Final Exam Study Guide- Exercise and Weight Control
Final Exam Study Guide- Exercise and Weight Control EP 4183
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This 25 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jessica Cox on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EP 4183 at Mississippi State University taught by Dr. Holly Wiley in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Exercise & Weight Control in Physiology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
exercise and weight control final exam 04/28/2016 ▯ Chapter 1 ▯ Structure physical activity Planned physical activities to improve physical fitness ▯ Unstructured physical activity Not planned but necessary activities for daily living ▯ Physical Fitness is broken down into 2 categories Health related fitness Sports related fitness ▯ 6 Health Related Fitness Components body weight body comp cardiovascular-respritory muscular strength muscular endurance flexibility All major nutrients perform 3 basic functions provide energy(calories) promote growth and development regulate metabolism ▯ components of sports related fitness speed agility power strength endurance o muscular o cardio coordination balance reaction time & reasoning ▯ Essential Nutrients- nutrients the human body MUST consume in order to survive ▯ ▯ Chapter 10 & 11 ▯ Losing body fat The body can not select which stores are used for energy, only how much ▯ Calorie: 1000 calories ▯ 1 pound of body fat= 3,500 calories ▯ ▯ Fat=9 Calories per gram ▯ Carbohydrates= 4 Calories per gram ▯ Protein= 4 Calories per gram ▯ Alcohol= 7 Calories per gram ▯ ▯ Body Mass Index Body weight in kilograms divided by (height in meters)^2 Weight in kilograms is weight in pounds / 2.2 Height in meters is inches * 0.0254 ▯ BMI > 25 is associated with health risk ▯ ▯ Body Shape and Disease Risk Android- weight in the abdominal area Gynoid- weight in the lower body (hips and thighs) ▯ Waist to Hip Ratio Waist/ Hip ▯ ▯ Chapter 2 ▯ Essential Nutrients Needed by the body but cannot be made by the body must be ingested ▯ 6 classes of Essential Nutrients carbs fats protein vitamins minerals water ▯ Micronutrients Needed in small amounts ▯ Macronutrients Needed in large amounts ▯ Nonessential Nutrients Needed but the body can make these ▯ ▯ 8 nutrients central to human nutrition protein thiamine- B vitamins, B1 riboflavin niacin vitamin A vitamin C iron- vitamin calcium-mineral ▯ Vegetarian Classification Vegan Ovovegetarian Lactovegetarian Pescovegetarian Semivegetarian ▯ ▯ Complete Protein Contains all essential amino acids (meat) Incomplete Protein Do not contain all essential amino acids (plant foods) ▯ Mnemonic for Essential Amino Acids: PVT. M.T. HILL Phenylalanine, Valine, Threonine, Mathionine, Tryptophan, Isoleucine, Lysine ▯ ▯ Daily Values are based on: Total fat- 30%, 65 grams Saturated fat- 10%, 20 grams Carbs- 60%, 300 grams Protein- 10%, 50 grams Fiber- 12.5 grams per 1000 Calories Cholesterol- less than 300mg Sodium-less than 2,400mg ▯ ▯ Assume someone takes in 2,400 Calories per day and 28 grams of fat 28*9= 252 o what % of those total calories o 252 is a % of 2,400 252/ 2,400= .105, 11% ▯ ▯ Chapter 3 Energy Systems 3 main energy systems ATP-PCr System Lactic Acid System Oxygen System ▯ ATP- is used to express body energy Created through fat, carbs, protein ▯ PCr- can not be used as an immediate energy source , used to replenish ATP Any all out exercise 5 seconds can easily deplete the ATP-PCr System ▯ Lactic Acid- can be used directly as an energy source Needed during high intensity exercise when ATP-PCr is depleted and oxygen is limited Oxygen is not needed as a catalyst for energy production 30 to 120 seconds (powerful activity) ▯ effects of Lactic Acid fatigue ▯ ▯ Aerobic Capacity=aerobic lipolysis ▯ Power=mostly carbs ▯ Lipolysis indicates long duration (fat energy) ▯ ▯ Carbs is more efficient at high intensity exercise(aerobic glycolysis) ▯ Fat is the predominant fuel at lower levels of long duration intensity ( aerobic lipolysis) ▯ ▯ Total Daily Energy Expenditure Is the sum of ones caloric expenditure each day based on… o Basal energy expenditure o Thermic effect o Physical activity Basal Energy Expenditure o Energy required to live ▯ Thermic Effect of Food Elevation of metabolic rate due to ingestion of food TDEE= REE+ TEF+ TEE the sum of your energy expenditure at rest the energy expended to metabolize food and activity What is EER- total daily energy needs to be based on total daily energy needs VLCD (very low calorie diets) are typically characterized by 800 calories or less