MGMT 3010 Final Review Study Guide
MGMT 3010 Final Review Study Guide mgmt 3010
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This 29 page Study Guide was uploaded by camperdude76 on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to mgmt 3010 at Tulane University taught by Sun Shuhua in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Organizational Behavior in Business at Tulane University.
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Management Notes Slides 2 Organization • A collection of individuals forming a coordinated system of specialized activities for the purpose of achieving certain goals over an extended period of time. Organizational Behavior: The study of both group and individual performance and activity within an organization. The actions of individuals and groups in an organizational context Reasons to study organizational behavior • People are important assets. • Managing people is complex. • Common sense alone does not work. Strategic OB approach An approach that involves organizing and managing an organizations human capital effective to implement the organizations strategy and gain a competitive advantage Human Capital: the sum of the skill, knowledge and general attributes of the people in an organization Managing organizational behavior to ensure organizational survival, implement organization’s strategy, and gain competitive advantages. Behavioral requirements for org. Survival functioning and competitive advantage • Attracting and holding people in the organization • Reliable role performance • Proactive Behaviors • Selfinitiated, anticipatory actions that employees take to impact themselves and or their environment • Absence of Deviant behaviors • Voluntary behvaiors that violates, significant organizational norms and in so doing threatens the wellbeing of an organization, its members or both • Organizational citizenship behavior • Behaviors that support the broader organizational, social, and psychological environment in which people perform their job duties ex: volunteering to carry out task activities that are not part of ones job helping and cooperating with others Following organizational rules and procedures Endorsing, supporting, and defending organizational objectives 4 types of Deviant Behaviors 1. Minor Organizational Production Deviance Leaving early Taking excessive breaks Intentionally walking slow Wasting resources 2. Minor Interpersonal Politcal Deviance Showing favoritism Gossiping about coworkers Blaming coworkers 3. Serious Organizational Property Deviance Sabotaging equipment Lying about hours worked Stealing from company 4. Serious Interpersonal Personal Aggression Sexual harassment Verbal abuse Stealing from coworkers Endangering co workers Proactive Behavior Examples Voice Innovation Problem Prevention Leaning and selftraining Proactive behaviors • Voice • Innovation • Problem prevention • Learning & selftraining High Performance Work Systems Involves carefully selecting and training associates and giving them significant decisionmaking power, information, and incentive compensation. Key Indicators to High Performance Work Systems (HPWS) Selective hiring Extensive training Decision making Information Sharing Incentive compensation Slides 3 Organizational Structure: The formal system of work roles and authority relationships that govern how associates and managers interact with one another Elements of Organizational Structure 1. Structural Characteristics • Tangible, physical properties • Determine basic shape and appearance of hierarchy • Height • Span of Control • Departmentalization 2. Structuring Characteristics • Polices and approaches • Directly prescribe behavior of managers and associates • centralization • Standardization • Formalization • Specialization STRUCTURAL Height: The number of levels in the organization, from the CEO to the lower levels associates Problems 1. Tall hierarchies often create communication problems 2. Tall hierarchies are more expensive Span of Control: The number of individuals who report directly to managers Benefits 1. Avoid communication and expense problem associated with all hierarchies 2. Avoid micromanaging people, because of the number of people supervised 3. Allow more autonomy and more initiatives Costs 1. Difficulty to monitor (exceeding 6 people) 2. Difficult to coach and develop Contingency 1. The motivation and skills of people Departmentalization: The grouping of human and other resources into units so that common tasks can be coordinated Departmentalization Benefits: • Better coordination within functional areas or divisions Costs: • Lack of coordination between functional areas or divisions Structural solutions: • Lateral relation mechanisms Bases of Grouping Function (Finance, Marketing, HR, Operation) Products Geographical areas Integration Techniques • Creation of slack resources reduce the need for coordination • Creation of selfcontained tasks reduce the need for coordination • Investment in information technology facilitation information processing • Creation of traditional lateral relations (e.g., task forces, integrating roles) Additional structure STRUCURING Centralization: Degree authority for decisions is retained at the top Standardization: Degree rules and standard operating procedures govern behavior Formalization: Degree rules and operating procedures are documented Specialization: Degree associates and managers have jobs with narrow scopes and limited variety Mechanistic: Control, reliability and control and efficiency Organic: Employees can be