PSYC 2012 Final Study Guide
PSYC 2012 Final Study Guide PSYC 2012
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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 2012 at George Washington University taught by Stock, M in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 66 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 Final Exam Date: 05/04/2016 *Note: These include only notes from class lectures and slides. Definitions in class come from class notes and book terms come from online and the book (same definitions).* DEFINITIONS ➔ Acquisition noticing and “taking in” information ➔ Weapons focus effect the presence of a weapon draws attention and impairs a witness’s ability to identify a culprit ➔ OwnRace Bias people are better at identifying members of their own race ➔ Reconstructive Memory the process whereby memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event occurred ➔ Source Monitoring the process whereby people try to identify the source of their memories ➔ Retrieval what people recall at a later time ➔ Instruction Bias wording of instructions to witnesses can drastically affect responses to lineups ➔ Lineup Construction Bias anything that makes the suspect stand out from a lineup biases the lineup against the suspect ➔ Simultaneous lineups pictures are shown at the same time ➔ Sequential lineups pictures are shown one at a time ➔ Proximity (propinquity) the more we see and interact with people, the more likely we are to develop relationships with them ◆ Geographical distance literal distance ◆ Functional distance likelihood to come into contact ➔ Mere Exposure Effect the more exposure we have to a stimulus (e.g., foreign words, faces, music, etc.), the more apt we are to like it ➔ Similarity we like those people who match our interests, personality, backgrounds, attitudes, etc ➔ Reciprocal Liking we tend to like people who like us ➔ Physical Attractiveness we like people who are physically attractive (esp. If they are of the “noncompetition” sex (people we don’t have to compete against for mates)) ➔ Halo Effect what is attractive / beautiful is “good” stereotype ➔ Matching Principle tendency for people to choose partners that match their own level of attractiveness (and other traits) ➔ Comparison Level expected rewards and costs of the relationship ➔ Comparison Level for Alternativ expected rewards and costs for an alternative relationship ➔ Equity Theory people are most satisfied in relationships in which the ratio of rewards to costs is the same for both people ➔ Intimacy feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness ➔ Passion drive towards intense emotions ➔ Eros passionate love ➔ Agape selfless love ➔ Mania possessive love ➔ Pragma logical love ➔ Ludus game playing love ➔ Storge friendship love ➔ Stress negative feelings and beliefs that arise when people feel unable to cope with demands from their environment ➔ Stressors ◆ Distress harmful, threatening ◆ Eustress less harmful, challenging ◆ Acute elatively sudden; shortlived ◆ Chronic ongoing; persistent ➔ FightorFlight Respons responding to a stressor by either attacking it or fleeing from it ◆ Adaptive allows people to respond quickly to threat ◆ Maladaptive disrupts emotional and physiological ➔ Diathesis redisposition to an illness ➔ Perceived Control belief that you can influence your environment in ways that determine if you experience positive or negative outcomes ➔ Disinhibitiomake one less inhibited ➔ Impelling calls attention to benefits of risky behavior (e.g., sexual arousal, attractive person) ➔ Inhibiti calls attention to costs of risky behavior (e.g., STD, pregnancy) ➔ Coping any process by which people try to manage the stress they are experiencing ◆ Problemfocused behavior aimed to directly manage the stressor ◆ Emotionfocused behavior aimed at controlling the emotional response of the stressor ➔ Social Support perception that others are responsive and receptive to one’s needs ◆ Tangible (instrumental) suppdirect assistance ◆ Informational supporadvice or information ◆ Emotional (and esteem) support expression of empathy ➔ Buffering hypothesis social support is most beneficial when we’re under stress ➔ Emotional Inhibition Denial of negative emotions NOTES (compilation of all notes from clas** if something has stars next to it, it’s best to understand it very clearly or pay close attention to it ** Eyewitness Testimony ➢ 3 Stages of Memory ○ Acquisition ○ Storage ○ Retrieval ➢ Lineup Procedures ○ Construction ○ Feedback ○ Improvements based on research ➢ Eyewitness testimony