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Exam Reviews

by: gemma22

Exam Reviews GSC107


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Exam 1
Natural Disasters
Ta-Shana Taylor
Study Guide
50 ?




Popular in Natural Disasters

Popular in Geology

This 48 page Study Guide was uploaded by gemma22 on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GSC107 at University of Miami taught by Ta-Shana Taylor in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Natural Disasters in Geology at University of Miami.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
GSC107 Test 1 Study Guide Current Events: 1. What caused it 2. Impacts to people or ecosystems 3. Where? (Know countries) 4. Hazard, Disaster or Catastrophe and Why? Japan Flooding (Nicole)  Eastern region of Japan (Joso is the heart)  From tropical storm Etau  Over 2 feet of rain since Monday  Also rainy season, so weeks of downpour  Levee of a river in Osaki broke  2.8 million advised to evacuate, 7 deaths, 27 injured, 10 missing Flash Flooding (Shannon)  In between Utah and Arizona  15 confirmed deaths  Most deaths were people trapped in their cars trying to evacuate  Not much vegetation, so sediment filed the waters  Desert conditions  Caused by heavy rain at the top of a valley Chile Earthquake (Chelsea)  8.3 on Richter Scale  3 most powerful to hit Chile within 5 years  Caused by subduction plates  J13 people killed, at least 20 injured  Depth: shallow focus (20km)  Aftershocks were primary concern  Major damage in Coquimbo  Waves of 15 ft. hit the shores  Waves reached US, Canada, and Japan Impacts: 1. Our Solar System A) Age of the universe vs the age of our solar system  The universe is 13.8 billion years old  Our solar system is 4.6 billion years old B) What defines our solar system?  Our solar system is defined by anything that orbits the sun. C) The order of the planets, asteroid belt, Kuiper belt, and Oort cloud  Planets o Mercury o Venus o Earth o Mars o Ceres o Asteroid Belt o Jupiter o Saturn o Uranus o Neptune o Pluto o Kupier Belt o Oort cloud  Asteroid belt: between Mars and Jupiter  Kuiper belt: past Neptune, is a belt of debris.  Oort cloud: the edges of our solar system D) Difference between:  Asteroids: a chunk of space rock revolving around the Sun in fixed orbits. Thought to be remnants of early solar system that didn’t come together to form planets. o Some asteroids have moons o Ceres considered dwarf planets o Most stay in asteroid belt and pose no threat  Comets: “Dirty snowballs” that come from the Oort cloud o Are similar to asteroids except they are made of ice and rock. o Only have a tail when they come close to the sun o Comes in fastest because of tail  Meteors: Small piece of space rock enters the atmosphere, forming meteors. o Shooting stars o Meteor showers: times when meteors orginiate from the same part in the sky.  Meteorites: If all of the meteor is not burned up in the atmosphere (shooting star), then the rocky remnant falls to earth and is called a meteorite. o Comes from Oort Cloud or asteroid belt E) Detection: ie NASA NEO  NASA NEO: Near- Earth Object program o Coordinate NASA sponsored efforts to detect, track, and characterize potentially hazardous asteroids and comets that could approach Earth. o Now focusing on finding 90% of the NEO population larger than 140 meters.  Over 90% of the NEO larger than one kilometer already discovered o Responsible for facilitating communications between the astronomical community and the public should any potentially hazardous objects be discovered. 2. Important Impacts  Chelyabinsk: o Chelyabinsk could not be detected because it was a daytime impact and was traveling very fast. o February 15 , 2013 o Small asteroid 17 meters in diameter o Russia o Has one of the largest meteorites ever found  Meteor Crater: o Arizona o 1 mile across o Formed 50,000 years ago by a 50m diameter meteorite.  Chicxulub Crater: thought to be the site of the impact that caused the extinction of dinosaurs. o 65 million years ago o 9.7 km, 6 miles wide o Yucatan Peninsular of eastern Mexico o All large vertebrates, mostly planton, most tropical invertebrates, many land plants DIED o Blocked out the Sun for 1000 years o Comet  Deep Impact movie, Theia: 11km o About 4.5 million years ago o Mars sized body o Impact sped up Earth’s rotation and titlted Earth o The moon arranged from the debris  Tunguska: o Siberia o 1908 o Intense heat o Tunguska doens't have a crater  Early Bombardment o Oceans boiled o A ton of asteroids o Air temperature reached 932 degrees F o Earth hit by 8 monster asteroids about 12-60 miles long B) Alternate theories regarding Chicxulub Crater  Originally, they though the crater was caused by an asteroid, but they now think it was a comet instead 3. Questions on the movie sheet: Movie portrayal vs Reality A) Deep Impact i) Evidence from the movie that it’s a comet  The film depicts the attempts to prepare for and destroy a 7-mile (11 km) wide comet set to collide with the Earth and cause a mass extinction.  When discovered, it had a tail, moving at high velocity ii) Compared to other impacts discussed in class  The size of the comet was 11km long, larger than Chicxulub (9.7km) iii) Timeline and Preparation  After President Beck announces the Messiah crew's failure, he declares martial law and reveals that governments worldwide have been building underground shelters.  The United States' shelter is in the limestone caves of Missouri. The US government conducts a lottery to select 800,000 Americans under age 50 to join 200,000 pre-selected individuals as well as a massive supply of food plus genetically viable populations of significant animals and the seeds of every species of plant  About 2 years between discovery and impact, only notified the public 7 months before impact, tried blowing up comet, but instead created 2 pieces which would impact earth, one small one large, president declared martial law and created a bunker in limestone caves to house 1 million people, 200,000 pre-selected, 800,000 lottery, small piece impacts earth, destroying most of east coast, team who tried to blow up comet go on suicide mission and blow up larger comet, saving the world iv) Movie vs Reality  Nukes did not destroy comet  The Biederman fragment impacts in the Atlantic Ocean, creating a megatsunami.  