more creative and is more flexible Span of Control and Mechanistic: Narrow Span of Control and Organic: Wide Centralization and Mechanistic: High Centralization and Organic: Low Formalization and Mechanistic: High Formalization and Organic: Low In an unstable environment you should adopt an ORGANIC structure to allow for free flowing ideas You should about a MECHANISTIC structure for a stable environment When the environment is large you should adopt a BUREAUCRATIC structure You should adopt a SIMPLE structure in a small environment A diversified strategy should adopt a Divisional An Undiversified Strategy should adopt a Functional Centralization and Simple: High Centralization and Bureaucratic: Low Formalization and Simple: Low Formalization and Bureaucratic: High Role of strategy 1. Corporate Strategy Approach used in interacting with its environment • Growth • Diversification 2. Business Strategy How it competes for success against others in the market • Low cost/low price • Product/service differentiation Single Product Functional Structure Dominant Product (few products) Functional Dominant Products (Several Products) Divisional Related Products Divisional Unrelated Products Divisional and Holding Company Organizational Culture: Shared values and norms that influence behavior Strong Culture vs. Weak Culture: Respond to situations in alignment with the values Based to some extent on the homogeneity of associates and managers an the length and intensity of shared experiences in the organization Dominant Culture vs. Subculture: Overall organizational culture as expressed by the core values held by the majority of the organizations members vs unique to members of certain departments and geographical areas. Culture's Five Basic Functions 1. Defines Boundaries 2. Coveys a Sense of Identity 3. Generated commitment beyond oneself 4. Enhances social stability 5. Sensemaking and control mechanism How Employee’s Learn Culture 1. Socialization: A process through which an organization imports its values to newcomers 2. Person Organization Fit: Compatibility between employees and their organizations Starts from selection, during which applicant fit with org. structure and culture should we assessed prior to making final employee decisions Socialization can bridge some differences between newcomer preferences and or structure and culture Schnieders ASA Model 1 Attraction (ASA): People are differentially attracted to careers as a function of their own interests and personality 2. Attrition (ASA): When People do not fit an environment they tend to leave it 3. Selection (ASA)Organizations select people who they think are compatible Culture as a Liability 1 Barrier to change • When needed changes is incompatible with organizational shared values 2. Barrier to Diversity • Strong culture fosters homogeneity 3. Barrier to Acquisitions and Mergers • 58% of mergers fail, largely due to cultural incompatibility Organizational Climate: A shared perception of the properties of the work environment (e.g, organizational policies, practices, and procedures) Interconnected with Culture • Employee’s values and beliefs (part of culture) influence their interpretation of organizational policies, practices, and procedures(climate) • Relative to Culture: Climate as shared perception is temporary and changeable Slide #4 Learning Individual Leanring Process through which individuals change their behavior based on positive or negative experiences in a situation Individual Learning from Experience • Individuals learn form their own success than from their own failures • But they learn more from the failures of others than from others success • Self Serving bias Organizational Learning A change in the organizations knowledge that occurs as a function of experience Require individuals to acquire, share and combine knowledge Organizational Learning from Experience • Organizations learn more effectively from failures than success • Knowledge from failure depreciates more slowly than knowledge from success • Because failure forces organizational decision makers to recognize gaps in their knowledge, they launch formal knowledge development efforts in response to it. Learning Organization An organization in which employees excel at creating, acquiring, and transferring knowledge 3 building blocks of learning organization • A supportive learning environment • Concrete learning processes and practices • Leadership that reinforces learning Experience Learning starts from experience Situation + Behavioral response + Consequence of Response = Learning Successful Direct Experience: Own (individual and org) successful experience Successful Indirect Experience: Others (individual and org)successful experience Unsuccessful Direct Experience: Own (individual and org) unsuccessful experience Unsuccessful Indirect Experience: Others (individual and org) unsuccessful experience Theories on Individual Learning Operant Conditioning Learning Explanation for consequencebased learning Assumes learning results form simple conditioning Higher mental functioning is irrelevant We learn from the reinforcers and punishers available to us in the environment. Social Cognitive Theory Explanation for consequences based learning Acknowledges the higher mental functioning of human beings Recognizes the role such functioning can play in learning. We learn through watching others do Contingencies of Reinforcement The situation Behavioral response to the situation Consequences of the behavior New behavioral response to the situation Introducing positive