Final Exam Review Sheet Political Science
Final Exam Review Sheet Political Science POLI 201 001
Popular in American National Government
POLI 201 001
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Political Science
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Final Exam Review Sheet Anis not limited to the items listed below. You should, however, pay particular attention to the items listed. WORDS IN BOLD FOUND IN THE STUDY GUIDE ARE DEFINED IN THE TERMS TO KNOW Terms to know: Adverse selection – the problem of incomplete information, of choosing alternatives without fully knowing the details of available options Agenda setting – the power to bring attention to particular issues and problems Australian Ballot – an electoral format that presents the names of all the candidates for any given office on the same ballot Duverger’s Law – rule electoral systems will tend to have two political parties Framing – the power of the media to influence how events and issues are interpreted Gender gap – a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the differences in views between women and men Initiative – a process by which citizens may petition to put a proposal on the ballot for public vote Measurement error – is the failure to identify the true distribution of opinion within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded questions Moral hazard – the problem of not knowing all aspects of the actions taken by an agent Plurality rule – a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the individual who gets the most votes in an election by not necessarily a majority of the votes cast Political identities – distinctive characteristics or group associations that individuals carry and that hold for those individuals’ social connections or common values and interests with others in that group Priming – the process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an event or a political actor Public opinion citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions, and events Recall – the removal of a public official by popular vote Referendum – a measure proposed or passed by a legislature that is referred to the electorate for approval Sample – a small group selected to represent the most important characteristics of an entire population Selection Bias – a polling error in which the sample is not representative of the population being studied Socialization – a process through which individuals assimilate community preferences and norms through social interactions Prospective – based on future performance Retrospective – based on past performance Spatial issues – voters care about how something is done Valence issues – voters want a particular outcome regardless of how it is achieved MedianVoter Theorem – a proposition predicting that when policy options can be arrayed along a single dimension, majority rule will pick the policy most preferred by the voter whose ideal policy is to the left of half of the voters and to the right of half the voters Political Party – an organized group that attempts to influence government by electing their members to office Convention – a meeting of party leaders to choose nominees Primary – registered party members choose the nominee in an election Closed primary – an election in which only those voters who registered with the party in a specified period before election day can participate Open primary – an election in which voters can choose on election day itself which party’s primary to vote in Party system – the constellation of parties that are important at any given moment Public opinion 2 levels: o individual – one person’s opinions o aggregate – the accumulation of individual beliefs Americans hold common opinions but not a single view Product of personality, interests, outside forces Measuring public opinion o Polling o Sample Sample size affects the reliability of a sample Larger samples are more reliable but also more expensive Measurement error o Selection Bias Public Opinion Influences Government Policy o Electoral accountability o Building coalitions o Input in rule making and legal decisions o Shaping public opinion Preferences shaped by economic selfinterest and social or moral values; some can be held more firmly than others Foundations include selfinterest, values, and social groups Beliefs reflect how people understand the world and consequences of actions Socialization Important agents of socialization o Family o Education o Work o Social groups o Political conditions Identity Politics Identities are based upon: o Nationality o Partisan Identification o Race/Ethnicity History of slavery caused divides between races There are differences in beliefs and preferences among races regarding basic responsibilities of government o Gender Gender gap Women consistently vote more democratic and men vote more republican o Religion o Geography o Outgroups Some groups are defined by who they are not rather than who they are Psychological and sociological Identities are ABSOLUTES Ideology – a comprehensive way of understanding political or cultural situations. It is a set of assumptions about the way the world and society works that help us organize our beliefs, information, and new situations Most Americans consider themselves liberal or conservative Political knowledge o Few Americans demote sufficient time, energy, or attention to politics o Cost of gathering information may be high for little to no benefits Media o Most political information flows to the public through mass media o Newspapers, radio, TV, internet, and social media o Effects Agenda setting Priming Framing Elections Principals choose agents to act on their behalf 2 problems with principals: o adverse selection o moral hazard WHO VOTES? o 15 amendment – African Americans right to vote Jim Crow Laws restricted voting rights after amendment th o 19 thmendment – women’s’ right to vote o 16 amendment – 18yearolds right to vote o Shelby County v. Holder – struck down provision requiring jurisdictions to seek preclearance