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Biology 1362

by: Manaswini Mattegunta

Biology 1362 BIO 1362

Manaswini Mattegunta

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Mitosis Meiosis
Intro to biological sciences
Dr. Cheek
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Manaswini Mattegunta on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIO 1362 at University of Houston Downtown taught by Dr. Cheek in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
1­bio­ch­12­flash­cards/ Ch. 9 Mitosis Mitosis, the division of the genetic material in the nucleus, is Diagram ? Section / Topics  usually followed immediately by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm Chromatin Colored stuff Chromosome Colored body, 1 double­stranded molecule of DNA wound  around the nucleosomes. Genetic information is stored in it  Cell Cycle ● Life cycle of a cell. ● The life of a cell from the time it is first formed  from a dividing parent cell until its own division into  two daughter cells. Interphase G1: growth (first gap) S: synthesis of DNA, chromosome duplication (synthesis) G2: more growth (second gap) During all three subphases, a cell that will eventually divide  grows by producing proteins and cytoplasmic organelles such as mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum Mitosis Division of chromosomes Mitosis, the division of the genetic material in the nucleus, is  usually followed immediately by cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm Prophase Nucleoli disappear, sister chromatids form, centromere forms Chromatin are tightly coiled. Chromosomes duplicated and are  joined at centromere. Mitotic spindle begin to form.  Centrosomes move away from each other. These are sometimes  called the as the polar microtubules. ProMetaphase Nuclear envelope disappears. Chromosomes are now even more condensed. Chromatids of each chromosome have kinetochore Metaphase Centrosomes are now at opposite poles of the cell.  Chromosomes align on an imaginary central line. Metaphase plate Which is an imaginary rather than an actual cellular structure. Anaphase Shortest phase in the entire cycle, lasting only upto few minutes The two chromatids separate from each other and move towards the poles. The cell elongates as the non kinetochore lengthen. Telophase Two daughter nuclei from in the cell. Nucleoli reappear.  Chromosomes become less condensed. Mitotic division is now  2 complete. Cytokinesis In animals, cytokinesis involves in the formation of cleavage  furrow, which pinches the cell into two.  In plant cells cell wall materials are deposited in between the  cell allowing it to form to complete the cell wall. Sister chromatid Copies of a single chromosome Centromere Part of the chromosome where the sister chromatid are closely  attached Spindle Array of microtubules Kinetochore Protein structure that attached to the centromere, connects  centromere to spindle fibers Cleavage furrow Forms inside animal cell membranes, actin and myosin  filaments contract, pinches membrane inward making 2  complete cell membranes Fun Facts! The term binary fission, meaning “division in half,” refers to  this process and to the asexual reproduction of single­celled  eukaryotes, such as the amoeba in Figure 9.2a. However, the  process in eukaryotes involves mitosis; the process in  prokaryotes does not.  bacterial chromosome begins to replicate at a specific place on  the chromosome called the origin of replication, producing two  origins Cell Cycle Control  a cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that both  System triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle. Check point A control point where stop and go­ahead signals can regulate  the cycle.Three check points are present: G1 Checkpoint, G2  Checkpoint, M Checkpoint. G1 Checkpoint  When a cell receives a go­ahead signal at the G1 it completes  the rest of the cycle. If it does not receive the signal at that  point, it will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state  called the G0 phase. Most cells of the human body are actually  in the G0 phase.cells can be called back from the G0 Phase to  complete the cycle. cyclins The cell cycle is regulated at the molecular level by a set of  regulatory proteins and protein complexes, including kinases  and proteins  Growth Factor Is a protein that is released by certain cells that stimulates other  3 cells to divide Density­dependent  A phenomenon in which crowded cells stops dividing inhibition Anchorage   density, anchorage is signaled to the cell cycle control system  dependence via pathways involving plasma membrane proteins and elements of the cytoskeleton linked to them.  