consequences or removing negative ones cause a person to repeat behavior in similar situations in the future Aversive consequences (punishment) cause the person to avoid the same behavior and try new behaviors in a similar situation in the future Positive Reinforcement: A behavior is followed by a positive consequence, thereby increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be reported in the same or similar situation Negative Reinforcement: A behavior is followed by the withdrawal of a previous encounters negative consequence, thereby increasing the likelihood that the behavior will be repeated in the same or similar situations Punishment Behavior followed by negative consequences Reduces likelihood behavior will be repeated Extinction: Behavior followed by absence of previously encountered positive consequence Reduces likelihood behavior will be repeated Schedule of Reinforcement 1 Continuous • Reward occurs after each behavior 2. Intermittent • Reward does not occur after each behavior • Fixed interval • Variable Interval • Fixed Ratio • Variable Ratio Organizational Behavioral Modification: Formal procedure to improve task performance through positive reinforcement and extinction Social Cognitive Theory: Learning by observing, Learning by seeing and doing Training Ex: Pink Panther (learning how to act by watching others) Transitive Memory System (TMS) • A collective memory system for encoding, storing, retrieving and communicating group knowledge • A TMS is the cooperative division of labor for learning, remembering, and communicating relevant team knowledge • How to evaluate the state of TMS • TMS measure Perception: Experience can be difficult to interpret Individuals and organizations can draw inappropriate inferences from experiences and learn the wrong thing Attribution: Attribution is the process by which individuals explain the causes of behavior and events Internal Factors • Personality • Attitudes • Abilities External Factors • Organizational resources • Luck • Uncontrollable influences Job Demands Control chart: Place employees in specific categories according to their personality and abilities Role of Physical State: physical state has an impact on learning Every factor counts (sleep schedule, breaks, time off , etc..) Design the work place accordingly Internal and External Attribution Chart: Personality based (ex: If you speak up a lot in class it can be because your personality is more extroverted) Fundamental Attribution Error: A person will attribute the behavior of others to internal rather than external causes Self Serving Bias: A person that attributes others failure to internal causes and success to external, will attribute their failure to external and success to internal causes Implicit Person Theories Personal theories about what personality traits and abilities occur together and how these attributes are manifested in behavior Implicit Theories of Intelligence • Entity theorists who view intelligence as being unchangeable, fixed internal characteristics • Incremental theorists who believe that their intelligence is malleable and can be increased through effort Halo Effect: A perception problem in which an individual assesses a person positively or negatively in all situations, based on an existing general assessment of the person Projecting: A perception problem in which an individual assumes that others share his or her values and beliefs Stereotyping: A perception problem in which an individual bases perceptions about members of a group on a generalized set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group of individuals Slides 6 Motivation: forces that come from within a person that account for willful direction, intensity, and persistence of the persons efforts towards achieving specific goals, where achievement is not due solely to ability or environmental forces. Hedonic Printable of Motivation: Pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do” Hedonic motivation refers to the influence of a person’s pleasure and pain receptors on their willingness to move towards a goal or away from a threat. This is linked to the classic motivational principle that people approach pleasure and avoid pain, and is gained from acting on certain behaviors that resulted from esthetic and emotional feelings such as: love, hate, fear, joy, etc Approach Motivation: Think of approach motivation as taking action for anything that gives you happiness, pleasure, or joy. This can also be viewed as achievement motivation. This can include spending time with a girlfriend/boyfriend or husband/wife, eating a food you really like, watching a movie that inspires you, exercising, spending time with loved ones, or simply relaxing on a warm day, just to name a few. When you picture something – or a state of being – that you really want, motivation to make it a reality is often a logical next step. Sensitive to Positive Stimuli Avoidance Motivation: Avoidance motivation is taking (or not taking) action to avoid something unpleasant. Think of it like this. A woman is really interested in getting to know a man she likes. He’s smart, good looking, and kind. She doesn’t know him very well. She’s a little shy and has a hard time approaching people. She really likes this guy, but there is a problem. She believes she will get rejected, make a fool of herself, or do something ridiculous. As such, she never approaches the guy. Her avoidance strategy is to just never try. Avoid things that give you fear Avoid negative Stimuli (sensitive) Theories of Motivation Content