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Final Exam Review Sheet Political Science

by: Sierra Crumbaugh

Final Exam Review Sheet Political Science POLI 201 001

Marketplace > University of South Carolina > Political Science > POLI 201 001 > Final Exam Review Sheet Political Science
Sierra Crumbaugh

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About this Document

This review sheet is incomplete. It only covers material from chapters 10 and 11. Other topics that you need to know from other chapters are listed.
American National Government
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political, Science, american, National, Government, final, exam
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sierra Crumbaugh on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to POLI 201 001 at University of South Carolina taught by Darmofal in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see American National Government in Political Science at University of South Carolina.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Final Exam Review Sheet Anis not limited to the items listed below. You should, however, pay particular attention to the items listed. WORDS IN BOLD FOUND IN THE STUDY GUIDE ARE DEFINED IN THE TERMS TO KNOW Terms to know: Adverse selection – the problem of incomplete information, of choosing  alternatives without fully knowing the details of available options Agenda setting – the power to bring attention to particular issues and  problems Australian Ballot – an electoral format that presents the names of all the  candidates for any given office on the same ballot Duverger’s Law – rule electoral systems will tend to have two political  parties Framing – the power of the media to influence how events and issues are  interpreted Gender gap – a distinctive pattern of voting behavior reflecting the  differences in views between women and men Initiative – a process by which citizens may petition to put a proposal on the  ballot for public vote Measurement error – is the failure to identify the true distribution of opinion  within a population because of errors such as ambiguous or poorly worded  questions Moral hazard – the problem of not knowing all aspects of the actions taken  by an agent Plurality rule – a type of electoral system in which victory goes to the  individual who gets the most votes in an election by not necessarily a  majority of the votes cast Political identities – distinctive characteristics or group associations that  individuals carry and that hold for those individuals’ social connections or  common values and interests with others in that group Priming – the process of preparing the public to take a particular view of an  event or a political actor Public opinion ­ citizens’ attitudes about political issues, leaders, institutions,  and events Recall – the removal of a public official by popular vote Referendum – a measure proposed or passed by a legislature that is referred  to the electorate for approval Sample – a small group selected to represent the most important  characteristics of an entire population Selection Bias – a polling error in which the sample is not representative of  the population being studied Socialization – a process through which individuals assimilate community  preferences and norms through social interactions Prospective – based on future performance Retrospective – based on past performance Spatial issues – voters care about how something is done Valence issues – voters want a particular outcome regardless of how it is  achieved Median­Voter Theorem – a proposition predicting that when policy options  can be arrayed along a single dimension, majority rule will pick the policy  most preferred by the voter whose ideal policy is to the left of half of the  voters and to the right of half the voters Political Party – an organized group that attempts to influence government by electing their members to office Convention – a meeting of party leaders to choose nominees Primary – registered party members choose the nominee in an election Closed primary – an election in which only those voters who registered with  the party in a specified period before election day can participate Open primary – an election in which voters can choose on election day itself  which party’s primary to vote in Party system – the constellation of parties that are important at any given  moment Public opinion  2 levels:  o individual – one person’s opinions o aggregate – the accumulation of individual beliefs   Americans hold common opinions but not a single view  Product of personality, interests, outside forces  Measuring public opinion o Polling o Sample   Sample size affects the reliability of a sample  Larger samples are more reliable but also more expensive  Measurement error o Selection Bias   Public Opinion Influences Government Policy o Electoral accountability o Building coalitions o Input in rule making and legal decisions o Shaping public opinion Preferences  shaped by economic self­interest and social or moral values; some can  be held more firmly than others  Foundations include self­interest, values, and social groups Beliefs   reflect how people understand the world and consequences of actions Socialization   Important agents of socialization o Family o Education o Work o Social groups o Political conditions Identity Politics  Identities are based upon: o Nationality o Partisan Identification o Race/Ethnicity  History of slavery caused divides between races  There are differences in beliefs and preferences among  races regarding basic responsibilities of government o Gender  Gender gap  Women consistently vote more democratic and men vote  more republican o Religion o Geography o Out­groups  Some groups are defined by who they are not rather than  who they are  Psychological and sociological  Identities are ABSOLUTES Ideology  – a comprehensive way of understanding political or cultural  situations. It is a set of assumptions about the way the world and society  works that help us organize our beliefs, information, and new situations Most Americans consider themselves liberal or conservative Political knowledge o Few Americans demote sufficient time, energy, or attention to  politics o Cost of gathering information may be high for little to no benefits Media o Most political information flows to the public through mass media o Newspapers, radio, TV, internet, and social media o Effects  Agenda setting   Priming   Framing  Elections  Principals choose agents to act on their