is persuasive ➢ Considered by jurors to be the most influential evidence ➢ The Innocence Project reports 330 cases in which DNA evidence exonerated someone after being convicted of a crime ○ In 72% of these cases, the conviction was based on faulty eyewitness identification ** ➢ How accurate are eyewitnesses? ➢ Memory is based on acquisition, storage and retrieval ○ Error can occur at any of these stages ■ Retrieval (what people recall at a later time): ● “Best guess” problem in lineup identification ● Negative effects of verbalization Eyewitness Effects: Acquisition ➢ Acquisition ➢ What impacts memory at this stage: ○ Poor viewing conditions ○ People see what they expect to see ○ Focus on weapons ○ Ownrace bias ○ Change blindness ○ Cognitive biases ➢ Poor Viewing Conditions ○ The accuracy of eyewitness identification depends on the viewing conditions at the time the crime was committed ○ However, most jurors believe that witnesses can correctly identify the criminal even when viewing conditions are poor ➢ Viewing Conditions ○ Duration ■ Shorter events associated with less accuracy ■ Retrieval: time until recall ○ Visibility ■ Poor lighting and obscured view ■ Disguises ○ Viewing distance ○ Substance use ○ Witnesses are generally unreliable in estimating these things ➢ Weapons focus effect ○ Identification less likely when culprit has a gun, razor blade, or knife ➢ OwnRace Bias ○ More errors when participant / criminal are of different race ○ People usually have less experience with features that characterize individuals of other races ■ Contact hypothesis ■ Individuating versus distinguishing features ○ Also, ownage and owngender biases Eyewitness Effects: Storage ➢ What people store in memory ➢ Memories fade with time ➢ People can have inaccurate recall about what they saw 1. Reconstructive Memory 2. Source Monitoring ○ People can get mixed up about where they heard or saw something ➢ Misleading questions can change people’s minds and make it hard to discriminate between memories for real and suggested events ○ How fast a car was going ○ Whether broken glass was at the scene of the incident ○ The number of demonstrators at an event ○ If the car was in front of a stop or yield sign ➢ Police and lawyer questioning, media reports, and peer conversations, can all impact storage and recall ➢ The Effects of Suggestion on “False” Memories ○ Memory is reconstructive ** ○ Sometimes we “remember” things that never actually happened ■ And for these “false memories” we may be as confident in them as we are with actual memories ■ We are surprisingly unaware of how unreliable our memory can be and overly confident in the accuracy of our memories Eyewitness Effects: Retrieval ➢ Retrieval: what people recall at a later time ➢ Instruction Bias ○ Should indicate to the witness that the criminal may not be in the lineup ➢ Lineup Construction Bias ○ E.g., the foils do not look like the suspect, the foils are dressed differently than the suspect, a different coloring / lighting of the suspect’s photo, etc. ➢ Responding Quickly ○ Confidence isn’ a good predictor of accuracy ** ○ Faster response tend to be more accurate ■ “His face just ‘popped out’ at me” ○ Inaccurate witnesses ■ Use process of elimination ■ Deliberately compare one face to another ■ Select person who most closely resembles the perpetrator relative to the other members of the lineup ➢ Simultaneous v. Sequential Lineups ○ Simultaneous lineups ■ This encourages the witness to make comparison between the pictures (relative judgements) ○ Sequential lineups ■ This does not allow the witness to compare pictures to each other ■ The witness must compare each picture to his/her memory (absolute judgements) ➢ PostIdentification Feedback ○ Research Example (Wells & Bradfield, 1998) ■ Confirming feedback: ● “Good, you identified the actual suspect in the case” ■ Disconfirming feedback: ● “Oh. You identified number ___. The actual suspect was number ___.” Improving Eyewitness Identification ➢ Fillers should resemble description of suspect ➢ Conduct interview at a slow pace with openended questions and no leading statements ○ Neutral investigator ** ➢ Lineup Instructions ○ Told suspect may not be there ➢ Don’t count on witnesses knowing whether their selections were biased ○ Sequential lineup Attraction & Relationships ➢ Who do we find attractive? ○ Proximity, mere exposure, similarity ○ Features ○ Matching people ➢ What makes a satisfying relationship? ○ Social exchange theory ○ Equity theory ○ Love types ○ Evolutionary theory Attraction ➢ People have a strong need