BIOL 2230 Final study guide
BIOL 2230 Final study guide BIOL 2230
Popular in Microbiology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Collins on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Anthony L Newsome in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
Reviews for BIOL 2230 Final study guide
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/29/16
Bacterial diseases of the skin Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info MRSA (Methicillin Staphylococcus Responsible Surgical wound 20% of people Resistant Staph aureus for several infections are carriers Aureus) difficult-‐to-‐ treat infections Boil/abscess Staphylococcus Localized Inflammation caused Pus: aureus region of by host’s response accumulation pus to tissue damage; of pus surrounded causes redness, surrounded by by inflamed pain, heat, swelling inflamed tissue tissue Impetigo Staphylococcus Dry, crusty Newborns aureus skin Scalded skin Staphylococcus Red, syndrome aureus blistered skin that comes off Strep throat Viruses Potential of scarlet fever; diagnosed with throat swab to test for proteins Dermatitis Pseudomonas Swimming and hot Resistant to aeruginosa tubs disinfectants Otitis externa Pseudomonas AKA Resistant to aeruginosa swimmer’s disinfectants ear Acne Propionibacterium Acne that One type of acnes causes acne is cystic significant acne scarring Necrotizing Streptococcus Flesh eating pyogenes bacteria fasciitis • Toxic shock Staphylococcus Caused by aureus and extended syndrome Streptococus use of pyogenes tampons Beta hemolytic Streptococcus People 2 years and Diagnosed with strep pyogenes older gram stain, blood agar • When burn patients die it’s usually because of a secondary bacterial infection • Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are normal flora in the body • Body odor is caused by bacteria on the surface of skin o Deodorants have antibiotic compounds 2 Bacterial diseases of the eye Etiologic Description Causes/demographic Misc. info agent Conjunctivitis Many AKA pinkeye; More common in Can be different inflammation people who wear caused by viruses and of the mucus contact lenses Chlamydia – bacteria membrane called that lines the chlamydial eyelids and conjunctivitis; outer surface leads to of the eyeball blindness when severe Neonatal Neisseria Newborn picks up Can lead to gonorrheal gonorrhea when passing blindness; ophthalmia through the birth newborns canal must be given antibiotic within hour of birth Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas are common causes of infection, especially in people who wear contact lenses • Many causes – collective term 3 Bacterial diseases of the nervous system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Bacterial Neisseria Inflamed College students and Normal flora of the meningitis meningitis meninges; #1 military – introduced nose; vaccine: cause of to new strains from pieces of the meningitis in around the world capsule of the USA bacteria Bacterial Haemophilus Inflamed Young children Hib vaccine: H. meningitis influenza meninges influenza type B Bacterial Streptococcus Inflamed S. pneumonia meningitis pneumonia meninges; causes both Referred to as pneumonia and “pneumococcal meningitis; pneumonia” vaccine: PCV, AKA Prevener vaccine Tetanus Clostridium AKA lockjaw Tetanus toxin is one Vaccine: inject with tetani spores of the most potent denatured toxin toxins known (toxoid) Botulism Botulinium Flaccid paralysis Spores exist in botulinum uncooked food – spores obligate anaerobes Leprosy Microbacterium Infects lepral peripheral nerve endings, causing resorption of bone Meningitis: inflamed meninges • Brain and spinal cord covered by membranes (meninges) • Many causes – bacteria, viruses, protozoa • Encephalitis – infection of the brain 4 Bacterial diseases of the respiratory system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Pharyngitis Streptococcus Inflammation of Not life-‐ (genus); many mucus threatening causes membranes of the throat Scarlet fever Streptococcus Is an erythrogenic pyogenes toxin – causes redness Diptheria Corynebacterium URT -‐ sore throat, Gram positive diphtheria cells die, affects bacteria; heart and kidneys vaccine: DtaP Whooping Bordetella LRT – attach to cough pertussis cilia in throat, larynx, trachea – mucus accumulates Legionella Legionella AKA Legionnaire’s Spreads by pneumonia pneumophila disease breathing in