Metastasis The spread of cancer cell to location distant from their original  site. ● In cancer cells , the growth factors are absent. Chp 10 Scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation. Meiosis Genetics Genes coded information in the form of hereditary units Gametes/Somatic  Are the vehicles that transmit genes from one generation to the  cells next./ All cells in the body except the gametes and their  precursors. Locus  A gene’s specific location along the length of a chromosome  Life Cycle Stages in an organism’s life from fertilization to make offspring Meiosis Cell division that reduces a 2n number of chromosomes to a 1n  set Synaptonemal  proteins complex Crossing Over Chunks of DNA are swapped between non­sister chromatids  (happens between homologous chromosomes) Chiasma Point at which crossover occurs Meiosis II Separation of sister chromatids during the formation of gametes Locus  A gene’s specific location along the length of a chromosome is  called the gene’s locus Fertilization The union of gametes, culminating in fusion of their nuclei Zygote The resulting fertilized egg, or zygote, is diploid because it  contains two haploid sets of chromosomes bearing genes  4 representing the maternal and paternal family lines Alternation of  This type includes both diploid and haploid stages that are  generations (Fig  multicellular. 10.6 b)  sporophyte The multicellular diploid stage Meiosis in the sporophyte produces haploid cells called spores.  Unlike a gamete, a haploid spore doesn’t fuse with another cell  but divides mitotically, generating a multicellular haploid stage  called the gametophyte Chiasmata (occurs  Each Homologous pair has one or more X­shaped regions called in the Prophase I) chiasmata. It exists where a crossover has occurred. Prophase I Paired homologs become physically connected this is called  synapsis. Crossing Over occurred. At the end microtubules attach to the two kinetochores. Metaphase I Microtubule attached to kinetochore, centromere with  Kinetochore Anaphase I Homologous chromosomes separate and sister chromatids  remain attached Telophase I and  Two haploid cells form and each chromosome still consists of  Cytokinesis two sister chromatids Prophase II A spindle apparatus form Metaphase II Positioned at metaphase plate.  Anaphase II Breakdown of proteins holding the sister chromatids. Crossing  over occurs again. Telophase II and  Haploid daughter cells forming. 4 daughter cells are formed a  Cytokinesis single Cohesins Sister chromatids are attached along their lengths by protein  complexes. Meiosis I is called the reductional division as it halves the #of  chromosomes. The second meiotic division is called the equational division as  sister chromatids separate producing haploid daughter cells. 5 Genetic Variations Independent assortment Crossing Over can produce recombinant chromosomes­­ individual chromosomes that carry genes derived from different  parents. Random Fertilization Different types of sexual life cycles. 6 Chp 12.1 & 13 Pauling proposed three stranded  DNA Structure &  Watson Crick proposed double stranded model after looking the  Replication X­Crystallization produce by Rosalind Franklin Chargaff proposed that number of A=T and G=C Conservative model The two parental strands reassociate after acting as templates for  new strands thus restoring the parental double helix. Semi­conservative model The two strands of the parental molecules separate and function as 7 a template for synthesis of a new complementary strand Dispersive model Each strand of both daughter molecules contains a mixture of old  and newly synthesized DNA Origin of replication The replication of a DNA  molecule begins at particular sites   Replication Fork Replication bubble appears, at each end of a bubble is a fork a Y­ shaped region where the parental strands of DNA are being  unwound. Helicases Are enzymes that untwist the double helix at the replication fork,  Transformation  Defined as the change in the genotype and phenotype due to  assimilation of external DNA by a cell. Leading from the starting point (3' to 5') Lagging Strand  from remaining parts to starting point (3' to 5') also called  Okazaki fragments DNA Ligase Enzyme that catalyzes bond formation between 3’ end of one  DNA fragment and 5’ end of another DNA polymerase Enzyme that adds deoxyribose nucleotide to the 3’ carbon (­OH)  of one preceding deoxyribose nucleotide Catalyzes the synthesis of new DNA by adding nucleotides to a  preexisting chain Single strand binding Bind to the unpaired DNA strands keeping them from repairing  proteins Topoisomerase Helps relieve the strain by breaking swiveling and rejoining DNA  strands. (ahead of the Replication fork) DNA ligase Joins the end of the fragments primase lays down an RNA "primer" (5' to 3') that is complementary to the DNA template Nucleotide excision  DNA repair system repair Main components are the DNA polymerase and DNA ligase heterochromatin,  chromatin, visible as irregular clumps with a light microscope, euchromatin    less compacted, more dispersed euchromatin (“true chromatin”)


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