to belong and to affiliate with others ➢ What determines attraction? ○ Proximity (propinquity) ■ Geographical distance ■ Functional distance ■ Housing complex study ● Neighbors began as strangers ○ Mere Exposure Effect ■ Ex: The more times people saw a foreign word, the more likely they were to guess that it meant something good ■ Ex: Students liked the woman (a confederate) they had seen in class most often, even though they have never interacted with her ○ Similarity ■ Ex: Roommates who were more similar became better friends over time than dissimilar roommates ■ Ex: People are more likely to marry someone who is similar, rather than dissimilar, to them ■ Opposites do not attract ■ Why does similarity matter? ● We tend to think that people who are similar to us will also like us; so, we are more likely to initiate relationships ● People who are similar validate our own characteristics and beliefs ● We make negative inferences about people who disagree with us ■ What about differences? ● Differences are rewarding ● Core values more important than superficial similarity ○ Reciprocal Liking ■ Ex: People told that others like them reported reciprocal affection ■ Ex: Men liked a woman who showed interest in them even when they knew she was dissimilar to them on important issues ○ Physical Attractiveness ■ Blind Date Study ■ Attractiveness matters for both men and women ● Differences exist but more in what people say than what they do ■ Halo Effect ● Automatically assigning attractive people with favorable traits (e.g., talent, kindness, honesty, intelligence) ■ Babies gaze longer at attractive faces ■ Teachers evaluate “cute” children as smarter and more popular ■ Attractive defendants receive more lenient sentences ■ Crosscultural agreement; however different cultures “improve” beauty in different ways ■ No empirical relationship between attractiveness and intellect, happiness, selfesteem, or mental health ■ What is attractive? ** ● “ Babyface” features: large eyes, small nose and chin, big smile ○ Men find this attractive in women ● Sexual maturity features: prominent cheekbones, large chin (on men only), facial / eyebrow hair (on men only) ○ Both men and women (but especially women) find this attractive ● Expressive features: wide smile, high eyebrows ○ Both men and women (but especially men) find this attractive ● Perfectly average faces are most attractive *** ○ Why? ■ Familiarity ■ Symmetry ● Symmetrical features ● “Average” features Matching Principle ➢ Married couples “match” better than dating couples ➢ When people don’t match on attractiveness, the less attractive partner usually has compensating qualities (like wealth, knowledge, etc) ➢ What do mates match on? ○ Ethnic backgrounds ○ Religion and values ○ Social class ○ Personality (e.g., sensation seeking) ○ Physical attractiveness Relationships ➢ Social Exchange Theory ○ Economic view of relationships ■ Maximize rewards and benefits ● (positive qualities: companionship, partner’s good traits, material resources) ■ Minimize costs ● (negative qualities: conflict, partner’s negative traits, sacrifices) ○ Comparison of rewards and costs determines relationship satisfaction ○ Comparison Level ■ Low = easily satisfied ■ High = not easily satisfied ○ Comparison Level for Alternatives ■ Low = high commitment to current relationship ■ High = low commitment to current relationship ○ Equity Theory ■ Not the same as equity *** ● One partner may get more benefits, but if he/she also makes more contributions, then the relationship can still be equitable ■ Your benefit= Partner′s ben fits Your contributioPartn′rs contributions ■ Inequity makes both people less satisfied ● Underbenefited = angry and resentful ● Overbenefited = guilty ■ However, feeling underbenefited is worse ** Attraction & Relationships ➢ Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg) ○ Intimacy ○ Passion ■ Sexual attraction ■ Intense longing, physiological arousal, heart pounding ○ Commitment ■ ShortTerm: decision to love someone ■ LongTerm: decision to maintain love ➢ Types of Love ○ Liking (intimacy alone) ■ Bondedness, warmth, and closeness ■ friends ○ Infatuation (passion alone) ■ Love at first sight, can be obsessive and great sadness when love is not reciprocated; intense longing for a person coupled with physiological arousal ○ Empty Love (commitment alone) ■ Beginnings of an arranged marriage ■ No emotion or physical relationship ○ Romantic Love (intimacy + passion) ■ Physical attraction and sharing of emotions ■ Not long term ● Like a summer fling ○ Companionate Love (intimacy + commitment) ■ Family relationships; longterm, deep friendships ■ Intimacy, affection, and deep caring, but no passion or arousal ○ Fatuous Love (passion + commitment) ■ Whirlwind courtship and marriage in which commitment is motivated by passion without intimacy ○ Consummate Love (intimacy + passion + commitment) ■ Ultimate, ideal love; combines all components ➢ Love Styles ○ Romantic partners tend to have similar love styles ** ○ Eros ■ Love at first sight ■ Men typically have higher ratings ** ■ Sample Question: My lover and I were attracted to each other immediately after we first met. ○ Agape ■ Putting one’s lover above one’s self ■ Highly correlated with religiosity ** ■ Sample Question: I would rather suffer than let my lover suffer. I would endure all things for the sake of my lover. ○ Mania ■ Feeling of ownership over lover ■ Women typically have higher ratings ** ■ Sample Questions: I cannot relax if I suspect that my lover is with somebody else. When my lover doesn’t pay attention to me, I feel sick all over. ○ Pragma ■ Cognitive appreciation for other’s quality ■ Women typically have higher ratings ** ■ Sample Question: It is best to love somebody with a similar background. ○ Ludus ■ Flirtatious and not committed ■ Men typically have higher ratings ** ■ Sample Question: I have sometimes had to keep my two lovers from finding out about each other. ○ Storge ■ Very close friendship becomes love ■ 66% of subjects in a study rate “high” on this scale ■ Women typically have higher ratings ** ■ Sample Question: Love is really a deep friendship, not a mysterious, mystical emotion. Love: Evolutionary Theory ➢ Both men and women want kids who will survive adulthood and have their own kids. ○ But, they have different strategies: ■ Men: It’s easy to reproduce. So, have as much sex with healthy women as possible! ■ Women: It takes 9 months. So, be picky, choose a man who will stick around to help and provide resources to you and your baby. ➢ This theory can provide an explanation for current gender differences in three specific things: ** ○ Mate selection ○ Jealousy ○ Promiscuity ➢ Questions *** ○ When selecting a mate, which of the following are most important? ■ Physical Attractiveness (Men scored higher) ■ Ambition and industriousness (Women scored higher) ■ Exciting personality (Men scored higher) ■ Good financial prospects (Women scored higher) ■ Good looks (Men scored higher) ■ Caring and responsible personality (Women scored higher) ○ Would you prefer a younger or older mate? ■ Men wanted younger; Women wanted older ➢ Why gender differences? ○ One possibility is that man and women have evolved different preferences ○ Mate Selection ■ Men and women have different mate preferences due to their differences in reproductive ability ■ Men “prefer” women who can reproduce ● Youthfulness / fit = reproductive capabilities ● Attractiveness = reproductive health ■ Women “prefer” men who have resources for self & child (want stability) ● Older men = more resources ● Money and status = more resources ■ Women’s desire for mates with resources and men’s desire for youth found in 37 cultures ■ Both motivated to display what is desired (appearance v. resources) ■ Derogation of competitors ● Women: Physical ● Men: Resources ○ Jealousy ■ Men tended to be more jealous if a partner cheated for physical reasons and were not emotionally attached; Women tended to be more jealous if their partner was deeply in love with someone but wasn’t physically intimate with them ■ Men ● Paternity uncertainty ● Never sure if kid is theirs ● Don’t want to waste resources if not ■ Women ● “Need man” to stick around after impregnated to give his resources ● Don’t want resources given to other women ○ Promiscuity ■ Men are predicted to be more so (easy to reproduce) ■ Women have limited supply of eggs, time, and resources; thus must be choosier & less promiscuous ■ Evidence? Clark & Hatfield (1990) ● Had attractive assistants approach students of opposite sex on a campus and ask questions (Go on a date? Go back to my apartment tonight? Have sex with me?) ● Men were more likely to agree to all (women were pretty close when it came to dates) ■ Casual Sex ● Men = ideally have 18 partners ● Women = desire 45 in lifetime ● 94% of women said they would feel guilt after a onenight stand **; 50% of men report the same ■ Is longterm commitment necessary for sexual activity to take place? ● 15 scale (higher numbers = commitment is necessary) ● Men = 2.5 ● Women = 3.7 Stress ➢ Perceived discrepancy between a person’s demands and