative information about ourselves - Are open about habits others may disapprove of The exchange of more personal and more important behavior is a higher risk and we place more resources into pay with greater consequences As people open up to each other, they get to know each other better and thus are at higher stakes because they know how to hurt each other more 4. We discussed three aspects of the breadth of interaction. What were they? Three aspects influence this 1. Variety of topics discussed EX: you go a certain barber every so often- you first talk about sports and weather, then start talking about hobbies and jobs, then family and friends There is a big expansion even if they are safe, surface topics 2. Variety of behaviors exchanged, displayed in the relationship- show more aspects of yourself 3. Variety of settings in which the interaction occurs EX: You go to the gym every day at the same time and see a common person, the two of you start talking, one day he asks you out to lunch, there was a shift in the setting 5. What are three ways that people can feel committed to maintaining a personal relationship? Three aspects of commitment 1. Personal desire to continue the relationship (personal commitment) 2. The belief that the relationship ought to continue (moral commitment) Ex: If you believe that divorce is wrong or to stay together for the kids 3. The belief that it would be difficult to end the relationship (structural commitment) Examples: Staying with a bad roommate because you have a lease Barriers getting out of personal relationships - the horror of dividing up property Prof found public records of divorce and found that people stayed together for a long time before getting a divorce because of the expense and hassle You want to break up but all your friends are his friends too so it would disrupt your social network 6. What are the differences between weak ties and strong ties? Strong ties bond while weak ties reach Strong ties bring people together and are interconnected Weak ties have few interconnections and reach more diverse people 7. What are two things that our weak ties do for us personally that strong ties cannot do as well? Two personal functions Allows you to compare yourself to a much larger, more diverse set of others- less fortunate, more fortunate, different interests- this enriches the sense of who you are Weak ties can provide support and information we cannot get from our strong ties- support groups, online contacts, local news, and gossip 8. What are two broader social functions of weak ties? Two broader social functions- ways weak ties are good for society Weak ties spread new ideas, products, and services farther, faster than strong ties because there are more of them and they are less interconnected Weak ties promote working together in larger groups and a sense of community- they tie small groups together and allow diverse groups to stay in contact, to empathize and feel more secure Strong ties are too small and gathered to connect a large community 9. We are three ways or three areas in which strong ties affect our lives? Personal relationships are also important in two more ways Personal relationships are big business - we spend on birthdays, mother's day, father's day, more on weddings than 2/3 of the other countries income Personal relationships play a key role in business innovation- we talk to people we are closest to about our new ideas Disordered personal relationships can create costs for taxpayers - kids in school social programs- law enforcement 10. What are the health risks associated with inadequate or disordered relationships? How big are they? Quality of our personal relationships affects our health- positiv
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