HDF211 Final Study Guide
HDF211 Final Study Guide HDF211
Popular in Marriage and Close Relationships
Popular in Education and Teacher Studies
verified elite notetaker
This 8 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jacobi Johnson on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDF211 at Central Michigan University taught by Christopher Latty in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Marriage and Close Relationships in Education and Teacher Studies at Central Michigan University.
Reviews for HDF211 Final Study Guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/29/16
HDF Final Exam Study Guide Chapter 11 Marriage, Work, and Economics • Families are economic units bound together by emotional ties. Families are involved in two types of work: paid work at the workplace and unpaid family work in the household. • Time strain the negative effects of not having enough time to spend in certain roles and relationship because of one’s job • Bifurcation of work time– refers to the fact that although many feel overworked, others are underemployed or lacking work. • Work to family spillover the effect that work has on individuals and families’ time, energy, and psychological states. Fatigue and exhaustion can make us angry, anxious, or less cheerful. • Family to work spillover can also occur when an individual brings their stress from home to the workplace. • Role conflict when multiple social statuses or positions give us competing, contradictory, or simultaneous expectations • Role strain when role demands are incompatible • Role overload when the demands of one’s roles become impossible to deal with • Crossover refers specifically to the effects of one’s job related feelings on one’s spouse or intimate partner. • Gender ideologies beliefs about what men and women should do • The traditional division of familial labor is complementary husbands work outside the home for wages and wives work inside the home without wages. • Women perform a majority of the daily housework and carry more responsibility for managing the division of housework. Women's household tasks tended include daily chores such as cooking, shopping, cleaning and so on, in addition to childcare. • Men's household tasks tend to be more occasional and often outdoors. Men’s involvement in routine housework is less affected by gender role attitudes and by the more immediate circumstances in which they find themselves. Their involvement is also influenced by their upbringing, their experiences and status at work, and their age. • A variety of indicators point to increases in men’s share of housework and decreases in the amount of time women spend on housework. • Homemaker role includes exclusive allocation to women rather than adults of both sexes, a state of primacy (most important role) to women, association with economic independence, the consideration of “nonwork”, distinct from real paid employment. • Coprovider families economic partnerships dependent on both husband and wife. • The level of women's participation in the paid labor force increased as a result of social and economic changes. • Dual career family a subcategory of dual earner families in which both husband and wife have high achievement orientations, a greater emphasis on gender equality, and a strong desire to exercise their capabilities. • Emotion work tasks that need to be performed to generate in maintain successful and satisfying relationships and families, such as confiding feelings, dealing with conflict, and monitoring a relationship • Caring for children can be divided into two categories of involvement: engagement and accessibility. Engagement is time spent in direct interaction with the child, while accessibility is availability to a child. • Caring for children often leads to “invisible parenting” or mental labor, the process of worrying about the baby, seeking and processing information about infants and their needs, And managing the division of infant care in the household. • Childcare outside the home is a necessity for many families. Overall, childcare is safe, and centerbased care is safer then paid care by others in the child’s home. • Division of household labor can affect couples in many ways. Marital power, satisfaction, sex, instability are often affected by this division. • Shift couples structure home and work lives into a turn taking, alternating system of paid work and family work. • Some fathers stay at home while mothers go out to make money. This can have an economic, social, marital, parental, and personal impact on both parents. • Family issues in the workplace include economic discrimination against women, sexual harassment (including abuse of power or the creation of a hostile work environment), the need for adequate childcare, inflexible work environments, etc. • Some 5 to 14yearolds are in selfcare– care for themselves without supervision buying adult or older adolescent while their mothers work. • Unemployment can cost both economic and emotional distress. Unemployment most often affects femaleheaded singleparent families, African American and Latino families, and young families. • Family policy is a set of objectives concerning family wellbeing in the specific government measures designed to achieve those