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BIOL 2230 Final study guide

by: Allison Collins

BIOL 2230 Final study guide BIOL 2230

Marketplace > Middle Tennessee State University > Biology > BIOL 2230 > BIOL 2230 Final study guide
Allison Collins
GPA 3.88

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About this Document

These notes cover everything that will be on the final exam. Any blanks in the tables are just areas that were not covered in class so are facts that you don't need to worry about.
Anthony L Newsome
Study Guide
Microbiology, Bacteria, Viruses, disease, infection
50 ?




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This 20 page Study Guide was uploaded by Allison Collins on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2230 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Anthony L Newsome in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Bacterial  diseases  of  the  skin     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   MRSA  (Methicillin   Staphylococcus   Responsible   Surgical  wound   20%  of  people   Resistant  Staph   aureus   for  several   infections   are  carriers   Aureus)   difficult-­‐to-­‐ treat   infections   Boil/abscess   Staphylococcus   Localized   Inflammation  caused   Pus:   aureus   region  of   by  host’s  response   accumulation   pus   to  tissue  damage;   of  pus   surrounded   causes  redness,   surrounded  by   by  inflamed   pain,  heat,  swelling   inflamed  tissue   tissue   Impetigo   Staphylococcus   Dry,  crusty   Newborns     aureus   skin   Scalded  skin   Staphylococcus   Red,       syndrome   aureus   blistered   skin  that   comes  off   Strep  throat   Viruses         Potential  of   scarlet  fever;   diagnosed  with   throat  swab  to   test  for   proteins   Dermatitis   Pseudomonas     Swimming  and  hot   Resistant  to   aeruginosa   tubs   disinfectants   Otitis  externa   Pseudomonas   AKA     Resistant  to   aeruginosa   swimmer’s   disinfectants   ear   Acne   Propionibacterium   Acne  that     One  type  of   acnes   causes   acne  is  cystic   significant   acne   scarring   Necrotizing   Streptococcus   Flesh  eating       pyogenes   bacteria   fasciitis   •   Toxic  shock   Staphylococcus   Caused  by       aureus  and   extended   syndrome   Streptococus   use  of   pyogenes   tampons   Beta  hemolytic   Streptococcus     People  2  years  and   Diagnosed  with   strep   pyogenes   older   gram  stain,   blood  agar     •   When  burn  patients  die  it’s  usually  because  of  a  secondary  bacterial   infection   •   Streptococcus  pyogenes,  Staphylococcus  aureus,  and  Pseudomonas   aeruginosa  are  normal  flora  in  the  body   •   Body  odor  is  caused  by  bacteria  on  the  surface  of  skin   o   Deodorants  have  antibiotic  compounds                           2   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  eye     Etiologic   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   agent   Conjunctivitis   Many   AKA  pinkeye;   More  common  in   Can  be   different   inflammation   people  who  wear   caused  by   viruses  and   of  the  mucus   contact  lenses   Chlamydia  –   bacteria   membrane   called   that  lines  the   chlamydial   eyelids  and   conjunctivitis;   outer  surface   leads  to   of  the  eyeball   blindness   when  severe   Neonatal   Neisseria     Newborn  picks  up   Can  lead  to   gonorrheal   gonorrhea     when  passing   blindness;   ophthalmia   through  the  birth   newborns   canal   must  be   given   antibiotic   within  hour   of  birth     Staphylococcus  and  Pseudomonas  are  common  causes  of  infection,   especially  in  people  who  wear  contact  lenses     •   Many  causes  –  collective  term               3   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  nervous  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Bacterial   Neisseria   Inflamed   College  students  and   Normal  flora  of  the   meningitis   meningitis   meninges;  #1   military  –  introduced   nose;  vaccine:   cause  of   to  new  strains  from   pieces  of  the   meningitis  in   around  the  world   capsule  of  the   USA   bacteria   Bacterial   Haemophilus   Inflamed   Young  children   Hib  vaccine:  H.   meningitis   influenza   meninges   influenza  type  B   Bacterial   Streptococcus   Inflamed     S.  pneumonia   meningitis   pneumonia   meninges;   causes  both   Referred  to  as   pneumonia  and   “pneumococcal   meningitis;   