for new voting restrictions o Decline in voting 19001920 Australian ballot Jim Crow laws o New Deal saw an increase in voter turn out starting in 1920 o Voter Registration Registration often provides an obstacle to voting Recent moves often prevent registration Young people move more often and are less likely to be registered where they live HOW DO WE VOTE? o Ballots Secret ballot & Australian ballot was introduced in the late 19 century o Direct Democracy 24 states allow for a referendum 24 states allow for the initiative 18 states allow for the recall WHERE DO WE VOTE? o Electoral Districts Elected officials represent people in specific places U.S. employs singlemember districts Tend to exaggerate the victory of the majority Weaken 3 parties One representative from each district Electoral college is employed for presidential elections o Exceptions to one person, one vote Electoral college U.S. Senate – each state is given the same number of senators o Redistricting Districts are redrawn every 10 years Boundaries may be manipulated to give one party or another an advantage (gerrymandering) Racial gerrymandering Redistricting could break up communities of racial minorities which dilutes their power and makes it more difficult to elect minority legislators UNCONSTITUTIONAL WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO WIN? o Plurality rule Duverger’s Law Voters don’t want to waste their vote so they will vote for the more moderate alternative if they understand that the more extreme candidate cannot win o Challenges to winning include… How to bring people in How to raise money How to coordinate activities What message to run LONG AND COSTLY How Voters Decide o Older people, highly educated, people who have not recently moved, and people interested in the issues are more likely to vote o Registration requirements decrease voter turn out o HOW TO VOTE Partisan loyalty (strongest influence) o ISSUES Voters look forward and back Prospective Retrospective Means and ends Spatial issues Valence issues o MedianVoter Theorem The candidate whose position is closest to this is likely to win o Candidates Characteristics Personal attributes of candidates influence voters’ decisions Voters tend to prefer candidates similar to themselves Voters look for specific characteristics (honesty, vigor, etc.) Incumbency is often an advantage Campaigning o Campaign Organizations Most are temporary and created by a candidate; usually disband shortly after election Parties and interest groups have permanent political organizations o Campaign Tactics Employ TV, radio, mail, internet Rallies and debates Many laws surrounding campaign financing Political parties Federalism and bicameralism make it difficult for one political party to gain control over all aspects of government Why parties? o Collective Action Campaign organization requires collective action Parties give elections structure Groups provide parties with resources and parties provide groups with influence over government o Collective Choice Parties facilitate action in policymaking Functions of Parties o Recruiting candidates Find good candidates that can raise money and appeal to the public o Nominating candidates Convention – tend to choose insiders Primary – allow for more outsiders Closed primary Open primary o Facilitate electoral choice Can provide a brand name that can help voters who know nothing about a candidate to make a semiinformed choice o Influence government Build coalitions among interests Democrats: push for more government intervention in the economy, less social regulation, expansion of civil rights Republicans: push for laissezfaire economics and greater social regulation Parties as Institutions o National convention – nominate the presidential candidates, sets party platform o National committee – raises money, enhances party image/brand name o Congressional campaign committee – recruits candidates, raises money, provides services o State and local organizations – registers voters, recruits candidates, raises money Third Parties o Barriers include… No ideological room for third parties Legal advantages for major parties Existing party identification Six party systems First Party System o Federalists Northeasterners Mercantile and business interests Disappeared after War of 1812 o DemocraticRepublicans Southerners Agrarian interest Second Party System o Democrats Strong in south and west Opposed national bank and tariffs o Whigs Stronger in NE National bank, tariffs, international improvements Third Party System (18601896) o Republicans Strong in N and cities National power Commercial interest o Democrats Strong in S and Midwest Opposed tariffs, rural interests Fourth Party System (18961932) o Republicans (dominant party) Strong in NE and W National power Business interests o Democrats (WEAK) Strong in S and Midwest Rural, minority party Fifth Party System (New Deal – 19321968) o Democrats South African Americans, Union members, Catholics, Jews o Republicans Yankee New England and Midwest Sixth Party System (1960spresent) o Civil rights split parties, religion came into play o Both parties more ideologically homogeneous Pluralism The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for influence in the government Push and pull of political activity o Pull from government to collect information on how governmental decisions will affect constituencies o Push from individuals and groups seeking to gain some benefits Interest groups Economic interest is one of the main purposes for which individuals form groups Necessities for groups: o Money o Access and organizational discipline o More members = more power Polarization Party identification Public opinion polls Electoral College Moral hazard Voter turnout Collective action Collective choice Problem of ambition Party organizations Biases in which groups get organized How and why interest groups form Types of media Regulation of media Freedom of the press Media bias Citizen journalism
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