his/her resources to cope with those demands ➢ Examples of Recent Stress ○ Had lots of tests ○ Lack of sleep ○ Had projects, research paper due ○ Having roommate or friend conflicts ○ Thoughts about the future ○ Lack of money ○ Working while in school ○ Illness (self or loved one) ➢ Types of Stressors ○ Distress v. Eustress ■ Distress ● E.g., marital conflict ■ Eustress ● E.g., starting college ○ Acute v. Chronic ■ Acute ● E.g., tests, traffic ■ Chronic ● E.g., job loss, serious illness ○ Physical Stressors ■ E.g., heat/cold, infection ■ Direct physical threat to one’s wellbeing ○ Physiological Stressors ■ E.g., failure to reach an important goal ■ Challenges to one’s wellbeing ○ Both physical and physiological have similar effects on the body ➢ Sources of stress ○ Imminent events requiring strong demands ○ Life transitions ○ Everyday hassles ○ Ambiguous events ○ Uncontrollable events ○ Unpredictable events ➢ Measurement of Stress ○ Physiological Measures ■ Blood pressure ■ Respiration rate ■ Hormone levels ○ Selfreport of stressful life events ■ Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) ■ College Life Stress Inventory ➢ Biological Component of Stress ○ Stress has an adaptive purpose ■ FightorFlight Response ● Physiological arousal ○ E.g., heart rate increases, pupils dilate, alert ● Release of stress hormones (e.g., cortisol) ● Adaptive ● Maladaptive ➢ General Adaptation Syndrome *** ➢ Stage 1: Alarm reaction ○ Brief drop in arousal (shock) ○ Dramatic increase in arousal (fightorflight response) ➢ Stage 2: Resistance ○ Body tries to adapt to stressor ○ Arousal declines slightly but remains higher than normal ➢ Stage 3: Exhaustion ○ Body is depleted of energy; disease and damage possible ➢ Stressrelated Disorders *** ○ Skin disorders (e.g., acne, hives) ○ Tension disorders (e.g., headaches, neck/back pain) ○ Gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome) ○ Cardiovascular disorders (e.g., angina, hypertension, CHD) ○ Immune system disorders (e.g., flu, mono, asthma, allergies) ○ Depression, anxiety ➢ Diathesisstress Model ○ A person had a predisposition to an illness, but it may remain dormant unless triggered by stress ○ Diathesis ■ E.g., genetics, environment, nutrition, etc ○ Tendency to respond in a specific way can make body more vulnerable ■ E.g., Type A ➢ Stress, Viruses, and the Immune System ○ Study by Cohen et al (1993) showed people who were exposed to a common cold virus were more likely to develop a cold if they had more stressful life events, higher perceived stress, and/or higher negative affectivity ○ More research by Cohen has shown: ■ Type, intensity, and duration of stressor are important *** ■ Effects not due to health behaviors, demographics, etc ➢ Perceived Control ➢ Sense of control decreases stress, anxiety, and depression ➢ Perceptions of control must be realistic to be adaptive Type A People ** ➢ Characterized by: ○ Chronic Time urgency ■ Impatience, multiple tasks, over scheduling ○ Hostility, anger, and aggressiveness ** ■ Hostile personality ○ Competitiveness ○ Additional: Symptom suppression? ➢ Examples ○ When someone criticizes you, do you quickly get annoyed? ○ When you are held in a slow line in traffic, do you quickly sense your heart pounding and your breath quickening? ➢ Type B is the absence of these behaviors *** ➢ Who is more likely to be Type A? ○ Men ○ People who live in urban areas ○ Type A parents ○ Western Cultures ➢ Type A and Selfevaluation ○ In comparison to Type B’s, Type A’s: ■ Evaluate themselves more harshly ■ Tend to attribute negative events to internal causes ■ Attend selectively to negative feedback ■ Make comparisons with inappropriate others Explanatory Style Illustrations ** ➢ Internal: “I am very smart” ➢ External: “The test was easy” ➢ Stable: “I always do well on tests” ➢ Unstable: “I was prepared this one time.” ➢ Global: “I am doing well in most of my classes.” ➢ Specific: “I’m doing well in this particular class, but not doing well in my other classes.” Optimistic v. Pessimistic Styles ➢ Optimistic Explanatory Style (OES) ○ Good Event: internal/stable/global ○ Bad Event: external/unstable/specific ➢ Pessimistic Explanatory Style (PES) ○ Good Event: external/unstable/specific ○ Bad Event: internal/stable/global Behavior and Health ➢ Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes) are the leading causes of mortality in the US ○ Negative health behaviors (e.g., substance use, never exercising, a poor diet) and lack of medical seeking (e.g., physical exams, screening for cancer/illness, checking blood