pneumonia”   vaccine:  PCV,  AKA   Prevener  vaccine   Tetanus   Clostridium   AKA  lockjaw   Tetanus  toxin  is  one   Vaccine:  inject  with   tetani  spores   of  the  most  potent   denatured  toxin   toxins  known   (toxoid)   Botulism   Botulinium   Flaccid  paralysis   Spores  exist  in     botulinum   uncooked  food  –   spores   obligate  anaerobes   Leprosy   Microbacterium   Infects       lepral   peripheral  nerve   endings,  causing   resorption  of   bone   Meningitis:  inflamed  meninges   •   Brain  and  spinal  cord  covered  by  membranes  (meninges)   •   Many  causes  –  bacteria,  viruses,  protozoa   •   Encephalitis  –  infection  of  the  brain     4   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  respiratory  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info     Pharyngitis   Streptococcus   Inflammation  of     Not  life-­‐ (genus);  many   mucus   threatening   causes   membranes  of  the   throat   Scarlet  fever   Streptococcus   Is  an  erythrogenic       pyogenes   toxin  –  causes   redness   Diptheria   Corynebacterium   URT  -­‐  sore  throat,     Gram  positive   diphtheria   cells  die,  affects   bacteria;   heart  and  kidneys   vaccine:  DtaP   Whooping   Bordetella   LRT  –  attach  to       cough   pertussis   cilia  in  throat,   larynx,  trachea  –   mucus   accumulates   Legionella   Legionella   AKA  Legionnaire’s   Spreads  by     pneumonia   pneumophila   disease   breathing  in   aerosolized  water,   e.g.  fountaints,  AC   units   Atypical   Mycoplasma   Caused  by       pneumonia   pneumonia,   infectious  agents   Chlamydia   that  can’t  be   pneumonia,   grown  on   viruses   conventional  lab   media   Tuberculosis   Mycobacterium   Extracellular   Foreign  material   Diagnosed   tuberculosis   reproduction  of   multiplies  inside  of   with   bacteria;  fever,   macrophage  instead   tuberculin  skin   coughing  blood   of  being  killed   test   5   Bacteria  do  not  multiply  in  the  air   o   More  bacteria  inside  than  outside   •   A  sneeze  expels  bacteria  at  200pm  –  10-­‐100k  bacteria  per  sneeze   •   URT  –  upper  respiratory  tract  –  nose  and  throat   •   LRT  –  lower  respiratory  tract  –  larynx,  trachea,  bronchial  tubes,  alveoli   (sterile)   •   Tuberculosis  details   o   Macrophage:  destroys  bacteria  by  ingesting  it   §   Tuberculosis:  bacteria  multiplies   o   Causes  1  or  more  lesions  in  lung   o   Lesion  is  encapsulated  in  effort  to  constrain  it  à  tubercle   o   If  tubercle  calcifies,  foreign  bacteria  are  killed   o   If  tubercle  bursts,  bacteria  multiplies  in  extracellular   environment   §   At  this  point,  show  symptoms  of  TB   §   Extracellular  replication:  military  tuberculosis   o   Tuberculin  skin  test:  inject  bacteria  into  skin   §   After  24-­‐48  hr  –  if  hive  appears  at  site,  you’ve  been   exposed  to  TB  –  don’t  necessarily  have  it   •   Mycobacterium  avium  extracellular  complex:  chronic,  mild  form  of   pneumonia   o   Most  common  in  nursing  homes               6   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  cardiovascular  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Septicemia   Usually  gram   Septic  shock:   Presence  of   Another   negative   blood  vessels   unwanted   symptom  –   bacteria,  e.g.  E.   constrict,   bacteria/products  in   lymphangitis:   coli,   reducing   the  blood;  normal   inflamed   pseudomonas   bloodflow,   flora  get  into  the   lymphatic   organs  shut   circulatory  system   system  –  red   down   streaks   Bacterial   Staphylococcus     Bacteria  in   Acute  bacterial   endocarditis   aureus,   circulatory  system   endocarditis:   Streptococcus   sticks  to   bacteria   pyogenes   endocardium  and   multiply  on   multiplies   heart  valves   Bacterial   Staphylococcus     Bacteria  in   Pericarditis:   myocarditis   aureus,   circulatory  system   same  but  takes   Streptococcus   sticks  to   place  in  the   pyogenes   myocardium  (heart   pericardium,  the   muscle)  and   outer  lining  of   multiplies   the  heart   Kawasaki   Unknown;  is   Vessel   Is  currently  the  #1   Autoimmune   disease/syndrome   usually  a  pre-­‐ vasculitis   infectious  disease  in   disease   existing  viral   (inflammation)   young  children   infection   that  leads  to   artery   aneurysms   (burst  open)  if   untreated   Gas  gangrene   Clostridium   Swelling  and   Occurs  