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GWU / Psychology / PSYC 2012 / What is the weapon focus effect?

What is the weapon focus effect?

What is the weapon focus effect?


School: George Washington University
Department: Psychology
Course: Social Psychology
Professor: M stock
Term: Fall 2015
Tags: social, Psychology, courtroom, court, stress, health, coping, attra, attraction, Relationships, liking, situations, people, mindset, external, internal, Book, terms, locus, Of, and control
Cost: 50
Name: PSYC 2012 Final Study Guide
Description: This is a cohesive compilation of all notes and definitions from psychology in the courtroom to the stress and health classes. Since the exam is not cumulative, it does not include previous lecture notes.
Uploaded: 04/29/2016
20 Pages 182 Views 2 Unlocks

Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 Final Exam Date: 05/04/2016

What is the weapon focus effect?

*Note: These include only notes from class lectures and slides. Definitions in class come from class notes and book terms come from online and the book (same definitions).*


➔ Acquisition ­ noticing and “taking in” information

➔ Weapons focus effect ­ the presence of a weapon draws attention and impairs a witness’s ability to identify a culprit

➔ Own­Race Bias ­ people are better at identifying members of their own race ➔ Reconstructive Memory ­ the process whereby memories of an event become distorted by information encountered after the event occurred

➔ Source Monitoring ­ the process whereby people try to identify the source of their memories

What does reconstructive memory mean in psychology?

➔ Retrieval ­ what people recall at a later time

➔ Instruction Bias ­ wording of instructions to witnesses can drastically affect responses to lineups Don't forget about the age old question of What is the human diaspora?

➔ Lineup Construction Bias ­ anything that makes the suspect stand out from a lineup biases the lineup against the suspect

➔ Simultaneous lineups ­ pictures are shown at the same time

➔ Sequential lineups ­ pictures are shown one at a time

➔ Proximity (propinquity) ­ ​the more we see and interact with people, the more likely we are to develop relationships with them

◆ Geographical distance ­ literal distance

What is the mere exposure effect in psychology?

◆ Functional distance ­ likelihood to come into contact

➔ Mere Exposure Effect ­ the more exposure we have to a stimulus (e.g., foreign words, faces, music, etc.), the more apt we are to like it

➔ Similarity ­ we like those people who match our interests, personality, backgrounds, attitudes, etc

➔ Reciprocal Liking ­ ​we tend to like people who like us Don't forget about the age old question of What are the types of deterrence?

➔ Physical Attractiveness ­ we like people who are physically attractive (esp. If they are of the “non­competition” sex (people we don’t have to compete against for mates))

➔ Halo Effect ­ what is attractive / beautiful is “good” stereotype

➔ Matching Principle ­ tendency for people to choose partners that match their own level of attractiveness (and other traits)

➔ Comparison Level ­ expected rewards and costs of the relationship

➔ Comparison Level for Alternatives ­ expected rewards and costs for an alternative relationship

➔ Equity Theory ­ people are most satisfied in relationships in which the ratio of rewards to costs is the same for both people

➔ Intimacy ­ feelings of closeness, connectedness, and bondedness ➔ Passion ­ drive towards intense emotions

➔ Eros ­ passionate love

➔ Agape ­ selfless love

➔ Mania ­ possessive love If you want to learn more check out What is the effect of ipod in industries?

➔ Pragma ­ logical love

➔ Ludus ­ game playing love

➔ Storge ­ friendship love

➔ Stress ­ negative feelings and beliefs that arise when people feel unable to cope with demands from their environment

➔ Stressors

◆ Distress ­ harmful, threatening

◆ Eustress ­ ​less harmful, challenging

◆ Acute ­ ​relatively sudden; short­lived

◆ Chronic ­ ongoing; persistent Don't forget about the age old question of What is the difference between sympatric and allopatric speciation?

