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AU / Science / POUL 1010 / How does science differ from pseudoscience?

How does science differ from pseudoscience?

How does science differ from pseudoscience?

Description

School: Auburn University
Department: Science
Course: Concepts of Science
Professor: Allen landers
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: concepts, Of, and Science
Cost: 50
Name: Concepts final study guide!!
Description: clicker questions and practice test questions
Uploaded: 04/29/2016
46 Pages 7 Views 25 Unlocks
Reviews


Test 1: 


How does science differ from pseudoscience?



When scientists have finished research and wish to communicate the results, they  are most likely to do which of the following?

immediately repeat the research 

call a press conference and announce pre-publication findings 

sell their findings to a research and development company 

write a concise paper and submit it to a scientific journal 

submit an abstract to a popular science magazine 

How does science differ from pseudoscience? 

Scientific hypotheses can be proven false through experiment. Science requires a lower standard of proof than pseudoscience. Scientific statements are based on anecdotes. 

Science is just one person's opinion. 

Science is the quest for absolute truths that never change. 

Why do scientists reject astrology? 

Planets do not exert a gravitational force on a newborn baby. 


How the babylonians developed astrology?



Stars do not exert any force on a newborn baby. 

The Babylonians developed astrology. 

The Moon is too far away to influence a person's life. 

There is no evidence that stars can predict the future. 

How is a hypothesis tested?

_1) by using the hypothesis to make predictions about a system _2) by comparing observations in nature with predictions

_3) by making a new hypothesis

1 and 2 

1, 2, and 3 

The 17th century laws of planetary motion stated that: 

all planets orbit in circular paths. 

the Earth is the center of the universe. 

all planets orbit in elliptical paths.

a planet's velocity is constant during its orbit around the Sun. 

Which of the following is most likely to happen to an astronaut during liftoff?

Bones and muscles collapse. 


What is the primary method of heat transfer in a fluid?



Nerve damage occurs. 

Body fluids are replenished. 

Blood is drained from the brain. 

Old wounds heal miraculously. 

The first three natural laws of nature were devised by: 

Isaac Newton. 

Johannes Kepler. 

Galileo Galilei. 

Claudius Ptolemy. If you want to learn more check out b) If these conditions hold, what is the derivative Df (~v ) ?
We also discuss several other topics like What did the Framers say about Factions?

Nicholas Copernicus. 

Dr. John Snow's research and observations improved the lives of London's citizens in the 1800s by:

improving the quality of the drinking water. 

finding a cure for cholera. 

diagnosing tuberculosis in the Royal family. 

associating disease with polluted water. 

identifying the bacterium, Vibrio cholerae. 

Copernicus hypothesized that the Universe is built exactly like Ptolemy suggested  except:

the Sun is at the center of the universe. 

the Earth is at the center of the universe. 

the planets move in the same direction as the stars. 

the planets have elliptical orbits 

there are no rotating spheres but instead a solar system. If you want to learn more check out What impact did the market revolution have American social, economic, political, and familial relations?

From a physicist's point of view, in which of the following cases has significant work  been done?

You try to pull your car out of ditch, but it doesn't budge. 

Your brother throws his dirty clothes on the floor. 

Your mother holds a sleeping baby. 

You review for a test by imagining the questions. 

Your father tries unsuccessfully to open a jar.

Which object has the greatest amount of kinetic energy?

250-gram baseball hit at 50 meters/second 

300-gram baseball traveling at 50 meters/second 

4-kilogram bowling ball traveling at 7 meters per second 

4-kilogram bowling ball traveling at 10 meters per second 

a 120-gram tennis ball served at 50 meters/second 

Which of the following balls would have the greatest amount of kinetic energy if  they are all traveling at 10 m/s?

baseball 

ping pong ball 

bowling ball 

soccer ball 

basketball 

A space capsule falling to earth would have: 

only kinetic energy 

only potential energy 

only chemical energy 

only heat energy 

both kinetic and potential energies 

Radiation is heat transfer by: If you want to learn more check out What is Hormone?

electromagnetic waves of radiation. 

kinetic energy of molecules. 

stopping atomic motion. 

conduction. 

convection. 

What is the primary method of heat transfer in a fluid? 

convection 

conduction 

radiation 

convection and conduction 

conduction and radiation 

What is a scientific theory?

a tentative, educated guess 

a confirmed observation about the natural world 

a statement of a regular, predictable pattern of behavior in nature a well-substantiated explanatory description of the world based on a larger  

number of independently verified observational and experimental tests We also discuss several other topics like What is prototype?

Science affecting our daily lives is exemplified by: 

relying on hunches to solve crimes 

using DNA evidence in criminal investigations 

seeking the help of people with psychic visions in police work 

relying entirely on preconceptions to identify people who may have committed  crimes

Why is … a year about 365 days? 

Related to the motion of the earth around the sun 

Related to the rotation of the earth on its axis 

Related to the motion of the moon around the earth 

Related to the motion of the stars around the earth 

Don't know 

If we were somehow able to manufacture a heat engine that operated at 100%  efficiency, what could we say about the temperatures of the hot and cold  reservoirs?

 The hot reservoir is at 100 K and the cold reservoir is at 10 K.  The hot reservoir can be at any temperature while the cold reservoir is at 0 K.  The hot reservoir is at 100 K and the cold reservoir is at 100 K.  The hot reservoir is at 10 K and the cold reservoir is at 100 K.

1. Which statement is true about the discipline of science?

  Science is a complete set of facts about the physical world.   Science provides answers to all questions about our environment.   Science provides our best view to the workings of the universe and  

everything within it

  Science and intuition are mutually exclusive. We also discuss several other topics like what is Funerary Temple of Hatshepsut?

  Science encompasses all of pseudoscience and more. 

2. How is a hypothesis tested?

1) by using the hypothesis to make predictions about a system 2) by comparing observations in nature with predictions

3) by making a new hypothesis

 1

 2

  3 

  1 and 2 

  1, 2, and 3 

3. Linear momentum is a quantity that is equal to the: 

  difference between an object's mass and velocity. 

  sum of an object's mass multiplied by velocity. 

  product of an object's mass multiplied by velocity. 

  gravitational force multiplied by velocity. 

  the reciprocal of an object's mass multiplied by velocity. 

4. Which of the following is most likely to happen to an astronaut during liftoff? 

  Bones and muscles collapse. 

  Nerve damage occurs. 

  Body fluids are replenished. 