pieces that burn up in Earth's atmosphere.  the crew of Messiah decides that their only chance to destroy Wolf and save the world is to undertake a suicide mission with the remaining nuclear warheads to obliterate the Wolf fragment Earthquakes: 1. Earth’s Interior A) layers i) the order  inner core  outer core  mantle  asthenosphere:  lithosphere: outer solid/rigid part of the Earth composed of rock o Includes crust and outermost layer of mantle (low velocity zone) o Plates are large slabs of this  crust: contains continental masses and ocean floors iv) two crusts and relative density  Oceanic crust: o Thin, heavy crust under the seafloor 7km thick o High density  Continental crust: o 30-50 km thick o Thick, lightweight crust under landmasses o Low density B) Asthenosphere  Plastic layer of mantle (low velocity zone)  Plays important role in the movement of plates across Earth’s surface.  Inner, hotter, more easily deformed layer  Convection currents flow here, and form in lithosphere 2. Plate Boundaries A) Divergent: plates move away from each other at divergent boundaries SPREAD, Constructive i) Usually Mid-Atlantic ridge and hydrothermal vents B) Convergent: plates move towards each other at convergent boundaries SUBDUCTION, Destructive i) continental-oceanic: subduction, one plate dives under other a) ring of fire: earthquakes and volcanoes: long chain of volcanoes, site of frequent earthquakes b) Mariana trench: located along ring of fire, deepest point on earth mount Everest could fit ii) continental-continental: low density of continents prevent subduction, crumple up into each other instead. a) Mt. Everest C) Transform: plates slide past each other at transform boundaries, commonly found on ocean floor LATERAL SLIDING, conservative with no major effect i) San Andreas Fault: 450km of displacement 3. Faults and Seismic Waves  Earthquakes form along faults- fractures in Earth’s Crust. Some faults produce them A) Epicenter vs Hypocenter  Epicenter: point on Earth’s surface directly above the focus  Hypocenter: Earthquake focus, is the actual point inside the Earth’s crust where the Earthquake originated. o Point of initial movement. Rupture B) Depth of earthquakes:  Shallow (75%)  Intermediate  Deep C) Mercalli vs Richter scales  Mercalli: intensity based on damage produced, 1-12  Richter: Calculated energy from a quake, 0-9 o Determined using seismograph E) Elastic Rebound Theory and Displacement:  Elastic rebound theory: cause of earthquake o Pulling a bow back and releasing it, like shooting an arrow o Explanation for how energy is spread  Displacement: the difference between the initial position of a reference point and any later position o The amount any point affected by an earthquake has moved from where it was before the earthquake o San Andres and Mt Everest were displaced F) Liquefaction  Soils become almost liquid when shaken, solidify when shaking stops  Significant damage to structures atop liquefied sediments 4. Modern Earthquakes P Wave first, S wave, Surface wave A) Haiti, Chile, Nepal, and Japan Earthquakes Magnitudes (strongest to weakest)  Chile 1960  Japan 2011  Chile 2010  Haiti Most Damaging  Haiti  Japan  Chile  Chile (1960) o Largest earthquake recorded in history (9.5) o Triggered landslides o Triggered volcanic eruptions for days o Killed 1,655, injured 3,000, 2m homeless o Tsunami that hit Hawaii because of this and killed 61 and caused $75m in damage  Chile 2010 o 8.8 Stronger than Haiti o Shortened the day by 1.26 microseconds, and shifted earth’s axis  Haiti (2010) o 7.0 o Aftershock for days, including 5.9 and 6.0 o Most damaging (220k deaths), 3.5m affected o Cholera  Japan (2011) o 9.0 o Tsunami with 30ft waves o $300b in damage o Aftershock of 6.2 and 6.3 o 45m people affected, 16k deaths B) prediction vs forecast  Prediction: possible to pick at risk zones o Impossible to pick date  Forecast: recurrence interval for earthquakes of various sizes o Statement of probability C) Good infrastructure/engineering vs Bad  Oscillation: buildings should be designed to avoud matching natural vibrational frequency to ground shaking frequency  Soil/fill Is not anchored to bed rock  Weak floors, too many windows BAD  Unanchored houses to foundations BAD  Shock absorbers for buildings, base isolation GOOD  Diagnoal Strength GOOD D) Preparedness  Walls should be anchored to foundation  Bolt loose items to wall  Water/gas constructed from flexible materials  Avoid elevators, glass, falling debris, take refuge under something sturdy Sample questions: 1) Name 4 ways asteroids are different from comets. 1. Asteroids are made out of rock, not gas like comets 2. Comets have tails 3. Asteroids are from asteroid belt, comets are formed in the Oort Cloud 4. Comets are faster, made of methane 2) Why were so many people injured during the Chelyabinsk meteor event?  Everyone came outside to see it, impact cause a wave after which shattered glass and harmed people 3) What occurs below Earth’s crust that causes earthquakes?  The plates are moving in the 3 different waves. 4) What is the significance of the Ring of Fire?  Most of the worlds volcanoes and Earthquakes are around here. 5) Name 3 ways divergent plates are different from convergent plate boundaries. 1. Divergent move away, convergent come at each other 2. Divergent cause ridges, convergent causes trenches 3. Divergent is constructive, convergent is destructive 6) Why are faults important when studying earthquakes?  Earthquakes form they are along faults- fractures in Earth’s Crust. Some faults produce them. Faults are cracks in the plates 7) Why was the Haitian earthquake catastrophic?  