➔ Fight­or­Flight Response ­ responding to a stressor by either attacking it or fleeing from it

◆ Adaptive ­ ​allows people to respond quickly to threat

◆ Maladaptive ­ disrupts emotional and physiological

➔ Diathesis ­ ​predisposition to an illness

➔ Perceived Control ­ belief that you can influence your environment in ways that determine if you experience positive or negative outcomes

➔ Disinhibition ­ ​make one less inhibited

➔ Impelling ­ calls attention to benefits of risky behavior (e.g., sexual arousal, attractive person)

➔ Inhibiting ­ calls attention to costs of risky behavior (e.g., STD, pregnancy) ➔ Coping ­ any process by which people try to manage the stress they are experiencing

◆ Problem­focused ­ ​behavior aimed to directly manage the stressor ◆ Emotion­focused ­ ​behavior aimed at controlling the emotional response of the stressor If you want to learn more check out What is the superordinate principle?

➔ Social Support ­ perception that others are responsive and receptive to one’s needs

◆ Tangible (instrumental) support ­ direct assistance

◆ Informational support ­ ​advice or information

◆ Emotional (and esteem) support ­ expression of empathy

➔ Buffering hypothesis ­ social support is most beneficial when we’re under stress ➔ Emotional Inhibition ­ Denial of negative emotions

NOTES​(compilation of all notes from class) ** if something has stars next to it, it’s best to understand it very clearly or pay close attention to it **

Eyewitness Testimony

➢ 3 Stages of Memory

○ Acquisition

○ Storage

○ Retrieval

➢ Line­up Procedures

○ Construction

○ Feedback

○ Improvements based on research We also discuss several other topics like What are the main roles of the endocrine system?

➢ Eyewitness testimony is persuasive

➢ Considered by jurors to be the most influential evidence

➢ The Innocence Project reports 330 cases in which DNA evidence exonerated someone after being convicted of a crime

○ In 72% of these cases, the conviction was based on faulty eyewitness identification **

➢ How accurate are eyewitnesses?

➢ Memory is based on acquisition, storage and retrieval

○ Error can occur at any of these stages

■ Retrieval (what people recall at a later time):

● “Best guess” problem in lineup identification

● Negative effects of verbalization

Eyewitness Effects: Acquisition

➢ Acquisition

➢ What impacts memory at this stage:

○ Poor viewing conditions

○ People see what they expect to see

○ Focus on weapons

○ Own­race bias

○ Change blindness

○ Cognitive biases

➢ Poor Viewing Conditions

○ The accuracy of eyewitness identification depends on the viewing conditions at the time the crime was committed

○ However, most jurors believe that witnesses can correctly identify the criminal even when viewing conditions are poor

➢ Viewing Conditions

○ Duration

■ Shorter events associated with less accuracy

■ Retrieval: time until recall

○ Visibility

■ Poor lighting and obscured view

■ Disguises

○ Viewing distance

○ Substance use

○ Witnesses are generally unreliable in estimating these things ➢ Weapons focus effect

○ Identification less likely when culprit has a gun, razor blade, or knife ➢ Own­Race Bias

○ More errors when participant / criminal are of different race

○ People usually have less experience with features that characterize individuals of other races

■ Contact hypothesis

■ Individuating versus distinguishing features

○ Also, own­age​and own­gender​biases

Eyewitness Effects: Storage

➢ What people store in memory

➢ Memories fade with time

➢ People can have inaccurate recall about what they saw

1. Reconstructive Memory

2. Source Monitoring

○ People can get mixed up about where they heard or saw something ➢ Misleading questions can change people’s minds and make it hard to discriminate between memories for real and suggested events

○ How fast a car was going

○ Whether broken glass was at the scene of the incident

○ The number of demonstrators at an event

○ If the car was in front of a stop or yield sign

➢ Police and lawyer questioning, media reports, and peer conversations, can all impact storage and recall

➢ The Effects of Suggestion on “False” Memories

○ Memory is reconstructive **

○ Sometimes we “remember” things that never actually happened

■ And for these “false memories” we may be as confident in them as we are with actual memories