  Blood is drained from the brain. 

  Old wounds heal miraculously.

Test 2:

The lines of force radiating from a charged object is called a/an: 

gravitational field. 

gravitational force. 

electrical field. 

electrical force. 

magnetic field.

How is the force of two charged particles related to their charges? proportional to the product of their charges divided by the cube of the distance  

between them

proportional to the product of their charges divided by the square of the distance  

between them

proportional to the ratio of their charges divided by the distance between them proportional to the ratio of their charges multiplied by the square of the distance  

between them

No known relation exists between charged particles and force. 

Coulomb discovered that the electrical force equation was very similar to the force  equation ________ had discovered.

Benjamin Franklin 

James Clerk Maxwell 

Isaac Newton 

Thomas Edison 

Michael Faraday 

In the equation for Ohm's law, resistance is in the unit: 

volts. 

amps. 

ohms. 

watts. 

coulombs. 

Mary Shelley's Frankenstein was inspired by some experiments and demonstrations  in electricity based upon:

Galvani's research. 

Voltaire's research. 

the writings of Alessandro Volta. 

Benjamin Franklin's research. 

William Gilbert's compass. 

Which wave does not require matter to be transmitted?

ocean wave 

sound wave 

X-ray

seismic wave 

subsonic wave 

Which of the following is associated with 440 Hz? 

middle A musical note 

an AM radio station 

an FM radio station 

a television station 

high C musical note 

If you are observing a light source moving very rapidly towards you, the Doppler  effect predicts that the light will be:

redshifted. 

blueshifted. 

bent. 

transmitted. 

radiated. 

The higher the frequency of a sound wave: 

louder it is. 

lower the pitch. 

the longer the wavelength. 

the shorter the wavelength. 

the faster it travels. 

Which part of a sound wave is related to its loudness? 

amplitude 

frequency 

wavelength 

speed 

velocity 

Evidence for the theory that an atom is mostly empty space was based on research  by

Joseph John Thomson 

Niels Bohr 

John Dalton

Ernest Rutherford 

Daniel Bernoulli 

The velocity of a photon in a quantum jump 

depends on the amount of charge on each electron. 

corresponds to only red light. 

corresponds only to blue light. 

changes with the quantum jump the photon makes. 

is the speed of light. 

In 1808, which person below borrowed the name 'atom' from Greek writings and  described in a modern way how it is that an atom is indivisible?

Daniel Bernoulli 

John Dalton 

Dimitri Mendeleev 

Ernest Rutherford 

Albert Einstein 

The relationship between the atomic theories of Democritus and Dalton is that 

both were based on observations in nature. 

neither was based on observations in nature. 

Dalton's theory depended upon observation; Democritus' theory did not. Democritus' theory depended upon observation; Dalton's theory did not. Dalton used the term atom; Democritus did not. 

Rutherford's model of the atom cannot work because: 

atoms would be constantly emitting energy. 

atoms would be constantly absorbing energy. 

compounds could not be easily formed. 

atoms would not have symmetrical shapes. 

the law of thermodynamics would not work. 

The weakest type of bond is:

Ionic. 

metallic. 

covalent. 

van der Walls.

inert. 

An example of something that is not a polymer is: 

fur and cellulose. 

spider webs and plastic. 

nylon and cotton. 

meat. 

plasma and gas. 

Where would you not expect to find plasma? 

the Sun 

sealed in a magnetic bottle 

in an ice cube 

neon lights 

fluorescent light bulbs 

Which makes the best electrical conductor? 

covalent bonds 

ionic bonds 

hydrogen bonds 

metallic bonds 

polymers 

In which of the following places is more polymerization than depolymerization  occurring?

silk cocoon 

cow stomach 

compost heap 

art gallery 

birdbath 

The electrical force between two charges has a magnitude of 16 N. If the separation between the charges is doubled, what is the new force acting between them?

64 N 

32 N 

16 N 

4 N

Short-wavelength ultraviolet light and gamma rays don't travel very far through the  Earth's atmosphere before being absorbed. Based on this, which of the following  would you expect to be absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere?

Infrared rays 

Radio waves 

Microwaves 

X-rays 

Who first coined the word atom? 

Dalton 

Rutherford 

Bohr 

Democritus 

Thomson 

Which of the following statements about the hydrogen bond is accurate? 

It's one way in which metallically bonded molecules attract each other. It's one way in which ionically bonded molecules attract each other. It's one way in which covalent molecules form in the first place. 

It's one way in which covalently bonded molecules attract each other. 

An ionic bond forms where the following happens? 

Atoms that like to share electrons interact with each other. 

An atom that likes to share electrons interacts with an electron that likes to take  

electrons.

An atom that likes to give up an electron interacts with an atom that likes to take  

electrons.

Atoms that do not like to share electrons interact with each other. 

Hans Christian Oersted discovered the relationship between the forces of  magnetism and electricity by:

many long years of tedious research. 

reading the writings of Galvani. 

an accident during a physics lecture. 

interpreting his dreams and obsessions. 

replicating the experiments of Volta.

In his famous experiment of the late 1700s, Charles Coulomb: 

repeated Benjamin Franklin's kite and lightning demonstration. measured static electricity using a piece of amber. 

proved Newton's three laws of motion. 

measured the force of the electric charge in objects. 

showed that muscle contractions are both electric and chemical. 

Which of the following items would use only low-resistance wires?

a toaster 

a space heater (electric heater for a room in your house) 

an electrical transmission line 

an incandescent light bulb 

a hair dryer 

Motors and magnets owe their existence to what force? 

strong force 

weak force 

gravitational force 

static electrical force 

electromagnetic force 

What are some ways the Earth's magnetic field is or was used for navigation? 

Sailors of the past used compasses to direct their course. 

Some bacteria navigate up and down within pond ooze. 

Some migratory birds are directed by the magnetic field. 

The Australian silvereye can see the magnetic fields using a form of color vision. All of the choices are ways in which the magnetic field is or was used for  

navigation.

Which statement best describes transverse waves?

Transverse waves are a special type of longitudinal wave. 

A wave a frog would make jumping up and down on a lily pad. The transverse wave moves particles in the direction that the wave is moving. The energy moves perpendicular to the wave direction. 

Echoes are formed from transverse waves.

Another word for constructive interference is: 

amplitude. 

destructive. 

reinforcement. 

Doppler effect. 

acceleration. 

Which sound wave frequency is outside the range of a human's ability to detect? 