They didn’t have the proper infrastructure. Cholera, third world problems. 8) What data do scientists use to learn about, predict, and forecast earthquakes?  They use previous data to predict how often and along what area, but they can’t predict when and exactly where. Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner Scanned by CamScanner GSC107 EXAM 2 TIFF REVIEW Current Events Presentations (Presented from 9/25 through 10/21) Valley Wildfire (Zach)  Occurred in Cobb, California  Sept. 12  Has burned 118 square miles over 76,000 acres  Still not known how the fire started, but presumed to be from a shed  Hot, dry weather, plus high winds helped spread flames  Abundance of dead trees that are easily ignited  Over 2,000 buildings burned, 7 dead, 3,000 left homeless, president declared major disaster, plus hundreds of millions of dollars estimated in damage Northern California Wildfires (Kevin)  Monterrey County, CA, 177 square miles burned, 6,400 homes remain under threat  5 deaths, 1,400 homes destroyed  62 square miles burned in 12 hours  Tassajara Wildfire  Causes are the droughts in California, but the Jamesburg fire is believed to be arson, as a mans body was found near the ignition point Earthquake (Alina)  Indonesian region of Papua  6.6 magnitude  depth of 24 km  260 buildings damages  60 people injured, 17 people seriously injured Mecca Crane Incident (Michael)  Saudi Arabia  Lightning storm caused crane to fall down  Undergoing expansion effort  107 people killed, 238 injured  High winds affected the collapse of the crane  Saudi Binladin Group (group who set up construction) didn’t set the crane up correctly Super Typhoon “Dujuan” (Rebecca)  Formed in the North Pacific Ocean  Hot water and humidity causes typhoon to form  Hit Taiwan, killed 2 people, displacing 12,000 people and leaving 500,000 people without electricity  Taoyuan City’s Shihmen Dam had to release flood water  Was “super” when it hit Taiwan, moving to China now, but now “moderate” Hurricane Joaquin (Kevin)  Category 4 with winds around 130 mph  Became a hurricane within 36 hours  Expected to impact 65 million people  Caused by warm sea surface temperatures mixed with high humidity  Hit the Bahamas and experienced high flooding Typhoon Dujuan (Kunal)  Went through Taiwan  Winds reached 153 mph, making it Category 4  Killed 2 people, more than 300 injured caused by flying debris and traffic accidents  Heavy rains caused landslides causing 12,000 people to be evacuated  500,000 people without electricity South Carolina Flooding (Caroline)  Caused by heavy rains of Hurricane Joaquin  30,000 people lost power, declared state of emergency by Obama  8 killed in the flash floods, majority of them in their vehicles  5 hospitals in Columbia shut down because of water shortage  Huge rains caused by hurricane created huge quantities of water that South Carolina isn’t prepared for Guatemala Landslide (Lindsay)  In a small city outside of Guatemala City  At least 271 people dead, which is the number of bodies found  374 missing, but presumed dead  125-150 homes damaged, 400 people homeless  Heavy rain for 2 weeks, which caused hillside to be waterlogged and loosen  Event happened at midnight in a poor area with homes made of weak material  It’s located in a vulnerable area; in a valley next to a river  Government labeled the location as an at-risk area since 2009, and told to not issue building permits in that area, but they continued to do so  Only the government knew it was an at-risk area, so people kept moving there, there is an official investigation  The government promised to build new homes for the people who lost theirs Oklahoma Earthquake (Jingjing)  4.5 magnitude quake, epicenter about 3 miles northwest of Cushing (major oil storage hub)  7 aftershocks after the main one within 12 hours  No initial reports of damage or injuries  Causes are said to be caused by wells and fracking in the area  Over 700 earthquakes of magnitude over 3.0 have happened this year, compared to 20 earthquakes in 2009 California Landslides (Melissa)  Occurred Oct. 15 north of LA  Mud and rocks barreling down next to busy highways (I-5 and Highway 58)  Powerful storms on that day  Flash floods sent water flowing into roads  Hundreds of people rescued from their cars, dozen of houses damaged  No injuries and deaths reported Typhoon Koppu (Andrea)  Hit Luzon on Sunday, October 18 at around 1 AM  Heavy rains with winds of 149 moh, equivalent of high end cat 4 hurricane  More than 100,000 people displaced, 907,267 people affected  At least 58 dead from flooding, landslides, boat accidents and flying debris  Power outages affecting more than 9 million people  More that 300 villages have been submerged, 6,947 houses sustained damages  2 ndstrangest to hit Philippines, and 12 strongest this year  formed over very warm ocean water Earthquakes 1. Compare California 1994 vs Haiti 2010. Differences/similarities  Haiti (2010) o 7.0 o Aftershock for days, including 5.9 and 6.0 o Most damaging (220k deaths), 3.5m affected o Cholera  California 1994 o 6.7 o Killed 60; injured 7,000; 20,000 homeless o Happened on MLK Day, luckily many people were not on the roads o $20B in property damage o Highways and parking structures *Both are on faults *Similar magnitudes. Haiti 7.0, California 6.7 *Both were extremely damaging Differences: Less people on rode for California bc ok MLK day. Haiti was on a Tuesday during the day. Haiti had big aftershock for days. Years apart. 2. Questions on the 10.5 movie sheet: Movie portrayal vs Reality REALITY  Largest in world history 9.5 in Chile 1960  Largest in US 9.2 in Alaska 1967  Largest in California 7.9 1857 • Largest earthquake in world history, magnitude 9.5 May 22, 1960 in Chile. A 1,000 mile fault ruptured along the entire length. • Largest earthquake in the US, magnitude 9.2 March 27, 1967 in Alaska. A 620 mile fault ruptured. • Largest earthquake in California history, magnitude 7.9 in Fort Tejon 1857. • The entire San Andreas Fault is 800 miles long. A) foreshocks, earthquakes, aftershocks  foreshock: Happened in Seattle (first scene is Space needle collapsing) traveled down the San Andreas Fault.  