■ We are surprisingly unaware of how unreliable our memory can be and overly confident in the accuracy of our memories

Eyewitness Effects: Retrieval

➢ Retrieval:​what people recall at a later time

➢ Instruction Bias

○ Should indicate to the witness that the criminal may not be in the lineup ➢ Lineup Construction Bias

○ E.g., the foils do not look like the suspect, the foils are dressed differently than the suspect, a different coloring / lighting of the suspect’s photo, etc. ➢ Responding Quickly

○ Confidence isn’t a good predictor of accuracy **

○ Faster response tend to be more accurate

■ “His face just ‘popped out’ at me”

○ Inaccurate witnesses

■ Use process of elimination

■ Deliberately compare one face to another

■ Select person who most closely resembles the perpetrator relative to the other members of the lineup

➢ Simultaneous v. Sequential Lineups

○ Simultaneous lineups

■ This encourages the witness to make comparison between the pictures (relative judgements)

○ Sequential lineups

■ This does not allow the witness to compare pictures to each other ■ The witness must compare each picture to his/her memory

(absolute judgements)

➢ Post­Identification Feedback

○ Research Example (Wells & Bradfield, 1998)

■ Confirming feedback:

● “Good, you identified the actual suspect in the case”

■ Disconfirming feedback:

● “Oh. You identified number ___. The actual suspect was

number ___.”

Improving Eyewitness Identification

➢ Fillers should resemble description of suspect

➢ Conduct interview at a slow pace with open­ended questions and no leading statements

○ Neutral investigator **

➢ Lineup Instructions

○ Told suspect may not be there

➢ Don’t count on witnesses knowing whether their selections were biased ○ Sequential lineup

Attraction & Relationships

➢ Who do we find attractive?

○ Proximity, mere exposure, similarity

○ Features

○ Matching people

➢ What makes a satisfying relationship?

○ Social exchange theory

○ Equity theory

○ Love types

○ Evolutionary theory


➢ People have a strong need to belong and to affiliate with others ➢ What determines attraction?

○ Proximity (propinquity)

■ Geographical distance

■ Functional distance

■ Housing complex study

● Neighbors began as strangers

○ Mere Exposure Effect

■ Ex: The more times people saw a foreign word, the more likely they were to guess that it meant something good

■ Ex: Students liked the woman (a confederate) they had seen in class most often, even though they have never interacted with her

○ Similarity

■ Ex: Roommates who were more similar became better friends over time than dissimilar roommates

■ Ex: People are more likely to marry someone who is similar, rather than dissimilar, to them

■ Opposites do not attract

■ Why does similarity matter?

● We tend to think that people who are similar to us will also like us; so, we are more likely to initiate relationships

● People who are similar validate our own characteristics and beliefs

● We make negative inferences about people who disagree with us

■ What about differences?

● Differences are rewarding

● Core values more important than superficial similarity

○ Reciprocal Liking

■ Ex: People told that others like them reported reciprocal affection ■ Ex: Men liked a woman who showed interest in them even when they knew she was dissimilar to them on important issues

○ Physical Attractiveness

■ Blind Date Study

■ Attractiveness matters for both men and women

● Differences exist but more in what people say than what they do 

■ Halo Effect

● Automatically assigning attractive people with favorable traits (e.g., talent, kindness, honesty, intelligence)

■ Babies gaze longer at attractive faces

■ Teachers evaluate “cute” children as smarter and more popular ■ Attractive defendants receive more lenient sentences

■ Cross­cultural agreement; however different cultures “improve” beauty in different ways

■ No empirical relationship between attractiveness and intellect, happiness, self­esteem, or mental health

■ What is attractive? **

● “​Baby­face” features: large eyes, small nose and chin, big smile

○ Men find this attractive in women

● Sexual maturity features: prominent cheekbones, large chin (on men only), facial / eyebrow hair (on men only)

○ Both men and women (but especially women) find this


● Expressive features: wide smile, high eyebrows

○ Both men and women (but especially men) find this


● Perfectly average faces are most attractive ***

○ Why?