5 Hz 

20 Hz 

200 Hz 

2000 Hz 

10000 Hz 

Mendeleev's periodic table was organized according to rules of scientific method.  Which statement below follows those rules?

The periodic table made predictions that could be tested. 

Only scientists could understand the periodic table. 

Information that refuted Mendeleev's hypothesis was ignored. 

Mendeleev's listed the elements alphabetically. 

The periodic table has not changed in 100 years. 

The fundamental building block for all matter, which is the smallest representative  sample of a substance that maintains chemical identity, is called

an atom. 

an element. 

a molecule. 

an electron. 

a chemical compound. 

In today's periodic table, elements are arranged in order of

number of protons in the nucleus of the atom. 

number of neutrons in the nucleus of the atom. 

number of electrons in the nucleus of the atom 

atomic size of the atom. 

the alphabetical listing of the atoms. 

What is an atom's spectrum?

the total collection of different photons an atom can emit 

sum of all electrons an atom will have in its orbits 

the atomic mass of the atom 

the atom's place in the periodic table 

the allowed orbit closest to the nucleus 

In the periodic table of the elements, a period refers to the 

vertical column. 

number of neutrons. 

the horizontal row. 

atomic mass of the atom 

number of protons in the atom. 

Metallic bonds create materials with properties that make them: 

polar. 

able to change shape without breaking. 

brittle. 

good insulators. 

as hard as diamonds. 

If a chemical bond forms spontaneously, then: 

energy will be needed in the reaction. 

energy will be released in the reaction. 

a change in state will always occur. 

a change in color will always occur. 

a plasma will always be formed. 

If you drop a material that is held together by ionic bonds, one likely outcome is that it will:

bend. 

bounce. 

flow across the floor. 

shatter. 

be dented. 

Sodium chloride (NaCl) atoms form a crystal lattice that is held together by: 

hydrogen bonds. 

salt bonds. 

covalent bonds. 

ionic bonds.

van der Waals bonds. 

Noble gases are called so because they: 

are considered more important than other elements. 

don't chemically interact with other elements. 

can chemically interact with many other elements. 

are very valuable. 

can exist in more forms than other elements. 

Which of the following is not a property of magnets? 

All magnets have poles 

All magnets can attract an iron nail 

All magnets' poles come in pairs, a north and a south 

All magnets are made of steel 

What was one of the original motivations for grouping the elements in columns? 

They are grouped according to similar sizes 

They are grouped according to similar chemical behavior 

They are grouped according to similar masses 

They are grouped according to the order in which they were discovered 

The spontaneous formation of new chemical bonds usually leads to the emission of  energy in the form of heat because of which of the following reasons?

Electrons go from lower energy states to higher energy states. 

Nuclei go from higher energy states to lower energy states. 

Valence electrons go from higher energy states to lower energy states. Electrons in the outermost shell adopt identical low-energy states. 

Approximately how much power is consumed per hour by an electric stove drawing  40 amps? (Note - This electric stove is plugged into a 240 volt wall socket.)

6 watts/hour 

345 watts/hour 

9.6 kilowatts/hour 

5.75 kilowatts/hour 

9600 kilowatts/hour 

Which is not associated with broadcast radio waves?

amplitude modulation 

frequency slices or bands 

"radio window" in the atmosphere 

frequency modulation 

electron motion in an antenna 

How fast can light travel in one second, if it is moving through a vacuum? 

186,000 feet 

30,000 meters 

18,600 miles 

300,000 kilometers 

3,000,000 miles 

Which of the following is totally a longitudinal wave? 

Water 

Sound 

Light 

Electromagnetic 

Laser 

Light passing through a window glass is an interaction called: 

transmission. 

absorption. 

scattering. 

reflection. 

the greenhouse effect. 

Who first showed that an atom was not a solid particle by identifying a particle  within it called an electron?

Sir Isaac Newton. 

Joseph John Thomson. 

John Dalton. 

Ernest Rutherford. 

Albert Einstein. 

Covalent solids are held together because of: 

a sea of electrons. 

a sharing of electrons.

an attraction between the polar molecules. 

a transfer of negative electrons. 

the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. 

Which of the following represents the most stable arrangement of electrons? 

atoms with completely filled valence shells 

elements that are positioned on the far right column of the periodic table of  

elements

inert gases such as helium, neon and argon 

atoms with a total of 2, 10, 18 or 36 electrons 

any or all of these answers are correct 

To achieve a negative charge, you would most likely do which of the following

Add protons to the object 

Add electrons to the object 

Remove electrons from the object 

Remove protons from the project 

Which of the following is an observation we can make about pipes in a pipe organ? 

The longest pipes give rise to the highest frequencies 

The shortest pipes give rise to the smallest frequencies 

The length of the pipe is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency of  

the sound it produces

The length of the pipe is inversely proportional to the frequency of the sound it  produces

Inert gases 

have very little in common 

form a compound known as a salt 

are also called halogens 

have similar chemical properties 

All contain oxygen 

An isomer of heptane would be a molecule with the molecular formula: 

C7H16 

C6H14 

C5H12 

C4H10

When two atoms link up we call that: 

periodicity. 

a chemical bond. 

a noble gas. 

valence. 

Motors and magnets owe their existence to what force?

strong force 

weak force 

gravitational force 

static electrical force 

electromagnetic force 

How much amperage will be moving through a wire if it has a resistance of 12 ohms and is carrying 120 V?

10 amps 

12 amps 

1.2 amps 

100 amps 

1 amp 

The load in an electric hair dryer is located: 

where the dryer plugs into the electrical outlet. 

where the electrical cord is attached to the dryer. 

in the on/off switch. 

in the heating element and fan. 

where the heated air is exhausted. 

Which property of electromagnetic waves is measured in Hertz? 

amplitude 

speed 

frequency 

length 

energy 

Sound waves with low frequencies: 

have low amplitudes if they are loud. 

travel at faster speeds than sound waves with high frequency. 

have low pitches.

have high pitches. 

are more likely to experience destructive interference. 

"Allowed orbits" was a phrase applied to the: 

electrons in Rutherford's model of the atom. 

protons in Dalton's model of the atom. 

electrons in Bohr's model of the atom. 

protons in Thompson's experiments. 

neutrons in Mendeleev's periodic table of elements. 

An element with an atomic number of 8 

was the eighth element discovered. 

contains atoms with four protons and four neutrons. is composed of atoms with only eight protons. 

has eight electrons in the outer shell of each atom. as six protons and two neutrons. 