objectives. • Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 provides employees with unpaid, job protected leave up to 12 weeks to care for and ill family member or to take time off after childbirth or adopting a child Chapter 12 Intimate Violence and Sexual Abuse • Intimate partner violence or intimate partner abuse are the terms often used to describe domestic abuse in the home. • violence an act carried out with the intention or perceived intention of causing physical pain or injury to another person • Abuse is a bit wider than just violence, including neglect, emotional abuse, etc. • polyvictimization various types of abuse that often occur • Types of intimate violence • situational couple violence (also called common couple violence) infrequent heat of the moment violence that is not indicative of a wider relationship problem • intimate terrorism one partner attempts to dominate and control the other using emotional abuse and escalating violent episodes • violent resistance violence used to resist intimate terrorism • mutual violent control both partners are violently trying to control the other • Men usually commit intimate terrorism while women commit violent resistance. • Prevalence is difficult to know or even estimate because of the socially unacceptable and frequently illegal nature of the act. • Different perspectives are used to study sources of family violence: 1) individualistic explanations, 2) the feminist model, 3) the social situational model, 4) the social learning model, 5) the resource model, and 6) the exchangesocial control model. • Gender, power, stress, and intimacy are common aspects to this problem. • Battering different types of violence that include slapping, punching, knocking down, choking, kicking, hitting, threatening, stabbing, and shooting. It is often used to describe female battering but the traditional definition does not indicate either gender. • Characteristics that correlate highly with intimate violence against women in United States are low socioeconomic status and a high degree of marital conflict. • Gender symmetry refers to the survey data findings of similarity in both expressing and experiencing violence between the genders. Context, however, varies. • Emotional and psychological abuse is equally as taxing, and may include acts such as calling names, being insulted, having one’s whereabouts monitored, or made to feel endangered. • Sexual abuse or rape a form of battering inflicted by intimate partners that includes unwanted sexual penetration • Violence among samesex couples is similar to the levels of violence among heterosexuals. Because such relationships lack social supports that heterosexual couples can draw upon, The experience of victimization may be worse. • Dating violence, including verbal abuse, physical violence, and coercive sex (date rape or acquaintance rape), is often precipitated by jealousy or rejection. • Women often stay in violent relationships because of economic dependence, religious pressure, the children, fear of being alone, guilt, love, duty and responsibility, fear for her life, nowhere else to go, learned helplessness, cultural reasons, etc. • Child maltreatment has become a serious problem in recent decades. It includes neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse. • Battered child syndrome is commonly used to describe the patterns of injuries in abused children. • Most child abuse cases are unreported. Parental violence is one of the five leading causes of childhood death. • Psychological aggression action such as screaming at a child, threatening to injure a child, threatening to send a child away, insulting the child, etc. • Certain parental characteristics, child characteristics, family characteristics, and family ecosystem characteristics put families more at risk to experience abuse. • Child sexual abuse includes any sexual interaction with a child. Extrafamilial abuse is conducted by non relatives while intrafamilial sexual abuse occurs within biological lines. • Children most at risk for sexual abuse includes females, preadolescents, children with absent parents, children with poor parental relationships, children with parents in conflict, and children living with a stepfather. • Victims of hidden violence include siblings, parents, and the elderly. • Mandatory arrest policies have been implemented to remove the perpetrator from the scene of the crime. • No drop prosecution policies compel prosecutors to proceed in the prosecution of intimate violence case as long as evidence exists, regardless of the victims expressed wishes. • Duluth model a curriculum that emphasizes helping batterers develop critical thinking skills around themes such as nonviolence, respect, partnership, and negotiation. Chapter 13 Separation and Divorce • Divorce is an integral part of the contemporary US marriage system, which values individualism and emotional gratification. • Compared to other countries, the divorce rate in the United States is among the highest. • faultbased vs. nofault divorce fault based divorce occurs when the actions of one spouse had permanently damaged the marriage to such a degree that it cant be fixed, while nofault divorce occurs when the couple becomes aware of irreconcilable differences • stations of divorce a breakdown of the