Exercise metabolic rate/ thermic effect of exercise- increase in metabolism due to physical activity Chapter 4- Carbohydrates Major function- energy (aerobic and anaerobically) Major fuel during exercise o Fat is used at rest ▯ 40% to 60% carb to fat ratio ▯ ▯ light exercise-fat ▯ quick bouts-carbs ▯ moderate-carbs and fats ▯ intense- carbs ▯ endurance- carbs and fats ▯ ▯ Carbs represent the most efficient energy source, even during the oxygen energy system ▯ ▯ Simple Carbohydrates- mono or disaccharides Broken down very quickly by the body o table sugar, hard candy etc o naturally occurring simple carbs- honey, maple syrup etc ▯ Complex Carbs Starches Preferred by the body b/c glucose is released slowly into the system due to slower breakdown Fiber containing foods are complex ▯ ▯ Insoluble and Soluble Fiber Soluble o Associated with lowering cholesterol o Fruits Insoluble o Whole grain foods ▯ Health Benefits Slows glucose absorption Reduces blood cholesterol Most Americans eat plenty of carbs but eat too little fiber ▯ Rule of Thumb for Fiber Minimum 12 grams per 1,000 Calories ▯ Carb Requirements 60% TDC athletes should have 70% carbs ▯ ▯ Glycemic Index- effect that food has on the rate/amount of increased in blood sugar High GI-rapid rise in blood sugar Low GI- slower rise in blood sugar ▯ Hyperglycemia- high blood glucose >140 ▯ Hypoglycemia- low levels <40-50 ▯ Reactive Hypoglycemia- sugar crash ▯ ▯ The body does not “trash” or “waste” carbs b/c they are valuable ▯ Excessive carbs can be converted into fats but fat can not be turned into carbs ▯ ▯ Glycogenesis- creation of new glucose with the help of Alanine Pyruvate ▯ ▯ Carb Supplementation General Rule for Athletes- 70% TDC ▯ ▯ Diabetes Type 1 o Genetic link o Insulin dependent o Hyperglycemia Treatment o Carb counting o Dietary control o Insulin therapy Type 2 o Genetic link o Obesity o Starts out as non insulin dependent Treatment o Medication o Diet ▯ ▯ Chapter 5- Lipids ▯ ▯ Saturated Fats Solid at room temperature ▯ Unsaturated Fats Liquid at room temperature ▯ Triglycerides are the main form of lipid in food and the body ▯ ▯ Function of lipids Provide energy Efficient energy storage Insulation Protection Transportation of fat soluble vitamins Satiety Give food flavor and mouth feel ▯ ▯ Dietary Fat Guidelines No more than 30% TDC from total fat No more than 10% TDC from saturated fat No more than 300 mg cholesterol per day ▯ ▯ Fat most efficiently used for exercise- low moderate intensity ▯ Saturated fat has a single carbon bond ▯ Unsaturated fat has a double carbon bond ▯ ▯ 2 Types of Essential Fatty Acids omega 6 o sources of omega 6 veggies and nuts o benefits of omega 6 increases blood clotting (beneficial) omega 3 o sources of omega 3 fish, fish oil, soy o benefits of omega 3 decreases blood clotting ▯ ▯ Hydrogen+unsaturated fats= hydrogenated fats ▯ Transfatty acids are synonymous with hydrogenated fats ▯ Saturated fats, trans fat acids and hydrogenated fats are associated with health risk Harmful cholesterol Increased risk of heart disease ▯ ▯ ▯ Chapter 6- Protein ▯ ▯ Amino acids 20 ▯ Essential – 9 ▯ Nonessential-11 ▯ The mnemonic- PVT. M.T. HILL ▯ ▯ Process of removing nitrogen from the body- Deamination ▯ ▯ Protein and Exercise Average Americans need about 10% of TDC from protein When compared, more necessary during aerobic exercise compared to resistance Protein is used more predominantly for repair after resistance training during ▯ ▯ Carbs and Protein Limited carb intake leads to protein loss ▯ ▯ Exercise and Protein Loss Proteinuria- protein in urine ▯ ▯ Trained individuals and Protein Trained individuals at rest have shown a preference to utilize fat and spare protein Deamination removal of nitrogen from a protein leaving alpha ketoacid ▯ Adult RDA for protein is 0.8 for every kg body weight ▯ The average RDA is considered 10% of TDC ▯ ▯ Cholesterol is only found in animal products It is nonessential Daily intake of cholesterol should be limited to 100mg/1000 calories not exceeding 300 mg/day ▯ ▯ Cholesterol levels (not daily intake) Desirable- <200 High- 240 or above Optimal LDL <100 Low HDL <40 Good HDL >60 ▯ We want the LDL to be low and the HDL to be high ▯ ▯ Overall recommendation regarding fat intake Keep saturated and trans fatty acid intake minimal Eat diet with plenty of fruit and veggies Cut down red meats Cut down on simple sugars and refined CHO Do not compensated added calories for lack of fat in food Exercise We want low to be low(LDL) and high to be high (HDL) ▯ ▯ Creatine Supplementation Nonessential ▯ ▯ Chapter 7- Vitamins