theories of motivation generally focus on identifying the specific factors that motivate people. • Maslow’s needs hierarchy theory • Alderfer’s ERG theory • McClelland’s need theory • Deci & Ryan’s selfdetermination theory • Herzberg’s twofactor theory Hierarchy of Needs 1 Physiological (food, water, warmth) absolute needs in life to survive 4. Safety 5. Social 6. Esteem 7. SelfActualization A satisfied need is no longer a motivator Prepotency (predominate): a lower level need is prepotent over all higherlevels needs until it has been satisfied. ERG Theory Existence the need for basic material existence, like physiological health and safety Relatedness the need for interpersonal connections, social status and recognition Growth the need for personal development, including creative and meaningful work. As each need is met another need could be satisfied There are three basic needs an employee seeks to fulfill and as each need is fulfilled, it serves as motivation to fulfill a different need McCellends Theory Three independent needs 1 Need for achievement • Perform well over a standard of excellence • Tend to perform well in challenging jobs than in boring/routine jobs • May result in illicit actions, especially when needs for affiliation and institutional power are low (may do bad things if they don't have a boss) 2. Need for Affiliation • Be liked and on good terms with people 3. Need for Power • Desire to influence people and events • Institutional power vs. Personal power Self Determination Theory 3 basic Needs 1 Autonomy • Behavior that is selfendorsed • You agree with and ind congruent within yourself • You feel choicejul • when you have autonomy, you are fully behind what you are doing 1 Competence • Essential to wellness to feel effective in your environment • A mastery of things that are important to you 1 Relatedness • Feeling cared for and connected to others • has to do with a sense of belonging and that you really matter to the people • Enhanced by people treating you warmly • Also enhanced by you treating them well so you can matter in their lives Self motivation and mental health are enhance when the needs are satisfied Self motivation and mental health are diminished when the needs are thwarted Herzberg’s Two Factor Model • Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are independent states that different factors affect. 1 Motivator Influence satisfaction 8. Hygienes Influence dissatisfaction Motivation • Forces coming from within a person that account for the willful direction, intensity, and persistence of the person’s efforts toward achieving specific goals, where achievement is not due solely to ability or to environmental factors. Hedonic Principle • pursuit of pleasure and avoidance of pain • “Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. It is for them alone to point out what we ought to do, as well as to determine what we shall do” (Bentham, 1779/1879, p. 1). Approach and Avoidance Motivation • Approach motivation is defined as the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior toward, positive stimuli (objects, events, possibilities) • People with strong approach motivation are sensitive to positive stimuli • Avoidance motivation may be defined as the energization of behavior by, or the direction of behavior away from, negative stimuli (objects, events, possibilities) • People with strong avoidance motivation are sensitive to negative stimuli Content Theories of Motivation • Content theories of motivation generally focus on identifying the specific factors that motivate people • Maslow’s need hierarchy theory • Alders ERG theory • McCellend’s need theory • Deci and Ryan’s selfdetermination theory • Herzbergs two factor model Hierarchy of Needs Theory 1. Five needs are organized in a hierarchy 2. Prepotency (predominate): a lower level need is prepotent is no longer a motivator 3. A satisfied need is no longer a motivator 4. Historically, it draws people’s attention to esteem and self actualization needs. ERG Theory • Three needs, hierarchy ordered • The note of prepotency is not fixed in ERG theory • Even when a need is satisfied, it may remain the dominant motivator if the next need in the hierarchy cannot be satisfied McClelland’s Theory • Three independent needs • Need for achievement • Perform well against a standard of excellence • Tend to perform well in challenging jobs than in boring/routine jobs • May result in illicit actions, especially when needs for affiliation and institutional power are low • Need for affiliation • Be liked and on good terms with people • Need for power •Desire to influence people and events • Institutional power vs personal power SelfDetermination Theory • Three types of needs • Need for autonomy • Need for competence • Need for relatedness • Selfmotivation and mental health is enhanced, when the needs are satisfied, • Selfmotivation and mental health is diminished, when the needs are thwarted • Socialcontextual conditions that facilitate versus forestall needs satisfaction Two Factor Theory • Job satisfaction and dissatisfaction are independent states that different factors affect. • COPY THIS SLIDE Process Theories • Process theories generally focus on the cognitive processes in which people engage to influence the direction, intensity, and persistence of their behavior. • Vroom’s expectancy theory • Adams’ equity theory • Locke & Latham’s goalsetting theory Expectancy Theory • Expectancy • Probability that effort leads to performance • Instrumentality • Perceived connection between performance