aerosolized water, e.g. fountaints, AC units Atypical Mycoplasma Caused by pneumonia pneumonia, infectious agents Chlamydia that can’t be pneumonia, grown on viruses conventional lab media Tuberculosis Mycobacterium Extracellular Foreign material Diagnosed tuberculosis reproduction of multiplies inside of with bacteria; fever, macrophage instead tuberculin skin coughing blood of being killed test 5 Bacteria do not multiply in the air o More bacteria inside than outside • A sneeze expels bacteria at 200pm – 10-‐100k bacteria per sneeze • URT – upper respiratory tract – nose and throat • LRT – lower respiratory tract – larynx, trachea, bronchial tubes, alveoli (sterile) • Tuberculosis details o Macrophage: destroys bacteria by ingesting it § Tuberculosis: bacteria multiplies o Causes 1 or more lesions in lung o Lesion is encapsulated in effort to constrain it à tubercle o If tubercle calcifies, foreign bacteria are killed o If tubercle bursts, bacteria multiplies in extracellular environment § At this point, show symptoms of TB § Extracellular replication: military tuberculosis o Tuberculin skin test: inject bacteria into skin § After 24-‐48 hr – if hive appears at site, you’ve been exposed to TB – don’t necessarily have it • Mycobacterium avium extracellular complex: chronic, mild form of pneumonia o Most common in nursing homes 6 Bacterial diseases of the cardiovascular system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Septicemia Usually gram Septic shock: Presence of Another negative blood vessels unwanted symptom – bacteria, e.g. E. constrict, bacteria/products in lymphangitis: coli, reducing the blood; normal inflamed pseudomonas bloodflow, flora get into the lymphatic organs shut circulatory system system – red down streaks Bacterial Staphylococcus Bacteria in Acute bacterial endocarditis aureus, circulatory system endocarditis: Streptococcus sticks to bacteria pyogenes endocardium and multiply on multiplies heart valves Bacterial Staphylococcus Bacteria in Pericarditis: myocarditis aureus, circulatory system same but takes Streptococcus sticks to place in the pyogenes myocardium (heart pericardium, the muscle) and outer lining of multiplies the heart Kawasaki Unknown; is Vessel Is currently the #1 Autoimmune disease/syndrome usually a pre-‐ vasculitis infectious disease in disease existing viral (inflammation) young children infection that leads to artery aneurysms (burst open) if untreated Gas gangrene Clostridium Swelling and Occurs in deep Treat with perfringes shutting of wound infections; debridment or blood vessels anaerobic bacteria hyperbolic produce CO2 and H2 chamber 7 Anthrax Bacillus Inhale spores, Aerobic, spore-‐ anthracis multiply in lungs forming; easy to grow and weaponize Black plague Yersinia pestis Carried by rats and Also causes fleas Bubonic plague – huge lymph nodes Lyme disease Borrelia Deer ticks – bulls-‐ Is a STARI – burdorferi eye rash Southern Tick Associated Rash Illness Rheumatic β hemolytic Antibodies Result of long-‐lasting Autoimmune streptococcus, made for strep bout of strep throat; disease fever throat was once the #1 streptococcus pyogenes accumulate infectious disease in and attach to young children the heart Gas gangrene treatments • Debridment – cut off dead tissue – O2 can now reach live tissue • Hyperbolic chamber – increase amount of O2 to saturate tissue with it 8 Bacterial diseases of the digestive system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Caries Streptococcus Bacteria sticks (cavities) mutans to enamel, produces strong acid that burns hole in enamel Periodontal Anaerobic bacteria disease Dysentery Diarrhea + #1 cause of infant Diarrhea: blood + mucus mortality worldwide condition of is dehydration from having 3 or more dysentery loose or liquid BM’s in one day Gastroenteritis Inflammation of mucous membranes that line intestines Food Staphylococcal: Rapid onset: 1-‐6 poisoning Staphylococcus hours aureus; Clostridium perfringes Salmonella Salmonella (genus) Poultry Onset: 1-‐12 days gastroenteritis Typhoid fever Salmonella typhi Severe diarrhea Cholera Vibrio cholerde Severe Lose 12-‐20 liters of diarrhea fluid per day 9 Traveler’s Escherichia coli; E. E. coli leaves Carried by cows – diarrhea coli 0157 – intestines and ingested by eating enterohemorrhagic infects other rare meat strain organs Listeriosis Listeria Stillbirth, Foodborne outbreaks Grows well at monocytogenes