Essential, organic If we don’t have in our diet we can become deficient Fat soluble o A,D,E,K Water soluble o C and all B complex ▯ ▯ Fat Soluble A, D,E,K o Dissolve in organic solvents o Body holds on to and uses them whenever needed ▯ Vitamin A Retinol Sources o Animal products, dairy, carrots, green leafy veggies Benefits o Cell development and immune system o Good for you skin ▯ Vitamin D Derived from cholesterol Deficiency can cause disease Functions o Regulates blood calcium o Helps calcium absorption o Necessary for metabolism o Bone formation Food sources o Fatty fish o Fortified milk o Some fortified ceral What do we need o 600 IU for males and females o regular intake of 5-10x of the adequate intake can be toxic ▯ Vitamin E Fat soluble antioxidant Protection from free radicals Functions o Helps in the absorption of vitamin A o Helps blood cells against oxidation Food sources o Plant oils o Wheat germ o Asparagus o Peanuts RDA for Vitamin E o 15 mg/day for women and men o typical average American meets the RDA ▯ Vitamin K Food sources o Liver o Green leafy veggies o Broccoli o Peas 120-90 micrograms for male and female ▯ ▯ Water- Soluble Vitamins 9 water soluble 1 8 are B complex and Vitamin C o B1 Thiamin o B2 Riboflavin o B3 Niacin o B6 Pyridoxine o B12 Cobalamin o Folate o Biotin o Pantotheninc acid o Vitamin C ▯ ▯ Thiamin One of the first discovered Deficiency not common in the US Food sources o White bread, pork, hot dogs Most people exceed the RDA ▯ Riboflavin Food products o Milk products o Enriched grains o Liver o Oysters ▯ Niacin Found in foods with high protein content o Beef, chicken, turkey, fish We can get too much ▯ Pantothenic Acid Meat, milk, mushrooms, liver, peanuts Adequate intake- 5 mg/day ▯ Vitamin B6 Meat, fish, poultry Whole grains Bananas Spinach Avocado Daily Value o 2mg o average intake more than the RDA o athletes need more used to treat o PMS etc ▯ Folate Occurs naturally Can become deficient while pregnant ▯ Vitamin B12 RBC formation Maintenance of myelin sheaths Deficiency o Types of anemia Food sources o Animal products o Organ meats o Seafood o Eggs o Hot dogs ▯ Vitamin C Synthesized by most animals- not by human Excess excreted Functions o Antioxidants o Immune ▯ ▯ Chapter 8- Minerals ▯ ▯ Major Minerals >100 mg/day o calcium, phosphorus ▯ Trace Minerals <100 mg/day o iron, zinc ▯ Major Electrolytes in the Body Sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, sulfate, magnesium, calcium ▯ Not all ingested minerals can be absorbed ▯ Animal products supply majority of minerals ▯ Soil contains minerals so plant sources may absorb them ▯ ▯ Mineral/mineral competition One mineral might limit absorption of another ▯ ▯ 7 major minerals macrominerals >100 calcium, phosphorus, potassium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, sulfur ▯ Trace Minerals More toxic since they are needed in smaller quantities Iron, fluoride, zinc, copper, selenium, manganese, iodine, molybdenum, chromium Table salt: 40% sodium, 60% chloride ▯ ▯ Sodium 95% ingested is absorbed key for retaining body water regulated by kidneys needed for muscle contraction body only needs o 100 mg/day Daily Value o 2400 mg/day Typical intake o 4000-7000 mg/day ▯ Potassium Associated in lowering blood sugar Food sources o Fruits, veggies, milk, grains, meat Minimum requirements o 2000 mg/day typical intake adequate o 2000-3000 mg/day ▯ Chloride Minimum requirement o 700 mg/day ▯ Calcium 99% in bones and teeth 40% of all the minerals present in the body deficiency will lead to osteoporosis Phosphorus body absorption is based on bodies need (70%-90%) no disease associated with deficiency RDA 700 mg/day ▯ Magnesium Green leafy plants Aids in many enzyme reactions Food sources o Whole grains, veggies, nuts o Hard tap water o Dairy, chocolate RDA for women 320 mg/day RDA for men 400 mg/day Average intake is lower than the RDA ▯ Sulfur Found in amino acids and vitamins ▯ ▯ Trace Minerals Needed in much smaller amounts Are essential to have Food content dependent on soil content Animal sources better absorbed ▯ Iron Not a macromineral but essential Transports oxygen and carbon dioxide- energy Iron deficiency-Anemia ▯ ▯ Chapter 9- Water 50-70% of the body muscle 73% water ▯ Functions of Water Body regulation Removal of body waste ▯ How much water do we need? 3.9 liters for males over 19= 15.6 cups 2.9 liters for females over 19= 11.6 cups o 12 cups/day men o 9 cups/day women ▯ dehydration- loss of water hypohydration= low body water hyperhydration=retention of excess fluids ▯ ▯ ▯
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