An electrically neutral particle in the nucleus of an atom is called 

a nucleus. 

a proton. 

an electron. 

an ion. 

a neutron. 

Ionic solids are held together because of: 

a sea of electrons. 

a sharing of electrons. 

an attraction between the polar molecules. 

a transfer of negative electrons. 

the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. 

An example of a metallic bond is: 

DNA. 

organic compounds. 

hydrogen gas. 

NaCl. 

an alloy.

Taking the speed of light as being equal to 3 x 10^8 m/s, if an electromagnetic  wave has a frequency of 6 x 10^8 Hz what is its wavelength?

0.5 m 

2 m 

3 m 

9 m 

If one were to conduct a cutting experiment like that described by Democritus  wherein he envisioned cutting paper into smaller and smaller pieces using the  world's sharpest knife, what would the smallest identifiable bit of paper be?

an atom 

a molecule 

a tiny part of an atom 

an element like hydrogen 

Because a neutral sodium atom has 11 electrons, sodium is: 

an inert gas. 

a highly reactive element. 

a noble gas. 

only sightly reactive under certain conditions 

Methane combusts in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide and water,  as shown by this

reaction - CH4 + O2  CO2 + H2O. In an appropriately balanced chemical equation,  what is

the ratio of methane used to water produced?

1 : 1 

2 : 1 

1 : 2 

2 : 2 

What scientist is credited with making the first battery? 

Luigi Galvani 

Michael Faraday 

Alessandro Volta 

Benjamin Franklin 

William Gilbert

William Gilbert discovered many important properties of magnets. Which of the  following was not among Gilbert's findings?

Every magnet has at least two poles. 

If magnetic poles are alike they repel each other. 

Steel rods can be magnetized by stroking them with a lodestone. Electric currents can be produced by changing magnetic fields. Iron's magnetism can be destroyed by heating. 

Our basic knowledge of the properties of static electricity began: 

in the sixteen hundreds. 

with the invention of the battery. 

with the invention of the electric motor. 

in the eighteenth century. 

in the seventeenth century. 

When you cut a magnet in half you get: 

two north poles. 

two south poles. 

two magnets each with a north pole and south pole. 

one magnetic monopole. 

one south pole and one north pole. 

Sound waves cannot travel through: 

very dense materials. 

water. 

a vacuum. 

glass. 

helium. 

Bats navigate by emitting high pitched sound waves and

killing all the moths within 10 meters. 

attracting various insects toward the sound. 

listening for an echo. 

calculating wave crests per second. 

hoping humans do not hear them. 

Materials made from a single type of atom that cannot be broken down any further  are called

atoms. 

elements.

molecules. 

solutions. 

compounds. 

What is an atom's spectrum?

the total collection of different photons an atom can emit 

sum of all electrons an atom will have in its orbits 

the atomic mass of the atom 

the atom's place in the periodic table 

the allowed orbit closest to the nucleus 

The fundamental building block for all matter, which is the smallest representative  sample of a substance that maintains chemical identity, is called

an atom. 

an element. 

a molecule. 

an electron. 

a chemical compound. 

Which instrument below emits photons that have wave crests in exact alignment? 

electron microscope 

light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation 

telescope fitted with a spectroscope 

spectroscope which is not part of a telescope 

a source of alpha particles in a physics laboratory 

Metals are held together because of: 

a sea of electrons. 

a sharing of electrons. 

an attraction between the polar molecules. 

a transfer of negative electrons. 

the lack of attraction between the inert atoms. 

Chemical bonds are: 

the attraction among atoms resulting from the destruction of electrons. an unstable configuration among two or more elements. 

the redistribution of electrons between atoms, leading to a more stable  

configuration.

sharing of protons in the lowest energy level.

explained in laws of thermodynamics. 

The current in a circuit is 0.5 A and the voltage across it is 12 V. The power being  supplied by the source is:

12.5 W 

11.5 W 

6 W 

24 W 

Which kind of reaction is 2HNO3 + Mg(OH)2  2H2O + Mg(NO3)2? 

Precipitation 

Acid-Base 

Oxidation 

Reduction 

An atom capable of making very complicated, covalently-bonded molecules is:

carbon. 

nitrogen. 

helium. 

sodium.

Test 3:

Which of the following pairs of objects exchange gravitons? ∙ the Moon and Earth; the international space station and an  astronaut; two adjacent molecules of oxygen in the  atmosphere; the Orion Nebula and a newborn baby  

Which elementary particle has the same mass but a different  charge as one of the leptons?

∙ positron 

 

Which of the following kinds of particles are made from quarks? ∙ protons 

 

Which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest?

∙ quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule 

 

Supernovas probably happen within the Milky Way galaxy about  every:

∙ 30 years 

 

At this moment, the Sun is producing energy by burning: ∙ hydrogen 

 

The energy source of stars is primarily associated with: ∙ the reactions of nuclei in the star core. 

 

If you were describing the structure of the Sun correctly, you  would say that:

∙ ten percent of the total volume of the Sun is the core; the  Sun's outer region is a convection zone; the photosphere  thins away from the Sun's surface; a gaseous chromosphere  and corona are visible only during a solar eclipse.

 

Why do scientists think that dark matter does not interact  through the electromagnetic force?

∙ because, if it did, it would absorb or emit photons  

The discovery of a cosmic microwave background: ∙ gave support to the Big Bang theory.

 

When astronomers look out at our universe, they see all: ∙ other galaxies moving away from us. 

 

The Big Bang theory and the theory of the steady state universe  differ:

∙ in that only the steady state theory lacks a specific beginning for the universe.

 

The difference between continental and ocean basin rock is: ∙ ocean rocks are basaltic and continental rocks are granitic.  

Which of the following would not be seen in the United States? ∙ an old spreading "rift" plate boundary 

 

What would be an architectural specification for a skyscraper built in an earthquake-prone region?

∙ flexible with shock preservers 

 

Which of the following was used as evidence for plate tectonics? ∙ topographic profiles of the ocean floors; maps on rock  magnetism; data classifying rocks by age; sea floor spreading  

A U.S. national recycling program is inhibited by: 

∙ the way most paper with print is made in the U.S.; the fact  that each type of trash requires a unique chemical process to be recycled; the sheer volume of trash needing to be  processed; the mixing of different kinds of plastics in the  waste stream.