Earthquake: Happened in California, 10.5 magnitude. Causes California to sink and creates an off shore island.  Aftershock: * Back in L.A., Hill announces that San Francisco will be next, but Nolan won't go public on it for fear of causing a panic B) Magnitudes vs Reality: C) location of magnitudes: D) Depth of earthquakes: Deeper than deep E) Data seismologists used: Randon thing Tsunamis 1. Causes: a series of water waves caused by the displacement of a large volume of a body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake.  Causes: o Earthquake o Submarine volcano o Submarine landslide o Bolide impact o Glacier calving 2. Tsunamis vs Waves vs Tides  Waves: o driven by wind o Particles travel in circular motion that fades downward o Velocity depends on wavelength  Tsunami: o Enormously long wavelength. Waves described by wavelength: distance between two wave crests. Period is between waves. o Velocity depends on water depth o Slow down dramatically in shallow water 3. Mitigation, Warning, and Prediction A) Engineering and Natural mitigation  Land use zoning: limits building to elevations above those potentially flooded  Engineer structures to resist wave erosion and scour  Orient streets and building perpendicular to shore, which limits debris impact and permits waves to penetrate without building higher  Reinforce shoreline with well-rooted trees that permit water to flow between then and slow them (mangroves and coral reefs)  Large ditch or reinforced concrete wall can reduce impact of first wave B) Warning system  Sensors  Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoy system C) Prediction  Tsunami warning network around Pacific Ocean voters large earthquakes and ocean waves, and transmits watches and warning to 26 countries  Travel time for tsunamis can be accurately calculated  Readings from tidal sensors, ocean bottom sensors detect ocean surface heights 4. Hazards and Survival strategies (before, during, and after)  Head to high ground or in land if you think there is a tsunami  If no high ground, move inland, as tsunami waves dissipate on land, or to upper floor of well-reinforced building back from beach  Nearby earthquake may not allow time for official warning (15-30 min for the first wave) 5. Tsunamis in history: Hawaii 1960, Japan 2011, Indonesian 2004  Hawaii 1960 (largest magnitude in recorded history 9.5) o Caused by an earthquake off the coast of Chile 8.5 magnitude. o $75 million in damages o Struck Hawaiian Islands in 15 hours  Japan 2011 (most destructive) o first came earthquake 9.0 magnitude o Caused by largest fault slip every recorded. o 15k deaths o $309 billion in damages nd  Indonesian 2004: 9.1 Earthquake (2 most destructive) o Caused by Indian Ocean earthquake o Came by surprise. o $9.8 billion in damages o 230,000 people died in 14 different countries o 150,000 in Indonesia alone o Millions homeless o 6 tsunami waves o 50 ft waves o Caused entire planet to vibrate 1cm 6. Questions for The Impossible: Movie portrayal vs Reality A) Warning signs before tsunami: Night before was full moon aka high tide. Water went away so all the water from the beach got sucked back. There was an earthquake before water went away B) Hazards during tsunami: People watched the wave come because they didn’t realize it was a tsunami. After first wave came people went to the beach and then a second wave came. C) Hazards post-tsunami: water was contaminated. Hospitals had too many people D) Survival strategies before, during, and after  Real life survival strategies: o Nearby earthquake may not allow time for official warning (15-30 minutes for first wave) o Affected population should move inland or to higher ground o If no high ground, move inland (tsunami waves dissipate on land) or to upper floor of well-reinforced building back from beach o Never go to shore to watch tsunami o Do not return after first wave  In movie: o Warning sign: the birds flying away, and the ground rumbling before the tsunami hits o There are 5 of them. Mom and one of the kids get swept away (but all survived). o Mom is badly injured, they find another random stranded and bring him along. Climb a tree and ride out that wave there. o Eventually locals find them and take them to the hospital. o They are British in the movie but Spanish in real life!! Infrastructure 1. What’s the problem?  Not enough money to hire/fund infrastructure redevelopment.  Dams are really bad  Alabama doesn’t even have a dam inspection group. 2000 dams  Texas has 7 people for 7000 dams. 2. Possible solutions (2 solutions)  Funded through gas tax. Fixed rate of 18 cents a gallon. Make it a percentage of gas price versus fixed 18 cents  Maybe taxing something else, for example weed in Colorado. 3. Pros/cons of each solution  Gas: o Pro: everyone needs gas so a lot of revenue. o Cons: most people will be deferred from getting gas if tax increases and will use other forms of transportation.  Tax on weed: o Pro: making lots of money o Con: very similar to the issue with gas. Volcanoes A volcano is a vent in the earth’s crust through which magma, ash, and gases erupt. >1300 active volcanoes today >1 million extinct volcanoes on land surface and ocean floor 1. Causes and Active vs Dormant vs Extinct A) Cascades: Mountains in Alaska. Group of volcanoes.  A number of volcanoes in a volcanic arc in western North America, covering 700 miles.  Mount St. Helens, most active, most likely to erupt in cascades  Arc formed due to subduction along the Cascade subduction zone. Or hot spot  Composite/strato volcanoes are most dangerous because of their eruptive history and potential for future eruptions  Part of Pacific Ring of Fire  All of the known historic eruptions in the US have been from Cascade region. All composite volcanos. ▯ Extinct: magma is dry. So it wont erupt ▯ Dormant: there is magma, but it won’t erupt. Can become active at any time and can become dormant at any time. ▯ Active: magma is there and building up. Potential of it exploding at anytime. 