and an outcome • Valence • Value placed on the outcome Do not need to know the formulation for the exam Equity Theory It has a social component Motivation is based the assessment of one’s ratio of outcomes for inputs compared to others My outcomesmy inputs VS. Others outcomes others inputs Say you put in just as much time as your buddy at work but he gets paid more, then you would get upset and discouraged that in INEQUITY unfairness or injustice If you are over paid you can balance you inequity by putting in more work Equity is very focused on input, and if they outcomes matches in the input Resolving Perceived Inequity Increasing or Decreasing inputs Changing their outcomes Distorting perceptions of ____ inputs and outputs Their Other’s Changing the referent other Leaving the organization Changing the outcomes if employees are underpaid they feel it is unfair and sometimes this can cause them to steal from the company to restore their sense of equity. This has been used as an excuse You are underpaid, so you can distort the perception of your inputs. In this case you can restore a sense of inequity. Distort perception of your outcome Say you believe your employee did more work then you, then you are increasing other’s inputs. People React Differently to Inequity Sensitives Resolve whether favorable or unfavorable These people feel uncomfortable if they are over paid or if they are underpaid Benevolent Tolerate unfavorable Resolve favorable Not ok for them to be overpaid Ok for them to be underpaid Entitleds entitled Resolve unfavorable if they are underpaid they will take action They will tolerate favorable If they are overpaid they are ok with this Read the case (page 198, para 2) Understand equity and its effects; Are Angelo and Jessica Benevolents? Justice Distributive Justice Degree to which people think outcomes are fair Procedural Justice Degree to which people think procedure used to determine outcomes are fair You want to ensure the procedural justice Input be the same and outcome there is only one. Someone will be promoted You use the procedure to determine who will be promoted. Rules for Procedural Justice 1st rule: You are allowed to voice your opinion 2nd rule: You have to apply the same rule, you need to apply the procedure the same every time. Procedures applied consistently 3rd rule: Procedure should be free from bias you should use accurate information 4th rule: Based on accurate information 5th rule: Formal grievance procedures 6th rule: Ethical code 7th rule: People should be treated with respect 8th rule: People should be given reasons for decisions Goal Setting Theory The Mechanism Challenging and specific goals increase performance through attention, effort, and persistence Effectively setting goals feedback, goal commitment, goal specificity, goal specificity, goal difficulty Having goals creates more efficient work and outcomes from employees Feedback: when you assign goals, you must assign feedback so that it will become effective. To tell the employees their improvements. Should be timely. Job Characteristics Theory go over this is the powerpoint It is not a process theory Talks about the characteristics of a job Proposes if a job has the following 5 characteristics the job can be considered as motivational, that means the job has a motivational potential Core job characteristics….. Skill Variety Task Identity by performing the task you produce a certain product it is high. If it is low, it is not going to be motivational. Say you are in a team of 5 people to write an essay, each person is responsible for one component, then task identity is low because you are not responsible for the whole paper. That project will be Task significance Autonomy you have the decision making power. Autonomy is motivational Feedback from job Motivating potential score (MPS) = (Skill variety + task identity + taks significance)/3*autonomy*Feedback The MPS calculates the difficulty of a job’ This is important so that you can make jobs with different difficulties depending on their characteristics Job Redesign Can design a job based on two different theories (know the difference) Job enlargement (horizontal job loading) The processor making a job more motivation by adding tasks that are similar in complexity relative to the current tasks Effects of job enlargement on motivation is mixed Job enrichment (vertical job loading) The process of making a job more motivating by increasing responsibility different from job enlargement by the complexity of tasks offed to the job Generally effective on motivation, satisfaction, commitment to organization, and performance Depends on the growth needs of the employees Feedback Intervention Theory A mta analysis (607 effect sizes 23,663 observations) suggests that FI’s improved performance on average (d=.41) but that over 1/3 of the FI’s decreased performance FI’s change the locus of attention FI effectivness decrease as attention moves up the hierarchy closer to the self and way form the task Very important because two theories require you to provide feedback. This is how you can provide feedback Slide 8 Stress Stress • Stress • Feeling of tension when a person perceives a situation exceeds their ability to cope • Job stress • Feeling that one’s capabilities, resources, or needs do not match the demands or requirements of the job. Types of Stress Acute Stress Shorttern, Reaction to an immediate threat Chronic Stress Long term, Reaction to an ongoing situation Stress related conditions not on exam Stress, Good or Bad? Eustress Positive