pressure) increase the likelihood of these outcomes Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior ➢ Alcohol is associated with: *** ○ Greater likelihood of sex with casual partners ○ Less condom use ○ Poorer condom negotiation skills ○ Increased risk for STDs ○ Lower perception of risks / Negative consequences ➢ Cognitive Effects of Alcohol ○ Disinhibition ■ Alcohol causes people to “let go” of the inhibitions that would normally constrain their behavior ○ Implications ** ■ People will make riskier decisions ■ People should not make decisions about health behaviors when intoxicated ○ Alcohol Myopia ■ Intoxication limits cognitive capacity ■ No longer have necessary processing skills to attend to all information in an environment ■ Focus on salient environmental cues ■ More or less likely to engage in risky behaviors, depending on the cue ■ 2 types of cues ● Impelling ● Inhibiting ○ Conclusions ■ Be aware of the cognitive effects alcohol can have ** ■ Have a sober friend accompany you out if you anticipate drinking ■ Be smart! Skin Cancer and Sun Protection ➢ Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the U.S. ➢ Most skin cancers and skin damage (e.g., wrinkles) are linked to ultraviolet (UV) light exposure ➢ Therefore ... ○ Behaviors that protect against UV exposure can help reduce skin cancer risk ■ Sunscreen use ■ Protective clothing ■ Shade seeking ■ Avoiding tanning bed ➢ Appearancebased Interventions ○ Motivation for tanning: attractiveness ** ■ Social aspect of risk engagement ○ Are tanners aware of risk? Yes, but ... ■ Benefits are immediate ■ Risks are distal ■ Perceived benefits > risks ○ Photoaging premature wrinkling, spots / dark patches caused by UV exposure ➢ UV Photography Interventions ○ A UVfiltered Polaroid camera takes: ■ Blackandwhite photo ■ UV photo ○ “Dark, freckled, or pitted” areas show UV damage ○ The photo can be combined with information on the appearance and/or health consequences of UV exposure ○ A study by Gibbons (2004) showed that it helped reduce the amount of UV exposure Coping with Stress ➢ Coping ○ Problemfocused ■ Taking action, seeking support ○ Emotionfocused ■ Venting, mentally disengaging, positive reappraisal Social Support ➢ Aspects of social networks ○ Size ○ Frequency of contact ○ Quality of relationships ➢ Types: ○ Tangible (instrumental) support ■ Ex: Lending money, helping someone move ○ Informational support ■ Ex: Doing research ○ Emotional (and esteem) support ■ Ex: Listening, showing concern ➢ Consistency related to better health ** ➢ A few findings: *** ○ Socially isolated people died at a rate 3x higher than socially integrated people ○ Pregnant women with greater perceived social support had fewer complications ○ Unemployed men with greater perceived social support were less likely to get sick or be depressed ○ People with cancer had greater survival rates when they participated in social support groups ➢ Why does social support help? ○ Buffering hypothesis Emotional Inhibition ➢ Inhibiting thoughts or feelings requires psychological effort ➢ Psychological effort = stress ○ Takes psychological toll = illness ➢ Disclosure (emotional expression of upsetting experiences) improves mood, grades, and the ability to function well ➢ Expression / Disclosure ○ Why does it work? ■ Through writing, people organize their thoughts and find meaning in their experiences ● Use words like: resolve, realize, work through ● Positive emotions and cognitive change ■ Not just act of confiding in another person that matters ○ When doesn’t it work well? ■ Substitute for action ■ Facts without emotional expression ■ Just complaining Conclusions ➢ Important to consider biological, psychological, and social components of stress ➢ Stress can make us susceptible to health problems ➢ Social support, effective coping, optimism, emotional expression, and beliefs in control can reduce the negative effects of stress Stress Management ➢ Psychological Effects of Exercise ○ Enhanced sense of wellbeing ○ Decreased anxiety ○ Reduces depression by elevating low serotonin level similar to effect of antidepressant drugs ➢ Physical Benefits of Exercise ○ Reduces risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease ○ Improves cholesterol ○ Strengthens muscles and bones ○ Increases energy ○ Promotes better sleep ○ Reduction of stress can improve immune system ➢ Examples applying social support to exercise ○ Membership, equipment, gym ○ Coaching, instructions, training, etc ○ Encouragement, companionship, validation
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