2. Shield vs Cinder Cone vs Composite/Stratovolcano  Three main types of volcanoes: o Shield o Cinder o Composite or Strato  Shield: o 10km o Biggest o Flows easily down slopes o Low viscosity o Highly fluid o Build up in ocean o Ex. Mauna Loa in Hawaii  Cinder o <300 meters o Smallest with steep sides o Low viscosity o Shortest eruptions o Rocks shoot out o Usually erupt only over one short period, few months to few years o Ex. Sunset crater, Paricutin in Mexico, Stromboli  Strato/Composite o 1000 to 4000 meters o Medium o Ex. Pompei deaths o Moderate viscosity. Moderate to high volatile content o Large eruptions of ash and blocks o Intervals very dramatically for eruptions o Very thick lava o Ex. Mt Griggs Alaska, Mt St Helens Relative age (long to short lived): composite/strato, shield, cinder General Explosivity (most to least): composite, cinder, shield Magma viscosity: shield/cinder, starto composite (low-high) 3. VEI (Volcanic Explosivity Index): Determines how large the explosion is • A) Definition and measurement: Scale is based on volume of eruptive products. Log scale (increase of 1 unit represents a factor of 10 larger) (0-8 scale) Can go to 10, farthest has been 8. B) Causes of explosivity: the gases make it explode. Not amount of magma. Like a beer Bubbles are small at bottom and rise and get larger. Less pressure so bubble expands C) Plinian Eruption: height that ash shoots up in the air. Volatiles can’t escape, rather they drive the magma towards the surface as they grow. D) Examples: Mt. Pinatubo 1991 (VEI = 6) 4. Historic Volcanic Eruptions: Mt. Vesuvius, Yellowstone, Minoan, Mt. Pinatubo, Mt. St. Helens Was -Yellowstone eruption 12 million years ago. -Minoan and Pinatubo: 6 -St Helens and Vesuvius: 5 6. Hazards A) Lava flows: doesn’t really kill people. It’s a myth. Magma flows. Flows slowly B) Pyroclastic flows: Mix of ash and steam. Pompei got fucked. Runs very fast. means certain death unless near edges, in building or vehicle. C) Ash and Pumice falls: flying stuff that goes in the air. Thick stuff tends to stay within area of volcano, thin stuff gets caught in clouds and travels very far. Ash rain. (Air Flow) D) Volcanic Mudflows: ash that combines itself with water. Thick water that flows. Essentially just runs down the sides. Temperature can change depending where volcano is. Like a flood. E) Poisonous Gases: Carbon dioxide in high concentrations is colorless, odorless, denser than air (hugs ground) and deadly. (Signs pre eruption). Carbon monoxide 7. Questions for Dante’s Peak: Movie portrayal vs Reality A) pre-eruption signs and hazards: the gases, Co2 coming out of the ground. Trees were dying. Numerous of small earthquakes. B) during the eruption hazards: the mudflows, ash, and the pumice stuff, lava flow Lava flow doesn’t kill people in real life but it did in the movie. C) Galeras: Very opening scene of the movie he is there in Colombia and hes getting rained on by volcano. Cinder cone so just shoots out rocks. Girl gets hit by the rock and dies. In real life it did erupt and at the same time. 6 were volcanologists 3 were tourists. Some survived D) Mammoth Mt: Someone said to evacuate because volcano was going to erupt and it didn’t and the town evacuated and went bankrupt. In real life it was Mt Baker that happened. GSC107 Test #2 Tsunamis Causes - Caused by the displacement of a large volume of body of water, typically an ocean or a large lake. - Displacements caused by earthquakes, submarine volcanoes, submarine landslides, bolide impacts, and glacier calving - Most tsunamis are generated during shallow-focus, underwater earthquakes which causes sudden rise or fall of seafloor, displacing large volume of water - Most commonly, earthquake is on a fault in a subduction zone - In an earthquake, flexed edge snaps up and oceanward, displacing huge volume of water - The sequence of events that creates a tsunami is generated by a subsea reverse or thirst fault in an ocean floor is: seafloor snaps up, pushing water with it, and the sea surface drops to form a trough. Then, displaced water resurges to form a wave crest, and finally, gravity resorts water level to its equilibrium position, sending waves in both directions. - Most vulnerable parts of US and Canada are: Hawaii and the pacific coast (Cali, Oregon, Washington, Alaska) - Pacific Ocean: on average, major tsunamis forms once a decade here, and 30 meter high waves hit once every 20 years. - Subduction zones off Japan and NW of US are likely sources of tsunami generating earthquakes - Tsunami from earthquake on Santa Catalina fault offshore of LA would reach Marina Del Rey in 8 min Tsunamis Waves Tides - Enormously long wavelengths (distance from between two wave - Ocean waves are caused by the - A tide is a periodic short term crests) movement of wind over the sea change in shoreline height of the Shape - Period: the time between the surface ocean surface caused by passage of two successive wave gravitational attraction of the moon crests - Often no taller than normal wind - Wave height is measured from the Height waves bottom of the through to the top of- High tide can amplify waves - Height at sea: 1-2 meters the crest - Height at shore: up to 30 meters - Velocity: 200 m/sec (400 mph) - Velocity depends on wavelength - Affected by moon phase an Timing - Unpredictable - Always occurring gravitational pull - Move in both directions from location - Neap tide is lower than normal bc where they were generated - Comes and goes without flooding the sun and moon are at right angles - Slows down dramatically in higher areas to each other relative to the earth Behavior shallower water - Particles travel in circular motion tSpring tide