 

How are CFCs dangerous to the environment? 

∙ breaking O3 to create O2 

 

Which of the following is an example of the law of unintended  consequences in action at the Aral Sea?

∙ diverting water to grow cotton 

 

According to the equilibrium hypothesis, introducing a new  species to an isolated ecosystem will:

∙ cause another species to go extinct. 

 

The force that holds the nucleus together despite the electrical  repulsion between protons is the:

∙ strong force.

 

In the outer region of the Sun, energy moves by __________ and  then into space the Sun's energy comes to Earth by __________? ∙ Convection; radiation 

 

Approximately how far is it from one side of the Milky Way Galaxy  to the other side?

∙ 100,000 light-years 

 

Divergent plate boundaries are associated with: 

∙ seafloor spreading; formation of new crust; volcanic action;  shallow, low-energy earthquakes.

 

The average American produces 80,000 pounds of trash a year.  Which value below is a good estimate for the amount of trash the  average American produces each day?

∙ 220 pounds 

 

A high-energy physicist might request research funding for  studies pertaining to:

∙ elementary particles. 

 

Compared to its matter complement, antimatter has the same: ∙ mass, but opposite electrical charge and magnetic  characteristics.

 

Differences in how a star appears in the sky are a function of: ∙ the size of the star; how far away the star is from Earth; the  total energy emitted by the star; the star's apparent  brightness.

 

Why do astronomers currently prefer orbiting telescopes over  Earth-based telescopes?

∙ many of the regions of electromagnetic radiation are  absorbed in our atmosphere

 

Which of the following could be made of atoms formed during the Big Bang?

∙ Lithium Hydride, LiH. 

 

Which wavelength of radiation would one encounter anytime you  point a radio receiver in any direction toward space? ∙ 7.35 centimeters 



Before the first stable nuclei were formed, what was the makeup  of the universe?

∙ elementary particles 

 

What experimental evidence supports the Big Bang theory? ∙ cosmic microwave radiation 

 

The North American Plate: 

∙ extends from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to the edge of  the Pacific Plate.

 

The continents of Eurasia and North America are currently moving apart at an average rate of:

∙ 2 inches per year. 

 

Which of the following describes earthquakes? 

∙ Earthquakes are an abrupt release of energy. 

 

Which of these groups are listed in first, second, and third trophic  level, respectively?

∙ grass, deer, mountain lion 

 

Which are products of burning fossil fuels in the atmosphere? ∙ carbon dioxide and water vapor; nitrogen oxides and sulfur  compounds; water vapor and sulfur compounds; carbon  dioxide and hydrocarbons

 

Acid rain is known to: 

∙ kill plants in lakes thus reducing fish populations.  

Which of the following is the particle that mediates the  electromagnetic force?

∙ Photon 

 

A neutrino created in the solar fusion sequence: 

∙ escapes the core and the Sun itself very rapidly 

 

The transform plate boundaries: 

∙ are exemplified by the San Andreas fault. 

 

Which of the following chemical reactions produces a significant  component of pollution?

∙ N2 + 2(O2) → 2(NO2) 



How are elementary particles detected? 

∙ -1) using a large electromagnet

-2) allowing particles to pass through a grid of thin gold wires -3) by measuring changes that result from an interaction with matter

 

What is Supernova 1987A likely to become? 

∙ a pulsar 

 

From what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most of the  Sun's energy emitted?

∙ visible light waves 

 

Which of the following can be said about large stars? ∙ Large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller stars.  

Which of the following is not an endpoint of stellar evolution? ∙ main sequence star 

 

Which of the following describes a quasar? 

∙ the most distant objects we can see 

 

Which of the following was not a contribution to cosmology by  Edwin Hubble?

∙ mapping of the cosmic background microwave radiation  

What is the force that moves continents and tectonic plates? ∙ mantle convection 

 

Urban landfills use procedures that: 

∙ decrease the number of aerobic bacteria. 

 

The creation of NOx requires nitrogen, oxygen, and: ∙ energy 

 

Which statement about an ecosystem is correct? 

∙ Matter is recycled by an ecosystem. 

 

The first cyclotron was the size of a: 

∙ human hand. 

 

Considering that Betelgeuse is a red giant star, which of the  following is NOT true?

∙ Betelgeuse is the closest known star that is almost identical  to our own Sun.

 

Scientists recent calculations of the expansion of the universe  show that the expansion:

∙ has been speeding up ever since the universe was first  formed

 

When do the four fundamental forces become unified? ∙ at extremely high temperatures 

 

In what order are the fundamental forces unified as temperatures  increase from low to high?

∙ electromagnetic and weak combine first, then strong, finally  gravity

 

Which of the following affects the life of a star? 

∙ gravitational force; mass; temperature; fusion processes  

The end products of fusion in the Sun's core are: 

∙ helium isotopes, protons, and gamma rays. 

 

Where were the heaviest chemical elements on Earth created? ∙ supernovae 

 

Which of the following variables related to star observation would  not be among an astronomer's data?

∙ sound 

 

The redshift surveys of the 1980s: 

∙ measured the distance to thousands of galaxies.  

What is always characteristic of a tectonic plate? 

∙ comprised of crust and some mantle material 

 

What do scientists think will happen if the Earth's atmospheric  carbon dioxide levels are doubled?

∙ Earth's average temperature will increase 2°C to 6°C.  

How are scientists determining atmospheric ozone levels? ∙ measuring spectral lines collected from satellite-based  sensors; collecting samples with specially outfitted airplanes;  measuring spectral lines collected at ground-based sites;  measuring spectral lines collected from special aircraft

 

What were the results of the Montreal treaty of 1986? ∙ Industrial nations would decrease and eventually stop their  production of CFCs.

 

Why is any effort to control the greenhouse effect so difficult? ∙ The global economy depends on fossil fuels; The greenhouse  effect is a natural phenomenon necessary to keep the  average temperature on Earth above freezing; The global  climate models are not yet dependable enough to determine  energy policy; There is no reliable substitute energy source  available to the average citizen to replace fossil fuels on a  global scale.

 

How is the proton's +1 charge calculated using nuclear quark  charges?

∙ 2 up quarks + 1 down quark = +1 

 

Which two forces have infinite range? 

∙ gravity and electromagnetic 

 

The main research purpose of a particle accelerator is to: ∙ produce streams of 'artificial cosmic rays.' 

 

Which quark was the most recent quark to be discovered? ∙ top 

 

The solar wind: 

∙ affects the magnetic fields of planets. 