in  deep   Treat  with   perfringes   shutting  of   wound  infections;   debridment  or   blood  vessels   anaerobic  bacteria   hyperbolic   produce  CO2  and  H2   chamber   7   Anthrax   Bacillus     Inhale  spores,   Aerobic,  spore-­‐ anthracis   multiply  in  lungs   forming;  easy  to   grow  and   weaponize   Black  plague   Yersinia  pestis     Carried  by  rats  and   Also  causes   fleas   Bubonic  plague   –  huge  lymph   nodes   Lyme  disease   Borrelia     Deer  ticks  –  bulls-­‐ Is  a  STARI  –   burdorferi   eye  rash   Southern  Tick   Associated  Rash   Illness   Rheumatic   β  hemolytic   Antibodies   Result  of  long-­‐lasting   Autoimmune   streptococcus,   made  for  strep   bout  of  strep  throat;   disease   fever   throat   was  once  the  #1   streptococcus   pyogenes   accumulate   infectious  disease  in   and  attach  to   young  children   the  heart     Gas  gangrene  treatments     •   Debridment  –  cut  off  dead  tissue  –  O2  can  now  reach  live  tissue   •   Hyperbolic  chamber  –  increase  amount  of  O2  to  saturate  tissue  with  it                     8   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  digestive  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Caries   Streptococcus   Bacteria  sticks       (cavities)   mutans   to  enamel,   produces   strong  acid   that  burns   hole  in  enamel   Periodontal   Anaerobic  bacteria         disease   Dysentery     Diarrhea  +   #1  cause  of  infant   Diarrhea:   blood  +  mucus   mortality  worldwide   condition  of   is  dehydration  from   having  3  or  more   dysentery   loose  or  liquid   BM’s  in  one  day   Gastroenteritis     Inflammation       of  mucous   membranes   that  line   intestines   Food   Staphylococcal:       Rapid  onset:  1-­‐6   poisoning   Staphylococcus   hours   aureus;   Clostridium   perfringes   Salmonella   Salmonella  (genus)       Poultry   Onset:  1-­‐12  days   gastroenteritis   Typhoid  fever   Salmonella  typhi   Severe       diarrhea   Cholera   Vibrio  cholerde   Severe     Lose  12-­‐20  liters  of   diarrhea   fluid  per  day   9   Traveler’s   Escherichia  coli;  E.   E.  coli  leaves   Carried  by  cows  –     diarrhea   coli  0157  –   intestines  and   ingested  by  eating   enterohemorrhagic   infects  other   rare  meat   strain     organs   Listeriosis   Listeria   Stillbirth,   Foodborne  outbreaks   Grows  well  at     monocytogenes   disease  in   from  variety  of  food   refrigerator     humans  and   and  dairy  products;   animals;  mild   more  severe  in   temperatures   and   immunocompromised   symptomless   people   in  healthy   individuals     Large  intestine     •   Trillions  of  bacteria   •   E.  coli,  Proteus  klebsiella,  shigella  –  referred  to  as  “enterics”   Small  intestine   •   Fewer  bacteria  than  large  intestine  because  it’s  adjacent  to  stomach,   which  is  acidic  and  has  few  bacteria   Ingestion  of  contaminated  food  or  water   o   Fecal  material  gets  into  your  mouth  –  fecal-­‐oral  route   •   Infection  vs  intoxication  –  with  intoxication,  you  ingest  a  toxin  that  has   already  pre-­‐formed,  and  antibiotics  don’t  help   •   Enterotoxin:  toxin  that  acts  only  on  intestines             10   Bacterial  diseases  of  the  urinary  and  reproductive  systems     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Gonorrhea   Neisseria   Attach  to   STD;  more  harmful   Most  reported  STD;   gonorrhea;   mucosal  cells   to  women   if  untreated  can  lead   severity  depends   to  PID  (pelvic   on  strain   inflammatory   disease),  neonatal   ophthalmic   gonorrhea   Syphilis   Treponema   Chancre  sore;   STD   If  not  treated,  can   palladium   systemic   cross  placenta  and   illness  if   cause  congenital   untreated   syphilis;  once   infected,  body  may   eradicate  or  may   invade  the  brain   Chlamydia   Chlamudia     STD   Can  be  passed  to   trachomatis   newborns     Trichomonas     STD;  affects  women   Most  common  STD   vaginalis   in  the  US;  detected   (protozoan)   through  PAP  smear     Lower  urinary  and  genital  system   •   Streptococcus,  Pseudomonas  are  common  etiologic  agents   o   These  flora  are  normally  not  pathogenic,  but  when  they  get   somewhere  they  don’t  belong  (e.g.  circulatory  system,  deep   tissue),  cause  illness  or  death   •   Probiotics  –  MO  that  have  clinical  health  benefits  when  consumed   •   Good  to  take  when  on  antibiotics  or  when  drinking  alcohol     11   Viruses   Reproduce  only  within  cells  –  can’t  grow  on  agar  plate   •   No  metabolism  outside  walls   •   Nucleic  acid  and  protein  coat,  few  if  any  of  own  enzymes   o   Use  cell’s  enzymes  –  very  difficult  to  selectively  treat   Refer  to  by  genus  and  species  and  as  a  viral  agent   –  not  a  viral  cell   Infection  usually  kills  the  host  cell     •   Must  attach  to  protein  (receptor)   Cultivate  or  grow   •   On  animal,  tissue  culture,  live  egg  –  not  agar  plates   •   Vaccines  are  produced  this  way   Too  small  to  be  seen  with  a  microscope  –  can  only  see  effects                             12   Viral  diseases  of  the  skin     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Warts   Papillomavirus     Contagious   Become  more   Can  become  serious  if   bumps   immune  with  age   immunodeficient   Smallpox   Variola  virus   Circular  lesions   Transmitted  by   30%  mortality  rate;   burst  and   respiratory  route   cowpox  –  very  similar   release  viruses   –  used  in  vaccine   into  the  air   Chicken  pox   Varicella   Vesicular  (fluid-­‐ Respiratory  route  à   Latent  infection  –  can   zoster   filled)  lesions;   viremia  à   remain  in  host  for  a   infects  nerve   encephalitis   long  time  without   endings  near   apparent  symptoms;   surface  of  skin   shingles:  virus   (peripheral   multiplies  in  nerves  –   nerve  ganglion)   immunocompromised   people   Measles   Rubeola     Blindness,   Respiratory  route;     hearing  loss   highly  contagious   German   Rubella   More  mild  and     Don’t  get  vax  if   measles   often   pregnant  –  crosses   undetected   placenta,  can  cause   congenital  rubella   syndrome   Herpes     Cold  sores;   Oral  route   Exists  as  latent  virus;   simplex  type   affects  mucus   Herpetic  keratitis:  eye   I  (HSV-­‐1)   membranes  on   infection;  causes   face   encephalitis  in  very   rare  cases   Herpes     Genital  herpes   STD     simplex  type   II  (HSV-­‐2)     13   Viremia  –  presence  of  virus  in  the  blood   Smallpox  –  Variola  virus   •   Last  case  was  in  1977  –  global  effort  to  eradicate  it   •   Edward  Jenner:  gave  people  cowpox  to  vaccinate  them   o   Smallpox  vaccine  (made  with  cowpox)  can  kill  you   •   After  9/11:  breakup  of  Soviet  Union  –  said  they  had  vials  of  smallpox   o   Could  be  weaponized  –  no  one  is  vaccinated  anymore   Chicken  pox  -­‐  Varicella  vaccine  –  not  100%  effective   o   Possibly  higher  risk  for  shingles  later   MMR  vaccine:  measles,  mumps,  and  rubella   Viral  infections  in  children     •   Do  not  give  aspirin  when  child  has  a  virus  –  e.g.  flu,  common  cold   •   Reyes  syndrome:  edema  (fluid)  in  brain  –  very  rare                               14   Viral  diseases  of  the  central  nervous  system       Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Polio     Poliomyelitis   Multiplies  in  small   Ingest  through   Vaccine  created  in   intestine  à   contaminated  food   1950s   viremia  à  CNS  à   and  water;  still   usually   prevalent  in   asymptomatic,   developing  countries   but  1%  become   paralyzed     Rabies   Rabies  virus   Encephalitis;   Usually  from  an   Unique  – multiplies  in   animal  bite;  bites  on   incubation  period   muscles  initially;   hands  and  face  are   is  long  enough  to   in  system  for  days   more  concerning   allow  immunity   or  months  before   because  they  have   from  post-­‐ becoming   more  nerve  endings   exposure   symptomatic  (i.e.   vaccination  (i.e.   spreading  to  CNS)   you  can  be   vaccinated  after   bitten)     St.  