that is higher than normal - Runs quickly over the land as a wall fades downward bc the sun and moon are aligned of water relative to the earth - Tsunamis may appear like ordinary breaking waves on shore, with greater velocity and much larger waves. They also may look like a wall of water or a high breaking wave. - The sea level may also rapid rise and rivers may flow onshore. Mitigation, Warning, and Prediction A. Engineering and Natural Mitigation - Land use zoning: limits building to elevations above those potentially flooded - Engineer structures to resist wave erosion and scour - Orient streets and building perpendicular to shore, which limits debris impact and permits waves to penetrate without building higher - Reinforce shoreline with well-rooted trees that permit water to flow between then and slow them (mangroves and coral reefs) - Large ditch or reinforced concrete wall can reduce impact of first wave B. DART - Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoy system - Was greatly expanded since catastrophic Indonesia 2004 tsunami - A pressure sensor on the ocean floor detects changes in wave heights because a higher wave puts out more water, thus, more pressure above the sensor - The pressure sensor transmits the signal to the buoy floating the surface and then, to a warning center via satellite. C. Prediction? - Tsunami warning network around Pacific Ocean voters large earthquakes and ocean waves, and transmits watches and warning to 26 countries - Travel time for tsunamis can be accurately calculated - Readings from tidal sensors, ocean bottom sensors detect ocean surface heights Hazards and Survival Strategies - Head to high ground or in land if you think there is a tsunami - If no high ground, move inland, as tsunami waves dissipate on land, or to upper floor of well-reinforced building back from beach - Nearby earthquake may not allow time for official warning (15-30 min for the first wave) Relative Causes Relative Damage Earthquake Effects and Loss of Life Magnitude - - Caused by an earthquake - Killed 61 people in Hawaii 35 foot waves off the coast of Chile - Killed 138 in Japan - Struck Hawaiian islands Hawaii - The earthquake caused a - Killed 32 in Philippines in 15 hours severe plate shift that - Total: 231 deaths 8.5 - Destroyed or damaged 1960 resulted in a large - $75 million in damages over 500 homes an displacement of water businesses - SE Alaska was struck by - 30-40 foot waves - an earthquake (largest in Went on to hit Canada, North American history) - Killed 119 people Washington, Oregon, and - Large vertical - $300-$400 million in Cali Alaska displacements along damdage in Alaska - In addition to the tectonic source fault, beneath - Largest and most 9.2 tsunami,the violent 1964 Prince William Sound destructive to hit US west shaking during the - Town of Valdez built on coast earthquake caused many weak unconsolidated large landslides and deltaic sands and gravels submarine slumps (liquefaction) - Caused by Indian Ocean earthquake - - - Undersea mega thrust 230k deaths in 14 6 tsunami waves earthquake different countries - 50 foot waves - Subduction with an - 150k deaths in Indonesia - Largest duration of Indonesia epicenter off the west alone 9.1 faulting ever observed, 2004 coast of Indonesia - Millions homeless between 8-10 minutes - Came by surprise - $9.8 billion in damages - Caused entire planet to because there is no - Energy equivalent of 23k vibrate 1 cm atomic bombs tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean - Caused by largest fault slip ever recorded - 15k deaths - 133 foot (40 meter) - Sudden movement of - 14k drowned waves Japan Pacific tectonic plate - 217k buildings and 2k - Tsunami whirlpools caused massive roads damaged 9.0 - Toughest crisis Japan has 2011 earthquake - 230k cars destroyed faced - Sea off coast of Japan - $309 billion in damage - Effected Hawaii and California as well reared up Hawaii - Caused by an earthquake in Japan ^ - Proper evacuation, had 6.7 - 7-11 foot high waves 2011 hours to prepare - At least 3 significant water level drawdowns - Destroyed some harbors occurred over several California - Caused by earthquake in - Low damage because hours 2011 Japan ^ tsunami hit during low 4.1 - tide Incoming waves did not exceed the pre-tsunami high water mark Questions for The Impossible: Movie portrayal vs Reality A) Hazards During Tsunami B) Hazards Post-Tsunami C) Survival Strategies Infrastructure What’s the Problem? Possible Solutions Volcanoes Causes and Active vs Dormant vs Extinct 1. Cascades - A number of volcanoes in a volcanic arc in western North America, covering 700 miles - Mount St. Helens, most active, most likely to erupt in cascades - Arc formed due to subduction along the Cascade subduction zone - Cascade volcanoes are most dangerous because of their eruptive history and potential for future eruptions - Part of Pacific Ring of Fire - All of the known historic eruptions in the US have been from Cascade Volcanoes 2. Volcanoes - A volcano is a vent in the earth’s crust through which magma, ash, and gases erupt - 1,300 active volcanoes on earth today - Less than 1 million extinct volcanoes on land and ocean floor Active Dormant Extinct - A volcano that has - A volcano that hasn't erupted in the past 100 - years erupted in the past A volcano that hasn't - Active volcanoes occur 10,000 years erupted in more than - Times of quiescence 10,000 years close to the major (inactivity) - Example: Mt. Ashitaka in tectonic plate boundaries - Example: Mt. Kea in Japan - Example: Mt. St. Helens Hawaii in Washington Shield vs Cinder Cone vs Composite/Stratovolcano A. Relative slope (from gentle to steep): C. General Explosivity (most to least): • Shield, Composite/Strato, Cinder-Cone • Composite/Strato, Cinder-cone, Shield B. Relative age (long-lived to short-lived): D. Biggest to Smallest: • Composite/Strato, Shield, Cinder-Cone • Shield, Composite/Strato, Cinder-cone Sheild Cinder Cone