 

Approximately how long does it take the energy of the Sun to be  transferred from the stellar core to the photosphere? ∙ many thousands of years 

 

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a graphical technique used in  astronomy to compare:

∙ the surface temperature versus the energy output of a star  

If you were to observe a pulsar, what would you see? ∙ intermittent radio waves 

 

Antimatter is relatively rare in the universe because: ∙ laboratory research indicates that matter was more plentiful  early and annihilated the antimatter.

 

According to the current ideas about the origin of the universe,  which one of the following forces existed before 10-43 seconds? ∙ a single unified force 

 

Evidence for the Big Bang includes the: 

∙ observation that the universe is expanding; independent  evidence that microwave radiation is coming from all  directions in space; fact that the average temperature of the  universe is 2.7 Kelvin; abundance of light elements  

Which formula would you use to determine the age of the Atlantic Ocean basin?

∙ d = s x t 

 

The magnetic patterns from seafloor data: 

∙ were created by magnetite in lava flows. 

 

Why do scientists think that global warming is occurring? ∙ 15 of 20 years since 1980 were warmer than normal; sea  level is rising; glaciers are melting; average global  temperatures have been increasing since mid 1800's  

Research by E.O. Wilson and Daniel Simberloff supported the  theory of island biogeography when, at the end of the  experiment:

∙ the island biota were replaced by similar but different species of animals.

 

The study of objects in the heavens is known as which of the  following?

∙ Astronomy 

 

On Earth today, the one living group that collectively accounts for more changes in natural systems than any other living group and  nearly all natural processes is called:

∙ humans 

 

If an atom has 9 protons and an electrical charge of -1, what is  the chemical identity of this ion and how many electrons does it  presently have?

∙ Fluorine; 10 

 

Which one of the following describes the situation in which two  atoms are isotopes of one another?

∙ There is an atom of carbon with 6 protons and an atom of  carbon with 7 neutrons

 

Which of the following are accurate statements about the nucleus of an atom?

∙ The interactions within the nucleus of some atoms  occasionally send matter and energy out of the atom  

When radium-220 undergoes alpha decay, what particles are  created?

∙ A radon-216 nucleus and a helium 4 nucleus 

 

When a hydrogen 3 nucleus undergoes beta decay, the nucleus  left behind is:

∙ helium 3 

 

Starting with 6 grams of a substance that is known to be  radioactive, if we measure the mass remaining after 1000 days  and find 3 grams is remaining, what is the half-life? ∙ 1000 days 

 

The field of study that deals with determining the ultimate  structure of reality is referred to by philosophers as: ∙ reductionism 

 

When we see a galaxy moving towards us and emitting a ray of  light in the green part of the spectrum, which of the following  colors is the one that we would most likely see?

∙ Blue 

 

Most of the universe is made of 

∙ dark matter and dark energy 

 

Which of the following is typically not a way that a mountain can  change in size?

∙ Mountains can change in size through each of these methods (water erosion, wind erosion, volcanic eruption)

 

A particular mountain's dimensions are approximately 2000m  high by 3000m long by 1000m deep. If the erosion rate of this  mountain is 600 m3/year, how many years will elapse before this  mountain is eroded away?

∙ 10 million years 



A good piece of geographic evidence for fact that eastern South  America was once joined with western Africa is the: ∙ types of fossils found in Western Africa versus Eastern Africa  

The fact that the Pacific tectonic plate is moving over the Hawaii  hot spot is indicated by the:

∙ different ages of the islands of Hawaii and their distribution  

In any ecosystem that includes humans, the type of community  member that humans represent is

∙ consumers 

 

Hubble's Law: 

∙ the rate at which a galaxy advances toward the Earth is  proportional to its distance from the Earth

 

The importance of the ozone layer to the Earth's inhabitants is: ∙ protection from ultraviolet rays 

Which of the following pairs of objects exchange  

gravitons?

∙ the Moon and Earth; the international space station  and an astronaut; two adjacent molecules of oxygen  in the atmosphere; the Orion Nebula and a newborn  baby

 

Which elementary particle has the same mass but a  different charge as one of the leptons?

∙ positron 

 

Which of the following kinds of particles are made from  quarks?

∙ protons 

 

Which group below shows the building blocks of matter in order of their size, smallest to largest?

∙ quark, neutron, nucleus, atom, molecule 

 

Supernovas probably happen within the Milky Way galaxy about every:

∙ 30 years 

 

At this moment, the Sun is producing energy by burning: ∙ hydrogen

 

The energy source of stars is primarily associated with: ∙ the reactions of nuclei in the star core. 

 

If you were describing the structure of the Sun correctly,  you would say that:

∙ ten percent of the total volume of the Sun is the  core; the Sun's outer region is a convection zone; the photosphere thins away from the Sun's surface; a  gaseous chromosphere and corona are visible only  during a solar eclipse.

 

Why do scientists think that dark matter does not interact through the electromagnetic force?

∙ because, if it did, it would absorb or emit photons  

The discovery of a cosmic microwave background: ∙ gave support to the Big Bang theory. 

 

When astronomers look out at our universe, they see all: ∙ other galaxies moving away from us. 

 

The Big Bang theory and the theory of the steady state  universe differ:

∙ in that only the steady state theory lacks a specific  beginning for the universe.

 

The difference between continental and ocean basin rock  is:

∙ ocean rocks are basaltic and continental rocks are  granitic.

 

Which of the following would not be seen in the United  States?

∙ an old spreading "rift" plate boundary 

 

What would be an architectural specification for a  skyscraper built in an earthquake-prone region? ∙ flexible with shock preservers 

 

Which of the following was used as evidence for plate  tectonics?

∙ topographic profiles of the ocean floors; maps on  rock magnetism; data classifying rocks by age; sea  floor spreading

 

A U.S. national recycling program is inhibited by: ∙ the way most paper with print is made in the U.S.;  the fact that each type of trash requires a unique  chemical process to be recycled; the sheer volume of trash needing to be processed; the mixing of  different kinds of plastics in the waste stream.  

How are CFCs dangerous to the environment? ∙ breaking O3 to create O2 

 

Which of the following is an example of the law of  unintended consequences in action at the Aral Sea? ∙ diverting water to grow cotton 

 

According to the equilibrium hypothesis, introducing a  new species to an isolated ecosystem will:

∙ cause another species to go extinct. 