disease in from variety of food refrigerator humans and and dairy products; animals; mild more severe in temperatures and immunocompromised symptomless people in healthy individuals Large intestine • Trillions of bacteria • E. coli, Proteus klebsiella, shigella – referred to as “enterics” Small intestine • Fewer bacteria than large intestine because it’s adjacent to stomach, which is acidic and has few bacteria Ingestion of contaminated food or water o Fecal material gets into your mouth – fecal-‐oral route • Infection vs intoxication – with intoxication, you ingest a toxin that has already pre-‐formed, and antibiotics don’t help • Enterotoxin: toxin that acts only on intestines 10 Bacterial diseases of the urinary and reproductive systems Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Gonorrhea Neisseria Attach to STD; more harmful Most reported STD; gonorrhea; mucosal cells to women if untreated can lead severity depends to PID (pelvic on strain inflammatory disease), neonatal ophthalmic gonorrhea Syphilis Treponema Chancre sore; STD If not treated, can palladium systemic cross placenta and illness if cause congenital untreated syphilis; once infected, body may eradicate or may invade the brain Chlamydia Chlamudia STD Can be passed to trachomatis newborns Trichomonas STD; affects women Most common STD vaginalis in the US; detected (protozoan) through PAP smear Lower urinary and genital system • Streptococcus, Pseudomonas are common etiologic agents o These flora are normally not pathogenic, but when they get somewhere they don’t belong (e.g. circulatory system, deep tissue), cause illness or death • Probiotics – MO that have clinical health benefits when consumed • Good to take when on antibiotics or when drinking alcohol 11 Viruses Reproduce only within cells – can’t grow on agar plate • No metabolism outside walls • Nucleic acid and protein coat, few if any of own enzymes o Use cell’s enzymes – very difficult to selectively treat Refer to by genus and species and as a viral agent – not a viral cell Infection usually kills the host cell • Must attach to protein (receptor) Cultivate or grow • On animal, tissue culture, live egg – not agar plates • Vaccines are produced this way Too small to be seen with a microscope – can only see effects 12 Viral diseases of the skin Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Warts Papillomavirus Contagious Become more Can become serious if bumps immune with age immunodeficient Smallpox Variola virus Circular lesions Transmitted by 30% mortality rate; burst and respiratory route cowpox – very similar release viruses – used in vaccine into the air Chicken pox Varicella Vesicular (fluid-‐ Respiratory route à Latent infection – can zoster filled) lesions; viremia à remain in host for a infects nerve encephalitis long time without endings near apparent symptoms; surface of skin shingles: virus (peripheral multiplies in nerves – nerve ganglion) immunocompromised people Measles Rubeola Blindness, Respiratory route; hearing loss highly contagious German Rubella More mild and Don’t get vax if measles often pregnant – crosses undetected placenta, can cause congenital rubella syndrome Herpes Cold sores; Oral route Exists as latent virus; simplex type affects mucus Herpetic keratitis: eye I (HSV-‐1) membranes on infection; causes face encephalitis in very rare cases Herpes Genital herpes STD simplex type II (HSV-‐2) 13 Viremia – presence of virus in the blood Smallpox – Variola virus • Last case was in 1977 – global effort to eradicate it • Edward Jenner: gave people cowpox to vaccinate them o Smallpox vaccine (made with cowpox) can kill you • After 9/11: breakup of Soviet Union – said they had vials of smallpox o Could be weaponized – no one is vaccinated anymore Chicken pox -‐ Varicella vaccine – not 100% effective o Possibly higher risk for shingles later MMR vaccine: measles, mumps, and rubella Viral infections in children • Do not give aspirin when child has a virus – e.g. flu, common cold • Reyes syndrome: edema (fluid) in brain – very rare 14 Viral diseases of the central nervous system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Polio Poliomyelitis Multiplies in small Ingest through Vaccine created in intestine à contaminated food 1950s viremia à CNS à and water; still usually prevalent in asymptomatic, developing countries but 1% become paralyzed Rabies Rabies virus Encephalitis; Usually from