Composite/Stratovolcano - Low viscosity - Low viscosity - Basaltic magma - Moderate viscosity and slope, Magma - Basalt laval flows out after moderate Viscosity - Highly fluid basaltic lava flows groundwater dries up - Viscous lava with pyroclastic - Lava flows easily down slopes - Moderate volatile (easily (rocky) material evaporated) content - 1000-4000m (3k-13k ft) high - Conical mountain with steep - 300m (980 ft) high Height - 10km (32k ft) high - Small size with steep sides sides composed of interbedded layers of viscous lava and pyroclastic material - Sunset Crater (Arizona) has a - Mt. Vesuvius (Italy) Example - Mauna Loa (Hawaii) smooth sided cone capped by - Mt. Griggs (Alaska) Locations - Hawaiian islands a central crater - Mostly in coastal chains above - Paricutin Volcano (Mexico) subduction zones - Stromboli VEI A. Definition and Measurement - VEI Scale is based on volume of eruptive products - Log scale (increase of 1 unit equals 10 times more powerful) - Scales ranges from 0 to 8 B. Causes of Explosivity - Volcanic gas causes explosive eruptions because of the greater pressure at the bottom and decreasing pressure at the top C. Plinian Eruption - Intermediate to Felsic (silica rich) magma (gas content: 4-5 wt%) - Volatiles (easily evaporated chemicals) can’t escape, rather they drive the magma towards the surface as they grow, resulting in a sustained eruption - Column heights can exceed 18 miles high - Vent velocities up to 500 m/s (1300 mph) - Create fine-grained ash to blocks - Distributes ash significant distances and elevations from the volcano - Can influence weather on a global sale D. Examples - Mt. Pinatubo 1991 (VEI = 5) Impacts and VEI Type of Volcano Damage (Global, Warning Signs Local, and Life) - 13k deaths - Eruption and Mt. Vesuvius 5 Composite - landslides - Earthquakes Stratovolcano - City buried by volcanic activity and later rediscovered - Glassy ash blanketed Nebraska savannah Yellowstone 8 Caldera (crater) - Animals died as their lungs filled with powder - 40k deaths - Plinian column 23m Shield Volcano high Minoan 6 - Tsunamis 40ft tall - Strange colored sunsets for 3 years - Plato’s Atlantis? - Huge explosions and pyroclastic flows Mt. Pinotubo 6 Stratovolcano - South side of island evacuated - Several hundred homes destroyed - Debris avalanche, - Known as most active, lateral blast, and most likely to erupt in mudflows Cascades - Killed 57 people - - Magnitude 5 Hazard forecasts were earthquake triggered issued 2 years before Mt. St. Helens 5 Composite landslide of bulge, - Small earthquakes and which relieved steam a landslide pressure in magma - Lateral blast followed below, resulting in by pyroclastic flows, explosion progressing into - Ash circled the glove in immense vertical less than 3 weeks Plinian column Scientific Instrumentation, Data and Prediction? - A tiltmeter measures the changing increase in slope on the volcano flank as the bulge grows - Detection of thermal anomalies in satellite data - Monitoring increasing levels of volcanic gas emission - Detecting small earthquake locally Hazards - Millions of people around the world live in fish of volcanic hazard (rich fertile soil and beautiful vistas). Most eruptions kill no more than a few hundred people A. Lava Flows - Even when cooled and black, can still be hot enough to ignore wood structures - Objects that aren't burned may be surrounded or buried by flow (trees) - Pose little threat to human life because lava flow moves so slowly and covers very small area B. Pyroclastic Flows and Surges - Mixture of dense hot volcanic ash and steam that flows downhill because too it is too dense to rise - Race down side of volcano really fast - Ash-rich, shock wave surge may race ahead of pyroclastic flow - Pyroclastic flow means certain death unless near edges, in building or vehicle - Hottest pyroclastic flows are hot enough to fuse into a solid mass (welded ash) - Most dangerous place: bottom of valley - Actual hazard distance can be much greater if eruption is fueled by lateral blast - Pyroclastic flows can travel over surfaces of water, pick up rocks in their path, flatten forests - One explanation for the movement of hot pyroclastic flows over water is that some of the dense part of a pumice flow may sink as the still flowing lighter part races over the water surface C. Ash and Pumice Falls - Ash particles are suspended in cloud of steam that cools and condenses, fall in ashy rain (volcano weather). - Largest ash particles fall near vent - Smallest ash particles remain suspended in stratosphere for years, and are carried around world, blocking radiation from sun - Mt. Tambora: year without summer. Crops failure (east Canada, new England, Britain) - Another example is Yellowstone - Heavy loading of ash on roofs, when mixed with water, causes roof collapse - Serious health problems from inhaling ash for those with existing respiratory illness - Problems for cars: hinder visibility, clogs air filters D. Volcanic Mudflows - Ash combines with water, pours down sides pf stratovolcano at high speeds - Consistency of wet concrete (very dense) - Spread over lower slopes, picking up objects in path (even boulders) - Can be triggered by eruption of volcano covered in ice or snow, or by heavy rain - Icy to boiling temperatures (called lahars) E. Poisonous Gases - Carbon dioxide in high concentrations is colorless, odorless, denser than air (hugs ground) and deadly - Cameroon 1986: magmatic carbon dioxide bubbled out of Lake Nyos, swept downhill through villages as a river of gas. Killed people, cattle, and other small animals • Lake Nyos is a volcanic crater • CO2 eruption caused by rainy season landslide into the lake - CO2 gas rises along faults from molten magma at depth and can collect in depressions or confines areas, like the basement of a house - CO2 gas killed tries on Mammoth Mountain, California 1996 Questions for Dante’s Peak: Movie Portrayal vs Reality A. Pre-Eruption Signs and Hazards B. During