process leading up to a legal divorce. • Includes the emotional, legal, economic, coparental, community, and psychic divorce • How do we measure divorce? • ratio measure calculated by taking the number of divorces and the number of marriages in a given year introducing a ratio to represent how often divorce occurs relative to marriage. • crude divorce rate represents the number of divorces in a given year for every 1000 people in the population • refined divorce rate measures the number of divorces that occur in a given year for every 1000 marriages • predictive divorce rate a calculation that allows researchers to estimate how many new marriages will likely end in divorce • Factors that affect divorce include: • societal factors such as the changed nature of the family, social integration, and individualistic cultural values • demographics factors such as employment status, income, educational level, ethnicity, and religion • life course factors such as age at time of marriage, cohabitation, remarriage, and intergenerational transmission of divorce • Family processes such as marital happiness, children, and marital problems • Uncoupling, the process by which couples drift apart in predictable stages, is differently experienced by the initiator and his or her partner. • The initiator is unhappy or dissatisfied but keep such feelings to himself or herself, and begins to turn away. • Separation distress is often experience when a marriage breaks up • Transition and recovery are necessary for establishing a postdivorce identity. • Women frequently experienced downward mobility after divorce, as employment opportunities are often constrained by the necessity of caring for children. The economic effect on is more mixed and depends on what proportion of the marital income they were responsible for before the divorce. • Alimony (spousal support) monetary payment a former spouse makes to the other to meet his or her economic needs. It is not intended to be punitive. • Child support monetary payments made by the noncustodial spouse to the custodial spouse to assist in child rearing expenses • Psychological distress, reduced selfesteem, less happiness, more isolation, and less satisfying sex lives are among noneconomic consequences of divorce • Binuclear family the dual sided family created once parents divorce, making their children now members of two separate households • Children are typically told about divorce by mothers. Children's reactions are normally negative, though for some, news of the divorce may be experienced as relief. • Reactions often occur in three main stages: the immediate crisis, transition and short term aftermath, and the restabilization stage. • A significant factor affecting the responses of children should divorce is their age. Younger children tend to act out and blame themselves, where as adolescents tend to remain aloof and angry at both parents for disrupting their lives. • Child custody can be divided into a number of types. • Sole custody the child lives with one parent who has full responsibility for raising the child and making all decisions regarding their upbringing • Split custody the children are divided between the divorcing parents • Joint custody can be legal or physical. Legal custody involves both parents jointly sharing decisions about children's upbringing, while physical custody involves children living with both parents equally. Chapter 14 Single Parent Families, Remarriages, and Blended Families • Single parent families families consisting of one parent who was either divorced, widowed, or never married, and one or more children • Single parent families are often created by divorce or births to unmarried women. • Women tend to be the head of single parent families. • Ethnicity is an important demographic factor in single parent families African Americans suffering the most. • Both mother only and father only families are more likely to be poor than two parent families, but because of gender discrimination and inequality of wages or job opportunities, many femaleheaded families face more extensive economic hardship. • Because of a lack of resources (such as money, attention, and guidance), children of single parents are more likely to engage in high risk, health compromising behaviors and to suffer a variety of educational, economic, and personal costs. • serial monogamy having a number of monogamous relationships throughout one’s life • Binuclear families a post divorce family system with children. • Subsystems of the binuclear family include the former spouse subsystem, the remarried couple subsystems, the parentchild subsystem, the sibling subsystem, and the mother/stepmotherfather/stepfather subsystem. • Remarriage a marriage in which one or both partners have been previously married. • More men remarry than women, and initiators of divorce are more often likely to remarry than the noninitiators. • Second marriages are more likely than first marriages to end in divorce. • Stepfamilies (also often referred to as blended families) families in which one or both partners have children from a previous marriage or relationship • stepparent role • paternal claiming embracing stepchildren as if they were biological children
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'