an Unique – multiplies in animal bite; bites on incubation period muscles initially; hands and face are is long enough to in system for days more concerning allow immunity or months before because they have from post-‐ becoming more nerve endings exposure symptomatic (i.e. vaccination (i.e. spreading to CNS) you can be vaccinated after bitten) St. Louis Arbovirus Encephalitis Carried by encephalitis, mosquitoes West Nile virus, Zika virus 15 Viral diseases of the cardiovascular system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Burkett’s Epstein Barr virus Common Africa lymphoma childhood cancer Nasopharyngeal Epstein Barr virus China cancer Infectious Epstein Barr virus Multiplies in United States 15% of college mononucleosis parotid gland students (saliva) – spread contract mono orally • If get Epstein Barr infection as a newborn – potential to cause cancer • Chronic fatigue syndrome – results in higher number of antibodies to the Epstein Barr virus; however, EB virus is not the etiologic agent Viral diseases of the respiratory system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info (name) Respiratory syncytial Multi-‐nucleated cell – Newborns, especially virus cells fuse together premature Influenza virus type A Severe flu pandemic Adults No vaccine provides long-‐lasting immunity due to changing protein coat; high number of deaths due to high infection rate Influenza virus type B Geographically limited Adults “ “ 16 Viral diseases of the digestive system Etiologic Description Causes/demographic Misc. info agent/name Hepatitis A RNA virus (contains no Transmitted by oral 50% is subclinical – no DNA) that affects the route, multiplies in symptoms liver intestinal tract Hepatitis B DNA virus that affects Transmitted by blood Requires a different the liver; serum transfusion, IV drug use, vaccine than Hepatitis hepatitis bodily secretions A Hepatitis C Non A/non B hepatitis – Can be an STD other virus that affects the liver Hepatitis D AKA delta hepatitis/delta agent; affects the liver Rotavirus Newborns (especially premature), children Norwark virus Diarrhea Adults Mumps Multiplies in parotid (saliva) glands • Primary viral disease of the digestive system is hepatitis – infects the liver – several types of viral hepatitis • Hepatitis A treatment: immune globulin (AKA gamma globulin) o Separate proteins in human serum – one portion of protein contains all antibodies – this is the gamma portion • Hepatitis E also exists 17 Viral diseases of the reproductive system Etiologic agent Description Causes/demographic Misc. info Herpes simplex Can exist as a STD type 2 latent virus Genital warts Papilloma virus STD Causes cervical cancer in 10% of carriers 18 Prions (proteinaceous infectious particles) • Infectious amino acid sequences that replicate • Ex: mad cow disease o Causes spongiform – the degeneration of brain o Extremely difficult to inactivate – no disinfectant or sterilization o When in humans called CJD – Creutzfeldt Jakob disease/syndrome Chromosomal diseases Toxoplasma gordii • Protozoan – not viral • If you contract while pregnant, can cause more birth defects than any other disease • From cats and undercooked meat Giardia lamblia • Protozoan • Not deadly, but causes severe diarrhea • From drinking contaminated water Cryptosporidium parvum • Can be fatal if immunosuppressed • Chemicals cannot kill • From contaminated water 19 Antibodies (Ab) – the immunoglobulins (Ig) IgG – primary in human serum -‐ found in all body fluids • 80% of all antibodies are IgG • Only antibody that can cross placenta IgA – primary in human secretions (eyes, nose, digestive tract, breathing passages, ears, vagina) • 10-‐15% of all antibodies are IgA Basic antibody structure Fab (fragment, antigen-‐binding) region Fc (fragment, crystallizable) region Antigen – unique molecule of the harmful agent to which an antibody binds Functions of antibodies • Block adherence • Bind and neutralize toxins • Block viral entry into cells • Fix complement (i.e. activate complement) o Antibodies that are latched onto a foreign cell encourage the complement protein to attack it • Opsonization – promote phagocytosis o Opsonin – any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response Humoral immunity – aspect of immunity that refers to antibodies • 1 humoral was β cells or β lymphocytes – make antibodies 20
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'