the Eruption Hazards C. Mt Baker, Galeras, Mammoth Mt. Current Events Presentations 1. What was it? - A category 1 hurricane named “Cyclone Raquel” - Wind gusts up to 56 mph 2. What caused it? - Occurred during El Niño season - Caused by a combination of strong winds driving water onshore and the lower atmospheric pressure 3. Impacts to people or ecosystems - Over 150 buildings destroyed - Over 40k gardens destroyed - Much agriculture was destroyed 4. Where? (Know continents) - SW Pacific near Solomon Islands - Off Northeast Australia’s 5. Hazard, Disaster or Catastrophe and Why? - Natural disaster - 1 death, but 10k were affected - Rescue stalled due to ongoing rain, floods, and landslides GSC107: Exam #3 Review Sheet Current Events Presentations (Presented from 10/26 through 12/4) Andrew’s: 1. Location: Chennai, India 2. What occurred?: Northeastern Monsoon 3. What caused it?: Winter cools off Indian continent —> cold wind picks up moisture from WARM Bay of Bengal and brings it to southern coast 4. Impacts: 70+ dead from drowning, 11k homes destroyed, roads flooded b/c drainage systems overwhelmed 5. Natural Disaster b/c 10+ dead and 100+ affected*** Tiffney’s: 1. Location: Midwest section of the US (Texas, Kansas, Oklahoma) 2. What happened? Major flooding, freezing temperatures, dangerous driving conditions. 3. What caused this? Slow moving band of storms 4. Impacts to people and ecosystem? At least 14 dead. More than 78,000 without power in Oklahoma. Rainfall totals for Texas surpassed a 24- year record 5. What would you classify this? Natural disaster. More than 10 people died. More than 100 were affected. Storms Air movement (5 listed below) is the underlying cause of storms 1. Density a. Convection hot air rises (less dense) b. Cold air sinks (more dense) c. The ground heats upheats air above the ground d. That parcel of air risesreaches upper atmosphere (cold)cloud formationcold air comes down to replace air that has risen (vacuum motion) 2. Water Cycle (Temperature) a. Evaporation: Liquid to gasdue to heating (Hot +dryevap) b. Condensation: Gas to liquiddue to cooling (Cold + wet) c. Precipitation: Condensation builds upwater molecule can no longer defy gravity i. delivery of atmospheric water to earth’s surface d. Infiltration: The process of water moving from the surface to ground water below e. Run off: The process in which water does not infiltrate and moves along the surface f. Transpiration: The process where water vapor is returned to the atmosphere from trees (leaves in particular) 3. Specific Heat Capacity and Land/Sea Breezes -SHC of certain substances  Pure Water 1.00, Granite & Dry Sand .19 a. SHC: The amount of heat required to change the temp of a substance by 1 degree Celsiusit is an innate property that every object has b. Anything that heats quick, will cool quick c. Anything that heats slowly, will cool slowly d. The higher the specific heat capacity the more difficult it is to cool down e. Water and SHC: During the day heat risesreturn flow cools over waterwhich leads to sea breeze f. During night: Air cools over landland breeze warms over waterreturn flowair cools over land 4. Air Pressure and surface winds -Hadley Cell: Hot moist air rises above the equator, due to Law of Thermodynamics II (and entropy) the heat spread and cools getting more dense and sinking. When the air sinks it is now dry. So most of earth’s deserts are a long the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn due to the Hadley Cell. a. Wind is caused by air flowing from high to low pressure-its direction is influenced by earths rotation b. In areas where air is rising there is low pressure (storm conditions) c. High pressure (sinking air) moves down and then out d. Differences in temp have set up differences in pressure 5. Coriolis Effect and Trade Winds a. Coriolis effect: Earth is moving/rotating as the cells are moving, causes winds to curve instead of move in a straight line this is how we get the trade winds b. Surface winds= Trade winds i. Winds are named from where they come from c. Hurricanes are moved by surface winds d. The trade winds moving that affect Florida move east to west, from Africa to Florida. Since they come FROM the east, we call them Northeast Trade Winds. e. African dust fertilized the everglades. Can also be found in the Florida keys, and some of the Bahamas, Caribbean, Central America, Northern South America and etc. 6. Storm safety a. Lightning i. No place outside is safe, if you can hear thunder lightning is close enough to strike you, when you hear thunderstorms immediately move to a safe shelter: a substantial building with electricity or plumbing or and enclosed, metal-topped vehicle with the window rolled up, stay in shelter at least 30 minutes after you head the last sound of thunder ii. Stay off corded phones, computers and other electrical equipment that put you in direct contact with electricity, avoid plumbing, including sinks are baths and faucets, stay away from window or doors, and stay off porches, don't lie on concrete floors and do not lean against concrete walls iii. If you are caught outside with no safe shelter: Get off elevated areas such as hills mountain ridges or peaks, never lie flat on the ground, never shelter under an isolated tree, never use a cliff or rocky overhang for shelter, get out and away form bodies of water, stay away from objects that conduct electricity (barbed wire fences, power lines, windmills, etc.) b. Hurricane i. The same from above applies, stay inside and away from windows 7. Layers of Earth’s atmosphere a. TroposphereStratosphere (Ozone layer)MesosphereThermosphere i. Ozone is a gas in the atmosphere that protects everything living on the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV) rays from the Sun. Without the layer of ozone in the atmosphere, it would be very difficult for anything to survive on the surface. b. –pause: is t


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