■ Familiarity

■ Symmetry

● Symmetrical features

● “Average” features

Matching Principle

➢ Married couples “match” better than dating couples

➢ When people don’t match on attractiveness, the less attractive partner usually has compensating qualities (like wealth, knowledge, etc)

➢ What do mates match on?

○ Ethnic backgrounds

○ Religion and values

○ Social class

○ Personality (e.g., sensation seeking)

○ Physical attractiveness


➢ Social Exchange Theory

○ Economic view of relationships

■ Maximize rewards and benefits

● (positive qualities: companionship, partner’s good traits,

material resources)

■ Minimize costs

● (negative qualities: conflict, partner’s negative traits,


○ Comparison of rewards and costs determines relationship satisfaction ○ Comparison Level

■ Low = easily satisfied

■ High = not easily satisfied

○ Comparison Level for Alternatives

■ Low = high commitment to current relationship

■ High = low commitment to current relationship

○ Equity Theory

■ Not the same as equity ***

● One partner may get more benefits, but if he/she also makes

more contributions, then the relationship can still be


■Y our benefits 

Y our contributions =Partner′s benefits 

Partner′s contributions

■ Inequity makes both people less satisfied

● Underbenefited = angry and resentful

● Overbenefited = guilty

■ However, feeling underbenefited is worse **

Attraction & Relationships

➢ Triangular Theory of Love (Sternberg)

○ Intimacy

○ Passion

■ Sexual attraction

■ Intense longing, physiological arousal, heart pounding

○ Commitment

■ Short­Term: decision to love someone

■ Long­Term: decision to maintain love

➢ Types of Love

○ Liking (intimacy alone)

■ Bondedness, warmth, and closeness

■ friends

○ Infatuation (passion alone)

■ Love at first sight, can be obsessive and great sadness when love is not reciprocated; intense longing for a person coupled with

physiological arousal

○ Empty Love (commitment alone)

■ Beginnings of an arranged marriage

■ No emotion or physical relationship

○ Romantic Love (intimacy + passion)

■ Physical attraction and sharing of emotions

■ Not long term

● Like a summer fling

○ Companionate Love (intimacy + commitment)

■ Family relationships; long­term, deep friendships

■ Intimacy, affection, and deep caring, but no passion or arousal ○ Fatuous Love (passion + commitment)

■ Whirlwind courtship and marriage in which commitment is

motivated by passion without intimacy

○ Consummate Love (intimacy + passion + commitment)

■ Ultimate, ideal love; combines all components

➢ Love Styles

○ Romantic partners tend to have similar love styles **

○ Eros

■ Love at first sight

■ Men typically have higher ratings **

■ Sample Question: My lover and I were attracted to each other immediately after we first met.

○ Agape

■ Putting one’s lover above one’s self

■ Highly correlated with religiosity **

■ Sample Question: I would rather suffer than let my lover suffer. I would endure all things for the sake of my lover.

○ Mania

■ Feeling of ownership over lover

■ Women typically have higher ratings **

■ Sample Questions: I cannot relax if I suspect that my lover is with somebody else. When my lover doesn’t pay attention to me, I feel sick all over.

○ Pragma

■ Cognitive appreciation for other’s quality

■ Women typically have higher ratings **

■ Sample Question: It is best to love somebody with a similar


○ Ludus

■ Flirtatious and not committed

■ Men typically have higher ratings **

■ Sample Question: I have sometimes had to keep my two lovers from finding out about each other.

○ Storge

■ Very close friendship becomes love

■ 66% of subjects in a study rate “high” on this scale

■ Women typically have higher ratings **

■ Sample Question: Love is really a deep friendship, not a

mysterious, mystical emotion.

Love: Evolutionary Theory

➢ Both men and women want kids who will survive adulthood and have their own kids.

○ But, they have different strategies:

■ Men: It’s easy to reproduce. So, have as much sex with healthy women as possible!