 

The force that holds the nucleus together despite the  electrical repulsion between protons is the:

∙ strong force. 

 

In the outer region of the Sun, energy moves by  __________ and then into

space the Sun's energy comes to Earth

by __________?

∙ Convection; radiation 

 

Approximately how far is it from one side of the Milky Way Galaxy to the other side?

∙ 100,000 light-years 

 

Divergent plate boundaries are associated with: ∙ seafloor spreading; formation of new crust; volcanic  action; shallow, low-energy earthquakes.

 

The average American produces 80,000 pounds of trash a year. Which value below is a good estimate for the

amount of trash the average American produces each  day?

∙ 220 pounds 

 

A high-energy physicist might request research funding  for studies pertaining to:

∙ elementary particles. 

 

Compared to its matter complement, antimatter has the  same:

∙ mass, but opposite electrical charge and magnetic  characteristics.

 

Differences in how a star appears in the sky are a  function of:

∙ the size of the star; how far away the star is from  Earth; the total energy emitted by the star; the star's apparent brightness.

 

Why do astronomers currently prefer orbiting telescopes  over Earth-based telescopes?

∙ many of the regions of electromagnetic radiation are  absorbed in our atmosphere

 

Which of the following could be made of atoms formed  during the Big Bang?

∙ Lithium Hydride, LiH. 

 

Which wavelength of radiation would one encounter  anytime you point a radio receiver in any direction toward space?

∙ 7.35 centimeters 

 

Before the first stable nuclei were formed, what was the  makeup of the universe?

∙ elementary particles 

 

What experimental evidence supports the Big Bang  theory?

∙ cosmic microwave radiation 

 

The North American Plate:

∙ extends from the middle of the Atlantic Ocean to the  edge of the Pacific Plate.

 

The continents of Eurasia and North America are  currently moving apart at an average rate of: ∙ 2 inches per year. 

 

Which of the following describes earthquakes? ∙ Earthquakes are an abrupt release of energy.  

Which of these groups are listed in first, second, and third trophic level, respectively?

∙ grass, deer, mountain lion 

 

Which are products of burning fossil fuels in the  atmosphere?

∙ carbon dioxide and water vapor; nitrogen oxides and  sulfur compounds; water vapor and sulfur  

compounds; carbon dioxide and hydrocarbons  

Acid rain is known to: 

∙ kill plants in lakes thus reducing fish populations.  

Which of the following is the particle that mediates the  electromagnetic force?

∙ Photon 

 

A neutrino created in the solar fusion sequence: ∙ escapes the core and the Sun itself very rapidly  

The transform plate boundaries: 

∙ are exemplified by the San Andreas fault. 

 

Which of the following chemical reactions produces a  significant component of pollution?

∙ N2 + 2(O2) → 2(NO2) 

 

How are elementary particles detected? 

∙ -1) using a large electromagnet

-2) allowing particles to pass through a grid of thin  gold wires

-3) by measuring changes that result from an  interaction with matter

 

What is Supernova 1987A likely to become? ∙ a pulsar 

 

From what part of the electromagnetic spectrum is most  of the Sun's energy emitted?

∙ visible light waves 

 

Which of the following can be said about large stars? ∙ Large stars have a shorter lifetime than smaller  stars.

 

Which of the following is not an endpoint of stellar  evolution?

∙ main sequence star 

 

Which of the following describes a quasar? 

∙ the most distant objects we can see 

 

Which of the following was not a contribution to  cosmology by Edwin Hubble?

∙ mapping of the cosmic background microwave  radiation

 

What is the force that moves continents and tectonic  plates?

∙ mantle convection 

 

Urban landfills use procedures that: 

∙ decrease the number of aerobic bacteria.  

The creation of NOx requires nitrogen, oxygen, and: ∙ energy 

 

Which statement about an ecosystem is correct? ∙ Matter is recycled by an ecosystem. 

 

The first cyclotron was the size of a: 

∙ human hand. 

 

Considering that Betelgeuse is a red giant star, which of  the following is NOT true?

∙ Betelgeuse is the closest known star that is almost  identical to our own Sun.

 

Scientists recent calculations of the expansion of the  universe show that the expansion:

∙ has been speeding up ever since the universe was  first formed

 

When do the four fundamental forces become unified? ∙ at extremely high temperatures 

 

In what order are the fundamental forces unified as  temperatures increase from low to high?

∙ electromagnetic and weak combine first, then strong, finally gravity

 

Which of the following affects the life of a star? ∙ gravitational force; mass; temperature; fusion  processes

 

The end products of fusion in the Sun's core are: ∙ helium isotopes, protons, and gamma rays.  

Where were the heaviest chemical elements on Earth  created?

∙ supernovae 

 

Which of the following variables related to star  observation would not be among an astronomer's data? ∙ sound 

 

The redshift surveys of the 1980s: 

∙ measured the distance to thousands of galaxies.  

What is always characteristic of a tectonic plate? ∙ comprised of crust and some mantle material  

What do scientists think will happen if the Earth's  atmospheric carbon dioxide levels are doubled? ∙ Earth's average temperature will increase 2°C to  6°C.



How are scientists determining atmospheric ozone levels? ∙ measuring spectral lines collected from satellite based sensors; collecting samples with specially  outfitted airplanes; measuring spectral lines  collected at ground-based sites; measuring spectral  lines collected from special aircraft

 

What were the results of the Montreal treaty of 1986? ∙ Industrial nations would decrease and eventually  stop their production of CFCs.

 

Why is any effort to control the greenhouse effect so  difficult?

∙ The global economy depends on fossil fuels; The  greenhouse effect is a natural phenomenon  

necessary to keep the average temperature on Earth above freezing; The global climate models are not  yet dependable enough to determine energy policy;  There is no reliable substitute energy source  available to the average citizen to replace fossil fuels on a global scale.

 

How is the proton's +1 charge calculated using nuclear  quark charges?

∙ 2 up quarks + 1 down quark = +1 

 

Which two forces have infinite range? 

∙ gravity and electromagnetic 

 

The main research purpose of a particle accelerator is to: ∙ produce streams of 'artificial cosmic rays.'  

Which quark was the most recent quark to be  discovered?

∙ top 

 

The solar wind: 

∙ affects the magnetic fields of planets. 

 

Approximately how long does it take the energy of the  Sun to be transferred from the stellar core to the  photosphere?