behalf  2 problems with principals: o adverse selection  o moral hazard   WHO VOTES? o 15  amendment – African Americans right to vote  Jim Crow Laws restricted voting rights after amendment th o 19 thmendment – women’s’ right to vote o 16  amendment – 18­year­olds right to vote o Shelby County v. Holder – struck down provision requiring  jurisdictions to seek pre­clearance for new voting restrictions o Decline in voting 1900­1920  Australian ballot  Jim Crow laws o New Deal saw an increase in voter turn out starting in 1920 o Voter Registration  Registration often provides an obstacle to voting  Recent moves often prevent registration  Young people move more often and are less likely to be  registered where they live  HOW DO WE VOTE? o Ballots  Secret ballot & Australian ballot was introduced in the  late 19  century o Direct Democracy  24 states allow for a referendum  24 states allow for the initiative  18 states allow for the recall  WHERE DO WE VOTE? o Electoral Districts  Elected officials represent people in specific places  U.S. employs single­member districts  Tend to exaggerate the victory of the majority  Weaken 3  parties  One representative from each district  Electoral college is employed for presidential elections o Exceptions to one person, one vote  Electoral college  U.S. Senate – each state is given the same number of  senators o Redistricting  Districts are redrawn every 10 years  Boundaries may be manipulated to give one party or  another an advantage (gerrymandering)  Racial gerrymandering  Redistricting could break up communities of racial minorities which dilutes their power and makes it  more difficult to elect minority legislators  UNCONSTITUTIONAL  WHAT DOES IT TAKE TO WIN? o Plurality rule   Duverger’s Law  Voters don’t want to waste their vote so they will vote  for the more moderate alternative if they understand that the more extreme candidate cannot win o Challenges to winning include…  How to bring people in  How to raise money  How to coordinate activities  What message to run  LONG AND COSTLY How Voters Decide o Older people, highly educated, people who have not recently moved, and  people interested in the issues are more likely to vote o Registration requirements decrease voter turn out o HOW TO VOTE  Partisan loyalty (strongest influence) o ISSUES  Voters look forward and back  Prospective  Retrospective  Means and ends  Spatial issues  Valence issues o Median­Voter Theorem  The candidate whose position is closest to this is likely to win o Candidates Characteristics  Personal attributes of candidates influence voters’ decisions  Voters tend to prefer candidates similar to themselves   Voters look for specific characteristics (honesty, vigor, etc.)  Incumbency is often an advantage Campaigning o Campaign Organizations  Most are temporary and created by a candidate; usually disband  shortly after election  Parties and interest groups have permanent political  organizations o Campaign Tactics  Employ TV, radio, mail, internet  Rallies and debates  Many laws surrounding campaign financing Political parties  Federalism and bicameralism make it difficult for one political party  to gain control over all aspects of government  Why parties? o Collective Action  Campaign organization requires collective action  Parties give elections structure  Groups provide parties with resources and parties provide  groups with influence over government o Collective Choice  Parties facilitate action in policy­making  Functions of Parties o Recruiting candidates  Find good candidates that can raise money and appeal to  the public o Nominating candidates  Convention – tend to choose insiders  Primary – allow for more outsiders  Closed primary  Open primary o Facilitate electoral choice  Can provide a brand name that can help voters who know  nothing about a candidate to make a semi­informed choice o Influence government  Build coalitions among interests  Democrats: push for more government intervention  in the economy, less social regulation, expansion of  civil rights  Republicans: push for laissez­faire economics and  greater social regulation  Parties as Institutions o National convention – nominate the presidential candidates, sets  party platform o National committee – raises money, enhances party image/brand  name o Congressional campaign committee – recruits candidates, raises  money, provides services o State and local organizations – registers voters, recruits  candidates, raises money  Third Parties o Barriers include…  No ideological room for third parties  Legal advantages for major parties  Existing party identification Six party systems   First Party System o Federalists  Northeasterners  Mercantile and business interests  Disappeared after War of 1812 o Democratic­Republicans  Southerners  Agrarian interest  Second Party System o Democrats  Strong in south and west  Opposed national bank and tariffs o Whigs  Stronger in NE  National bank, tariffs, international improvements  Third Party System (1860­1896) o Republicans  Strong in N and cities  National power  Commercial interest o Democrats  Strong in S and Midwest  Opposed tariffs, rural interests  Fourth Party System (1896­1932) o Republicans (dominant party)  Strong in NE and W  National power  Business interests o Democrats (WEAK)  Strong in S and Midwest  Rural, minority party   Fifth Party System (New Deal – 1932­1968) o Democrats  South  African Americans, Union members, Catholics, Jews o Republicans  Yankee New England and Midwest  Sixth Party System (1960s­present) o Civil rights split parties, religion came into play o Both parties more ideologically homogeneous Pluralism   The theory that all interests are and should be free to compete for  influence in the government  Push and pull of political activity o Pull from government to collect information on how  governmental decisions will affect constituencies o Push from individuals and groups seeking to gain some benefits Interest groups   Economic interest is one of the main purposes for which individuals  form groups  Necessities for groups: o Money o Access and organizational discipline o More members = more power Polarization Party identification  Public opinion polls  Electoral College  Moral hazard  Voter turnout  Collective action Collective choice  Problem of ambition  Party organizations  Biases in which groups get organized  How and why interest groups form  Types of media Regulation of media  Freedom of the press  Media bias Citizen journalism 


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