Stress Energizing Motivating Improves performances Dystress Negative stress Physiological problems Three Models of Work Stress Demands Control Model Workplace demands faced versus Control exerted in meeting demands Effortreward Imbalance Effort required versus rewards received as a result of effort Conservation of Resources theory (Potential) loss of resources Job demands Control Model the idea of this model is that stress comes from your job but only comes from certain types of jobs like when jobs high high demands. There are a lot of demands but you don't have a lot of control going to cause a lot of stress If the demands are high but job control is also high causes a lot of stress but it causes eustress which will motivate you, and because of it you will learn more. Effort Reward Imbalance Model saying why people are stressed. If you spend a lot of time preparing for something but you don't do well on it, that is going to cause stress. If you don't spend a lot of time preparing for something and you don't do well, then it wont cause stress because you were expecting it. Conservation of Resources Theory • Individuals are seen as motivated to obtain, retain, foster and protect these things they value. What makes people stressful is the potential or actual loss of their values resources • Principle 1. The primary of resource Loss • Resources loss is disproportionally more salient then resource gain • If you loose resources you are going to be stressed • Loss is more salient to us than gain • Principle 2. Resource Investment • People must invest resources in order to protect against resource loss, recover from losses, and gain resources. • In order to gain or protect resources you must invest resources. To protect from resource loss Conservation of Resources Theory • Corollary 1: Those with greater resources are less vulnerable to resources loss and more capable of orchestrating resource gain. Conversely, those with fewer resources are more vulnerable to resource loss and less capable of resource gain • Corollary 2: Those who lack resources are not only more vulnerable to resource loss, but that initial loss beets future loss. This is a critical aspect of the theory, because its predicts that loss cycles will occur quickly and powerfully. • Corollary 3: Mirrors corollary 2, setting that those who possess resources are more capable of gain, and that initial • Resources: within the conservation of resources theory • Those objects, personal charecterists, conditions or energies that are valued by the individual or that serve as a means for attainment of these objects, personal characteristics, conditions, or energies • Examples: House, mansion, Mastery, selfesteem; Marriage, tenure, and seniority, socioeconomic status and employment, time, money, and knowledge. Resource caravans • Having one major resource is typically linked with having others, and likewise lacking major resources is linked to lacking others TwoDimensional Model of Stressors Challenge Stressors • Workrelated demands or circumstances that, although potentially stressful, have associated gains for individuals • Examples: high workload, time pressure, job scope, and high responsibility. Hindrance Stressors • workrelated demands or circumstances that tend to constrain or interfere with an individual’s work achievement, which do not tend to be associated with potential gains of the individual • Examples: organizational politics, red tape, role ambiguity, and concerns about job security. Personality and Stress • Type A personality • Competitive • Aggressive • Impatient • Type B Personality • Competitive • Aggressive • Impatient Slide 9 Leadership Leadership Process of providing direction and influencing individuals or groups to achieve goals Taxonomic of Leadership • Based on the Primary focus of the theory (Yukl) • Trait approach • Behavioral approach • focus on what leaders do rather than the personal attributes of the leader • Contingency approach • certain behaviors of certain traits are only used in certain situations and will not be used or helpful in other situations • There efficiencies depend on the situation • Hybrid approach Trait Approach • Differentiate leaders from nonleaders/effective and noneffective leaders by focusing on personal qualities and characteristics • Early studies part of trait approach) • Inconsistent but high energy level, stress tolerance, integrity, emotional maturity (less self centered, less impulsive, emotionally stable, and less defensive), intelligence, dominance, selfconfidence, and taskrelevant knowledge Big 5 research • Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and openness to experience Dark Traits 1. Narcissism • Having a self centered perspective • having feelings of superiority 2. Machiavellians • Use of manipulation and cynical view • Moral code puts results over principle 3. Psychopathy • Lack of concern for others, impulsivity • Lack of remorse of guilt when actions harm others Trait Theories: Do Leaders Possess Unique traits and Personal Characteristics Perceptions matter • Implicit leadership theory is based on the idea that people have beliefs about how leaders should behave and what they should do for their followers • These beliefs are summarized in a leadership prototype: • a mental representation of the traits and behaviors that people believe are possessed by leaders Implications of Trait Approach • We can not ignore the implications of leadership traits • Positive trait should be cultivated and “dark side” traits avoided • Organizations should include