∙ many thousands of years

 

The Hertzsprung-Russell diagram is a graphical technique used in astronomy to compare:

∙ the surface temperature versus the energy output of  a star

 

If you were to observe a pulsar, what would you see? ∙ intermittent radio waves 

 

Antimatter is relatively rare in the universe because: ∙ laboratory research indicates that matter was more  plentiful early and annihilated the antimatter.  

According to the current ideas about the origin of the  universe, which one of the following forces existed before 10-43 seconds?

∙ a single unified force 

 

Evidence for the Big Bang includes the: 

∙ observation that the universe is expanding;  independent evidence that microwave radiation is  coming from all directions in space; fact that the  average temperature of the universe is 2.7 Kelvin;  abundance of light elements

 

Which formula would you use to determine the age of the Atlantic Ocean basin?

∙ d = s x t 

 

The magnetic patterns from seafloor data: 

∙ were created by magnetite in lava flows. 

 

Why do scientists think that global warming is occurring? ∙ 15 of 20 years since 1980 were warmer than normal; sea level is rising; glaciers are melting; average  global temperatures have been increasing since mid  1800's

 

Research by E.O. Wilson and Daniel Simberloff supported  the theory of island biogeography when, at the end of the experiment:

∙ the island biota were replaced by similar but  different species of animals.

 

The study of objects in the heavens is known as which of  the following?

∙ Astronomy 

 

On Earth today, the one living group that collectively  accounts for more changes in natural systems than any  other living group and nearly all natural processes is  called:

∙ humans 

 

If an atom has 9 protons and an electrical charge of -1,  what is the chemical identity of this ion and how many  electrons does it presently have?

∙ Fluorine; 10 

 

Which one of the following describes the situation in  which two atoms are isotopes of one another? ∙ There is an atom of carbon with 6 protons and an  atom of carbon with 7 neutrons

 

Which of the following are accurate statements about the nucleus of an atom?

∙ The interactions within the nucleus of some atoms  occasionally send matter and energy out of the atom  

When radium-220 undergoes alpha decay, what particles  are created?

∙ A radon-216 nucleus and a helium 4 nucleus  

When a hydrogen 3 nucleus undergoes beta decay, the  nucleus left behind is:

∙ helium 3 

 

Starting with 6 grams of a substance that is known to be  radioactive, if we measure the mass remaining after 1000 days and find 3 grams is remaining, what is the half-life? ∙ 1000 days 

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The field of study that deals with determining the  ultimate structure of reality is referred to by philosophers  as:

∙ reductionism

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When we see a galaxy moving towards us and emitting a  ray of light in the green part of the spectrum, which of  the following colors is the one that we would most likely  see?

∙ Blue 

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Most of the universe is made of 

∙ dark matter and dark energy 

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Which of the following is typically not a way that a  mountain can change in size?

∙ Mountains can change in size through each of these  methods (water erosion, wind erosion, volcanic  eruption)

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A particular mountain's dimensions are approximately  2000m high by 3000m long by 1000m deep. If the  erosion rate of this mountain is 600 m3/year, how many  years will elapse before this mountain is eroded away? ∙ 10 million years 

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A good piece of geographic evidence for fact that eastern South America was once joined with western Africa is the: ∙ shapes of the coastlines on both sides of the  southern Atlantic Ocean between them

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The fact that the Pacific tectonic plate is moving over the  Hawaii hot spot is indicated by the:

∙ different ages of the islands of Hawaii and their  distribution

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In any ecosystem that includes humans, the type of  community member that humans represent is ∙ consumers 

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Hubble's Law: 

∙ the rate at which a galaxy advances toward the  Earth is proportional to its distance from the Earth  

The importance of the ozone layer to the Earth's  inhabitants is:

∙ protection from ultraviolet rays

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A graviton is to gravity as the strong force is to: ∙ a gluon 

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Which group of elementary particles participates in the  strong force?

∙ hadrons 

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The difference between a quark and a lepton is: ∙ quarks exist in the nucleus; leptons do not.  

Because of research with high energy particle  accelerators, scientists have direct experimental checks  for the evolution of the universe back to:

∙ 10^-10 seconds from the beginning 

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The most recent "freezing" of the universe ultimately lead to the creation of:

∙ atoms 

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Which of these waves is classified as a type of seismic  wave that cannot pass through the liquid outer core of  the earth?

∙ shear waves 

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Most mountains have not eroded to a flat plain over time  because:

∙ mountains are reformed by tectonic uplift that is  greater than or equal to the erosional forces.  

What are some ideas proposed to decrease the emissions that lead to global warming?

∙ limit the burning of fossil fuels; strict auto emissions  limits; use scrubbers to clean up coal-burning; drive  more hybrid cars

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If the annual temperature of Washington DC warms two  degrees Celsius, its climate would be most like: ∙ Georgia's. 

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Suppose that a star has a different color than the Sun,  what can we determine from just that one observation? ∙ The star's spectrum is different from the Sun

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Which of the following is an application of elementary  particles research?

∙ positron emission tomography 

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Red giants can be described as: 

∙ large stars that have cool surfaces 

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Where is the longest mountain range on Earth? ∙ Mid-Atlantic Ocean Ridge 

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Which example would best demonstrate the "law of  unintended consequences" in action in a recent instance? ∙ removing water from aquifers 

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Which term refers to the particular way an organism  obtains matter and energy?

∙ ecological niche 

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How did Carl Anderson's cloud chamber apparatus differ  from the ones that preceded it?

∙ Anderson used magnets, which detected antimatter  

Theories of Everything (TOEs) are: 

∙ fully unified theories about how all fundamental  forces come together

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How far away is a galaxy that is moving away from Earth  at 100,000 km/s? Assume 50 km/s Mpc for the Hubble  constant

∙ more than 6 light years 

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The flow of energy in an ecosystem: 

∙ decreases by 90% at each trophic level 

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Human induced changes in complex, natural ecosystems  almost always result in

∙ unintended consequences 

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Subduction zone regions are commonly the locations of:

∙ active volcanoes; the disappearance of old plate  material; the world's highest mountains; severe  earthquakes

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How often does the oceanic plate material of the Earth  renew itself - in other words - how long to go through one  replacement cycle?

∙ every 200 million years 

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What is an end product of matter-antimatter annihilation? ∙ energy 

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If you took a vacation driving to the oldest part of the  North American continent you would need to bring a map of:

∙ northeastern Canada 

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The only currently active plate boundary within the  continental United States is the:

∙ San Andreas Fault

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