■ Women: It takes 9 months. So, be picky, choose a man who will stick around to help and provide resources to you and your baby. ➢ This theory can provide an explanation for current gender differences in three specific things: **

○ Mate selection

○ Jealousy

○ Promiscuity

➢ Questions ***

○ When selecting a mate, which of the following are most important? ■ Physical Attractiveness (Men scored higher)

■ Ambition and industriousness (Women scored higher)

■ Exciting personality (Men scored higher)

■ Good financial prospects (Women scored higher)

■ Good looks (Men scored higher)

■ Caring and responsible personality (Women scored higher)

○ Would you prefer a younger or older mate?

■ Men wanted younger; Women wanted older

➢ Why gender differences?

○ One possibility is that man and women have evolved different preferences ○ Mate Selection

■ Men and women have different mate preferences due to their differences in reproductive ability

■ Men “prefer” women who can reproduce

● Youthfulness / fit = reproductive capabilities

● Attractiveness = reproductive health

■ Women “prefer” men who have resources for self & child (want stability)

● Older men = more resources

● Money and status = more resources

■ Women’s desire for mates with resources and men’s desire for youth found in 37 cultures

■ Both motivated to display what is desired (appearance v.


■ Derogation of competitors

● Women: Physical

● Men: Resources

○ Jealousy

■ Men tended to be more jealous if a partner cheated for physical reasons and were not emotionally attached; Women tended to be more jealous if their partner was deeply in love with someone but

wasn’t physically intimate with them

■ Men

● Paternity uncertainty

● Never sure if kid is theirs

● Don’t want to waste resources if not

■ Women

● “Need man” to stick around after impregnated to give his


● Don’t want resources given to other women

○ Promiscuity

■ Men are predicted to be more so (easy to reproduce)

■ Women have limited supply of eggs, time, and resources; thus must be choosier & less promiscuous

■ Evidence? Clark & Hatfield (1990)

● Had attractive assistants approach students of opposite sex

on a campus and ask questions (Go on a date? Go back to

my apartment tonight? Have sex with me?)

● Men were more likely to agree to all (women were pretty

close when it came to dates)

■ Casual Sex

● Men = ideally have 18 partners

● Women = desire 4­5 in lifetime

● 94% of women said they would feel guilt after a one­night

stand **; 50% of men report the same

■ Is long­term commitment necessary for sexual activity to take


● 1­5 scale (higher numbers = commitment is necessary)

● Men = 2.5

● Women = 3.7


➢ Perceived discrepancy between a person’s demands and his/her resources to cope with those demands

➢ Examples of Recent Stress

○ Had lots of tests

○ Lack of sleep

○ Had projects, research paper due

○ Having roommate or friend conflicts

○ Thoughts about the future

○ Lack of money

○ Working while in school

○ Illness (self or loved one)

➢ Types of Stressors

○ Distress v. Eustress

■ Distress

● E.g., marital conflict

■ Eustress

● E.g., starting college

○ Acute v. Chronic

■ Acute

● E.g., tests, traffic

■ Chronic

● E.g., job loss, serious illness

○ Physical Stressors

■ E.g., heat/cold, infection

■ Direct physical threat to one’s well­being

○ Physiological Stressors

■ E.g., failure to reach an important goal

■ Challenges to one’s well­being

○ Both physical and physiological have similar effects on the body ➢ Sources of stress

○ Imminent events requiring strong demands

○ Life transitions

○ Everyday hassles

○ Ambiguous events

○ Uncontrollable events

○ Unpredictable events

➢ Measurement of Stress

○ Physiological Measures

■ Blood pressure

■ Respiration rate

■ Hormone levels

○ Self­report of stressful life events

■ Social Readjustment Rating Scale (Holmes and Rahe, 1967) ■ College Life Stress Inventory

➢ Biological Component of Stress

○ Stress has an adaptive purpose

■ Fight­or­Flight Response

● Physiological arousal

○ E.g., heart rate increases, pupils dilate, alert

● Release of stress hormones (e.g., cortisol)