personality testing and trait assessments in hiring and promotion Behavioral Approach • Behaviors can Be Taught Traits cannot • Leaders and Trained not born Job centered (Part of Behavioral Approach) • Emphasizes tasks and methods to accomplish them • Supervises employees closely • Behaves punitively Employee Centered • Emphasizes personal needs and interpersonal relationship • Delegates decision making authority • Provides supportive environment A leader is classified as either job centered, or employee centered, and could not be both Researches favored the leaders who were employee oriented, however, there is proof saying that one is more effective than the other Initiating Structure • Establish welldefined patterns of organization and communication • Very similar to job centered • Define procedures • Delineated their relationships with subordinates • Emphasize goals and deadlines Consideration • Very similar to employee centered • Express friendship • Develop mutual trust and respect • Build strong interpersonal relationships • Offer support These are two behavioral dimensions. Leaders may possess any combination of these two dimensions Early studies indicated that leaders who exhibit higher levels of both were more effective Limitation of Trait & Behavioral Approach • Both Trait and Behavior Approach are Criticized as looking for Simple Answers to Complex Questions. Contingency Approach • LeastPreferred CoWorker (LPC) determined leadership style (fixed trait) • Relationship oriented • Taskoriented • Match leader’s style with degree of situational control • Leadermember relations • Task structure • Position power Contingency Approach: Fiedler Leadership Model • LeastPreferred Coworker (LPC) determines leadership style (fixed trait) • Relationship oriented • Task oriented • Match leader’s style with degree of situational control • Leadermember relations • Task structure • Position power Contingency Approach • Limitations • Focus on a single trait • Ambiguity about what LPC measures • Absence of explanatory process • Difficult to apply for managers Hybrid Approach • Full range of leadership model • Transactional Leadership • Transformational Leadership Transactional Leadership • Transactional leadership encompasses the type of leadership concerned by behavioral approach and contingency approach • Transactional leaders guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirement. Transactional Leadership Refer to Powerpoint 1. Contingent reward Leaders • Understand what followers want • Set goals • Provide performance feedback • Clarify links between performance and rewards • Ensure consequences for behaviors and performance 2. Active Management by Exception Leaders • Focuses on errors • Consistently monitors performance 3. Laissez Faire Leaders • Do nothing Transformational Leaders • Transformational leaders not only attempt to recognize and satisfy follower needs, but also attempt to develop those needs from lower to higher levels of maturity • Transformational leaders can and are willing to make personal sacrifices and encourage followers to transcend their personal interests for the wellbeing of the organization Four Key Leader Behaviors of Transformational Leadership • Inspirational Motivation • Use of Charisma • Attractive vision of the future • Idealized Influence • Sacrificing for the good of the group • Being a role model with high ethical standards • Individualized consideration • Pay special attention to needs of followers • Find ways for people to develop and grow • Intellectual Stimulation • Encourage creativity, innovation, and problem solving Full Range of Leadership Model: Transactional and Transformational Leadership covers the full range of possible leadership behaviors Additional Perspectives of Leadership • What is the LeaderMemberExchange (LMX) Model of Leadership? • Based on the assumptions that leaders develop unique onetoone relationships with each of the people reporting to them • Leader Member Dyads • In Group Exchange • Creating trust, respect and mutual obligation • HighQuality relationships help gain access to the many benefits these relationship bring • Out Group Exchange • Creating formality in expectations and rewards Slide 10 Teams and Groups Defined • Teams are groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization. Groups include people assembled together whether or not they have any interdependence or organizationally focused objective. Why people join groups? • Fulfilling Affiliation Needs, Security, Status & Selfesteem, Goal Achievement, Personal agency, proxy agency, and collective agency, Social identity • A person's sense of who they are based on their group membership(s) Pros and Cons of Teams • Advantages • Under right conditions, teams make better decisions, develop better products and services and create a more engaged workforce compared with employees working alone • Troubles • Process Loss Resources (including time and energy) expended toward team development and maintenance rather the task • Social Loafing Occurs when people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in terms than when working alone • Groupthink the tendency to value consensus at the price of decision quality • GroupShift in discussing a given set of alternatives and arriving at the solution, group members tend to exaggerate the initial positions that they held (conservative vs. rise shift) Types of Teams • Functional teams, Production teams, Service teams (sales teams), Management teams, Project teams (e.g., new product development teams, Advisory