Louis   Arbovirus   Encephalitis     Carried  by     encephalitis,   mosquitoes     West  Nile   virus,  Zika   virus                 15   Viral  diseases  of  the  cardiovascular  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Burkett’s   Epstein  Barr  virus   Common   Africa     lymphoma   childhood  cancer   Nasopharyngeal   Epstein  Barr  virus     China       cancer   Infectious   Epstein  Barr  virus   Multiplies  in   United  States   15%  of  college   mononucleosis   parotid  gland   students   (saliva)  –  spread   contract  mono   orally     •   If  get  Epstein  Barr  infection  as  a  newborn  –  potential  to  cause  cancer   •   Chronic  fatigue  syndrome  –  results  in  higher  number  of  antibodies  to  the   Epstein  Barr  virus;  however,  EB  virus  is  not  the  etiologic  agent     Viral  diseases  of  the  respiratory  system   Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   (name)   Respiratory  syncytial   Multi-­‐nucleated  cell  –   Newborns,  especially     virus   cells  fuse  together   premature   Influenza  virus  type  A   Severe  flu  pandemic   Adults     No  vaccine  provides   long-­‐lasting   immunity  due  to   changing  protein   coat;  high  number   of  deaths  due  to   high  infection  rate   Influenza  virus  type  B   Geographically  limited   Adults   “  “         16   Viral  diseases  of  the  digestive  system   Etiologic   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   agent/name   Hepatitis  A   RNA  virus  (contains  no   Transmitted  by  oral   50%  is  subclinical  –  no   DNA)  that  affects  the   route,  multiplies  in   symptoms   liver   intestinal  tract   Hepatitis  B   DNA  virus  that  affects   Transmitted  by  blood   Requires  a  different   the  liver;  serum   transfusion,  IV  drug  use,   vaccine  than  Hepatitis   hepatitis   bodily  secretions   A   Hepatitis  C   Non  A/non  B  hepatitis  –   Can  be  an  STD     other  virus  that  affects   the  liver     Hepatitis  D   AKA  delta       hepatitis/delta  agent;   affects  the  liver   Rotavirus     Newborns  (especially     premature),  children   Norwark  virus   Diarrhea     Adults       Mumps     Multiplies  in  parotid       (saliva)  glands       •   Primary  viral  disease  of  the  digestive  system  is  hepatitis  –  infects  the   liver  –  several  types  of  viral  hepatitis     •   Hepatitis  A  treatment:  immune  globulin  (AKA  gamma  globulin)   o   Separate  proteins  in  human  serum  –  one  portion  of  protein   contains  all  antibodies  –  this  is  the  gamma  portion   •   Hepatitis  E  also  exists         17   Viral  diseases  of  the  reproductive  system     Etiologic  agent   Description   Causes/demographic   Misc.  info   Herpes  simplex     Can  exist  as  a   STD     type  2   latent  virus   Genital  warts   Papilloma  virus     STD   Causes  cervical   cancer  in  10%  of   carriers                                       18   Prions  (proteinaceous  infectious  particles)   •   Infectious  amino  acid  sequences  that  replicate   •   Ex:  mad  cow  disease   o   Causes  spongiform  –  the  degeneration  of  brain   o   Extremely  difficult  to  inactivate  –  no  disinfectant  or  sterilization     o   When  in  humans  called  CJD  –  Creutzfeldt  Jakob   disease/syndrome   Chromosomal  diseases   Toxoplasma  gordii   •   Protozoan  –  not  viral   •   If  you  contract  while  pregnant,  can  cause  more  birth  defects  than  any   other  disease   •   From  cats  and  undercooked  meat   Giardia  lamblia   •   Protozoan   •   Not  deadly,  but  causes  severe  diarrhea   •   From  drinking  contaminated  water   Cryptosporidium  parvum   •   Can  be  fatal  if  immunosuppressed   •   Chemicals  cannot  kill   •   From  contaminated  water               19   Antibodies  (Ab)  –  the  immunoglobulins  (Ig)   IgG  –  primary  in  human  serum  -­‐  found  in  all  body  fluids   •   80%  of  all  antibodies  are  IgG   •   Only  antibody  that  can  cross  placenta       IgA  –  primary  in  human  secretions  (eyes,  nose,  digestive  tract,  breathing   passages,  ears,  vagina)   •   10-­‐15%  of  all  antibodies  are  IgA   Basic  antibody  structure                                                                                                    Fab  (fragment,  antigen-­‐binding)  region           Fc  (fragment,  crystallizable)  region     Antigen  –  unique  molecule  of  the  harmful  agent  to  which  an  antibody  binds   Functions  of  antibodies   •   Block  adherence   •   Bind  and  neutralize  toxins   •   Block  viral  entry  into  cells   •   Fix  complement  (i.e.  activate  complement)   o   Antibodies  that  are  latched  onto  a  foreign  cell  encourage  the   complement  protein  to  attack  it     •   Opsonization  –  promote  phagocytosis     o   Opsonin  –  any  molecule  that  enhances  phagocytosis  by  marking   an  antigen  for  an  immune  response     Humoral  immunity  –  aspect  of  immunity  that  refers  to  antibodies   •   1  humoral  was  β  cells  or  β  lymphocytes  –  make  antibodies     20  


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