● Adaptive

● Maladaptive

➢ General Adaptation Syndrome ***

➢ Stage 1: Alarm reaction

○ Brief drop in arousal (shock)

○ Dramatic increase in arousal (fight­or­flight response)

➢ Stage 2: Resistance

○ Body tries to adapt to stressor

○ Arousal declines slightly but remains higher than normal

➢ Stage 3: Exhaustion

○ Body is depleted of energy; disease and damage possible ➢ Stress­related Disorders ***

○ Skin disorders (e.g., acne, hives)

○ Tension disorders (e.g., headaches, neck/back pain)

○ Gastrointestinal disorders (e.g., ulcers, irritable bowel syndrome) ○ Cardiovascular disorders (e.g., angina, hypertension, CHD) ○ Immune system disorders (e.g., flu, mono, asthma, allergies) ○ Depression, anxiety

➢ Diathesis­stress Model

○ A person had a predisposition to an illness, but it may remain dormant unless triggered by stress

○ Diathesis

■ E.g., genetics, environment, nutrition, etc

○ Tendency to respond in a specific way can make body more vulnerable ■ E.g., Type A

➢ Stress, Viruses, and the Immune System

○ Study by Cohen et al (1993) showed people who were exposed to a common cold virus were more likely to develop a cold if they had more stressful life events, higher perceived stress, and/or higher negative affectivity

○ More research by Cohen has shown:

■ Type, intensity, and duration of stressor are important ***

■ Effects not due to health behaviors, demographics, etc

➢ Perceived Control

➢ Sense of control decreases stress, anxiety, and depression

➢ Perceptions of control must be realistic to be adaptive

Type A People **

➢ Characterized by:

○ Chronic Time urgency

■ Impatience, multiple tasks, over scheduling

○ Hostility, anger​, and aggressiveness **

■ Hostile personality

○ Competitiveness

○ Additional: Symptom suppression?

➢ Examples

○ When someone criticizes you, do you quickly get annoyed?

○ When you are held in a slow line in traffic, do you quickly sense your heart pounding and your breath quickening?

➢ Type B is the absence of these​behaviors​***

➢ Who is more likely to be Type A?

○ Men

○ People who live in urban areas

○ Type A parents

○ Western Cultures

➢ Type A and Self­evaluation

○ In comparison to Type B’s, Type A’s:

■ Evaluate themselves more harshly

■ Tend to attribute negative events to internal causes

■ Attend selectively to negative feedback

■ Make comparisons with inappropriate others

Explanatory Style Illustrations **

➢ Internal: “I am very smart”

➢ External: “The test was easy”

➢ Stable: “I always do well on tests”

➢ Unstable: “I was prepared this one time.”

➢ Global: “I am doing well in most of my classes.”

➢ Specific: “I’m doing well in this particular class, but not doing well in my other classes.”

Optimistic v. Pessimistic Styles

➢ Optimistic Explanatory Style (OES)

○ Good Event: internal/stable/global

○ Bad Event: external/unstable/specific

➢ Pessimistic Explanatory Style (PES)

○ Good Event: external/unstable/specific

○ Bad Event: internal/stable/global

Behavior and Health

➢ Chronic diseases (e.g., heart disease, stroke, cancer, and diabetes) are the leading causes of mortality in the US

○ Negative health behaviors (e.g., substance use, never exercising, a poor diet) and lack of medical seeking (e.g., physical exams, screening for cancer/illness, checking blood pressure) increase the likelihood of these outcomes