teams (e.g., disability groups advising on technical aspects of products) Types of Teams • Selfmanaging teams Have a great deal of autonomy and control over the work they do. • Typically have formal supervision from above, the supervisor’s role is to facilitate team performance and member involvement rather than direct the team • The members of the team make important decisions(e.g, goalsetting, assigning tasks, even deciding team’s pay structure) • Outcomes: Tend to lead to many positive outcomes: More worker satisfaction; Lower turnover and absenteeism; Increased productivity; Higher quality work; More engaged in work; Higher level of commitment to the team Types of teams • Virtual teams: Teams in which members work together but are separated by time, distance, or organizational structure • Benefits: Allow people who are physically separate to work together; Reduced cost. • Costs: virtual teams have been shown to be less effective than facetoface teams. (e.g.,misunderstanding; difficulty to develop behavioral norms; freeriders are more likely; frustration of other members caused by freeriders) • Solution: increase the number of facetoface meetings whenever possible Team Effectiveness • Effective teams have high performance (quantity and quality of output) • Effective teams have the ability to learn new skills and knowledge over time • Team effectiveness relates to the satisfaction and wellbeing of its members (positive affective experience of team members) • Team effectiveness relates to the team’s ability to survive (team viability for the future) Three factors that influence team effectiveness Team design, Organization and team environment, and team process Organizational & Team Environment • OTE represents all of the factors beyond the team’s boundaries that influence its effectiveness • Communication systems (particularly in virtual teams) • Organizational structure (organized around work processes) • Organizational leaders who provide support and strategic direction • Performance evaluation and reward system (employees are at least partly rewarded for team performance) Team Design • Task interdependencethe extent team members must share materials, information, or expertise in order to perform their jobs High Reciprocal, Medium Sequential , Low Pooled Team Size don’t really know much about this slide • Proposition1: inverted U shaped relationship between size and performance. • Greater > diversity of skills, talents, ideas, and inputs • Greater > increased difficulty to coordinate and cooperate • Proposition 2: a positive linear relationship between size and performance • Most likely when a team finds a way to avoid the problems associated with too many Team Composition • Behavioral Requirements for Effective Team Work: • Taskrelated: cooperation; coordination; communication • Teammaintenance related: psychological support; conflict resolution. • Team members’ personal requirements: • Agreeableness and emotional stability • Conscientiousness (when team task involves planning and performance than creativity) • Extraversion and openness (when situations requires non routine decision making and c reative tasks) • Team composition requirements: • Diversity Team process • Team roles: Role: a set of behaviors that people are expected to perform because they hold certain positions in a team and organization • Team norms: Norms: the informal rules and shared expectations that groups establish to regulate the behavior of their members Team process • Team Cohesion: Team cohesion: the degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members, Interpersonal and task cohesion • Influences on team cohesion (SIT):Membership similarity; team size; member interaction; somewhat difficult entry; team success; external competition and challenge Team process (Dont know much about this slide it is a chart) • Consequences of team cohesion: Team Process • Psychological safety • a shared belief that the team is safe for interpersonal risk taking • It enhances team earning because you feel comfortable with your mistakes • Outcomes: • Increases amount members learn from mistakes • Improves team innovation • Enhances employee engagement Team Processes • Team efficacy refers to perceptions of taskspecific team capability • Relationship between team efficacy and team performance: r = .41 (high) • Interdependence significantly moderates the relationship between teamefficacy and performance • The relationship between teamefficacy and performance was stronger when interde pendence was high (r = .45) than when it was low (r = .34). • Team potency refers to broader perceptions of team capability spanning tasks and situations • Relationship between team potency and team performance: r = .37 • Interdependence did not moderate the relationship between team potency and team per formance Team Process • Conflict: • Personal conflict (relationship): members do not like each other. • Substantive conflict (task): disagree with another’s taskrelated ideas or analysis of problems or plans. • Outcomes of conflict (De Dreu & Weingart, 2003) • Strong and negative correlations between relationship conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. • strong and negative (instead of the predicted positive as in textbooks) correlations between task conflict, team performance, and team member satisfaction. • task conflict was less negatively related to team performance when task conflict and relationship conflict were weakly, rather than strongly, correlated.
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