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Bio 151 Midterm/Final 3

by: Sarah Arndt

Bio 151 Midterm/Final 3 ZOOLOGY 151

Sarah Arndt
GPA 3.643

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About this Document

This study guide is for the last section of the semester.
Introduction to Biology
Seth Blair
Study Guide
50 ?




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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Arndt on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ZOOLOGY 151 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Seth Blair in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Biology in Animal Science and Zoology at University of Wisconsin - Madison.

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Date Created: 04/29/16
Midterm 3 Study Guide             Multicellular organisms            Volume goes up as a cube of the radius and surface area goes up as the square of the   radius            Specialization of cells Basement membrane: non­cellular, made of cross­linked collagen and glycoprotein Epithelial tissues            Specialized for secretion or absorption Simple cuboidal: kidney, form tubule Simple squamous: lungs, thin for diffusion Stratified squamous: protects abrasion, esophagus Simple columnar: small intestine, specialized for absorption Connective Tissue Loose: fibroblasts, secrete fibrous proteins like collagen and elastin            Elastic and reticular fibers Collagen: very strong, cushioning and support, chondroitin sulfate Fibrous: tendons and ligaments, parallel bundles Adipose: fat droplets Bone: extracellular matrix is mineralized            Osteoblasts secrete collagen and calcium phosphate in hydroxyapatite Blood: wbc, rbc, and plasma Muscle Skeletal: striated, multinucleated, have myoblasts, voluntary Cardiac: striated, single nucleus, gap junctions, involuntary, linked electrically Smooth: not striated, mononucleated, involuntary, autonomic, sympathetic, and  parasympathetic Negative feedback: receptor, detector, detects change in the variable measured, sends a signal  to control center, activates mechanism for reversing the change Digestive System Processes controlled by enzymes            Stomach acid is ph of 1.5 while small intestine is 8 Accessory glands: salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gall bladder            Make different digestive enzymes and juices Saliva            Mucin: lubricant for getting the food down            Antibacterial like lysosome            Salivary amylase: breaks down starches Tongue makes a bolus to down esophagus Epiglottis: closes trachea when swallowing Stomach     Gastric juice: hcl­antibacterial to solubilize food, denature proteins, and activate pepsinogen,  parietal cells     Pepsin: cuts proteins, from chief cells     Mucus: lines stomach for protection, mucous cells Movement through cells Pumps: use a concentration gradient and atp to get a molecule or ion across a membrane Channels: form pores, controlled or uncontrolled, special kinds Transporters: can couple with another ion to let something else pass Heart 2 chambers Atrium: left and right Ventricle: left and right Blood goes into the heart through the vena cava into the right atrium to the right ventricle  passing through the tricuspid valves out the pulmonary artery to the lungs, from the pulmonary  veins to the left atrium through the bicuspid valve to the left ventricle and then out the aorta to  the rest of the body Electrical pumping: pacemaker is at SA node     Pulse goes from SA node AV node, then down the bundle of his and out to the purkinje fibers, the atrium contracts before the ventricle Rate controlled by nervous system     Adrenaline speeds it up     Acetylcholine slows it down Blood pressure     Determined by cardiac output and the resistance to flow in the blood vessels     Diastole/Systole     Control system uses baroreceptors Respiration Oxygen goes through the nose to the pharynx to the larynx to the trachea to the bronchus to the bronchiole to the alveolus Alveolus is surrounded by a capillary bed where oxygen diffuses into the blood Action potentials     Contraction of intercostal muscles and the diaphragm is in response to bursts of nerve  impulses Nonspecific Defense Skin: slightly acidic, also mucous and tears Phagocytes: go and kill everything “bad” Inflammatory response: blood goes to site of injury to get more white blood cells there Antibodies/antigens Epitopes: where antigens get attached and antibodies recognize Heavy and light chains     Light create diversity     Constant and variable regions Antibodies or immunoglobulins     Contain two light and two heavy     Variable bind antigen Invader First path with a b cell     Invader into macrophage, macrophage presents its pieces with mhcII, helper cell binds and  gets activated and then a memory t cell is also made, a active t helper cell binds a b cell and it  separates to a memory b cell and a plasma b cell, the plasma secretes antibodies to kill the  antigen Second path with cytotoxic t cell     Same through activation of t helper then the cytotoxic binds and creates memory and active,  the active creates perforin to kill the invader Kidney: excrete waste, maintain water, hormone Outer part is renal cortex Inner is renal medulla Functional unit of kidney is nephron Starts in cortex, down to medulla and back up to collecting duct Average kidney has about 1 million nephrons  Glomerulus: is very porus and surrounded by bowman's capsule (cells around are the  podocytes), blood comes in at high pressure Fluid at then end goes to collecting duct, to ureters, bladder, than urethra and out  Muscle Contraction Myosin and actin filaments Myosin     Has troposin and tropomysosin and calcium is used to contract and atp Actin     Goes towards inner of sacromere when contracted Sacromere     Z line at the end of each filament Neurons Motor, interneurons, and sensory Structure: has axon, cell body, and dendrites     Axon carries single     Dendrites put single elsewhere 


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