Alcohol Use and Sexual Behavior

➢ Alcohol is associated with: ***

○ Greater likelihood of sex with casual partners

○ Less condom use

○ Poorer condom negotiation skills

○ Increased risk for STDs

○ Lower perception of risks / Negative consequences

➢ Cognitive Effects of Alcohol

○ Disinhibition

■ Alcohol causes people to “let go” of the inhibitions that would

normally constrain their behavior

○ Implications **

■ People will make riskier decisions

■ People should not make decisions about health behaviors when intoxicated

○ Alcohol Myopia

■ Intoxication limits cognitive capacity

■ No longer have necessary processing skills to attend to all

information in an environment

■ Focus on salient environmental cues

■ More or less likely to engage in risky behaviors, depending on the cue

■ 2 types of cues

● Impelling

● Inhibiting

○ Conclusions

■ Be aware of the cognitive effects alcohol can have **

■ Have a sober friend accompany you out if you anticipate drinking ■ Be smart!

Skin Cancer and Sun Protection

➢ Skin cancer is the most common cancer in the U.S.

➢ Most skin cancers and skin damage (e.g., wrinkles) are linked to ultraviolet (UV) light exposure

➢ Therefore ...

○ Behaviors that protect against UV exposure can help reduce skin cancer risk

■ Sunscreen use

■ Protective clothing

■ Shade seeking

■ Avoiding tanning bed

➢ Appearance­based Interventions

○ Motivation for tanning: attractiveness **

■ Social aspect of risk engagement

○ Are tanners aware of risk? Yes, but ...

■ Benefits are immediate

■ Risks are distal

■ Perceived benefits > risks

○ Photoaging ­ premature wrinkling, spots / dark patches caused by UV exposure

➢ UV Photography Interventions

○ A UV­filtered Polaroid camera takes:

■ Black­and­white photo

■ UV photo

○ “Dark, freckled, or pitted” areas show UV damage

○ The photo can be combined with information on the appearance and/or health consequences of UV exposure

○ A study by Gibbons (2004) showed that it helped reduce the amount of UV exposure

Coping with Stress

➢ Coping

○ Problem­focused

■ Taking action, seeking support

○ Emotion­focused

■ Venting, mentally disengaging, positive reappraisal

Social Support

➢ Aspects of social networks

○ Size

○ Frequency of contact

○ Quality of relationships

➢ Types:

○ Tangible (instrumental) support

■ Ex: Lending money, helping someone move

○ Informational support

■ Ex: Doing research

○ Emotional (and esteem) support

■ Ex: Listening, showing concern

➢ Consistency related to better health **

➢ A few findings: ***

○ Socially isolated people died at a rate 3x higher than socially integrated people

○ Pregnant women with greater perceived social support had fewer complications

○ Unemployed men with greater perceived social support were less likely to get sick or be depressed

○ People with cancer had greater survival rates when they participated in social support groups

➢ Why does social support help?

○ Buffering hypothesis

Emotional Inhibition

➢ Inhibiting thoughts or feelings requires psychological effort

➢ Psychological effort = stress

○ Takes psychological toll = illness

➢ Disclosure (emotional expression of upsetting experiences) improves mood, grades, and the ability to function well

➢ Expression / Disclosure

○ Why does it work?

■ Through writing, people organize their thoughts and find meaning in their experiences

● Use words like: resolve, realize, work through

● Positive emotions and cognitive change

■ Not just act of confiding in another person that matters

○ When doesn’t it work well?

■ Substitute for action

■ Facts without emotional expression

■ Just complaining


➢ Important to consider biological, psychological, and social components of stress ➢ Stress can make us susceptible to health problems

➢ Social support, effective coping, optimism, emotional expression, and beliefs in control can reduce the negative effects of stress

Stress Management

➢ Psychological Effects of Exercise

○ Enhanced sense of well­being

○ Decreased anxiety

○ Reduces depression by elevating low serotonin level ­ similar to effect of antidepressant drugs

➢ Physical Benefits of Exercise

○ Reduces risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease

○ Improves cholesterol

○ Strengthens muscles and bones

○ Increases energy

○ Promotes better sleep

○ Reduction of stress can improve immune system

➢ Examples applying social support to exercise

○ Membership, equipment, gym

○ Coaching, instructions, training, etc

○ Encouragement, companionship, validation

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