Comm210 Final Study Guide
Comm210 Final Study Guide COMM 210
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Jennifer Miner on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to COMM 210 at Ball State University taught by Denker in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Comm210 FINAL STUDY GUIDE Review Questions 1. Format for citing sources a. APA 2. Purpose of references a. They give credit to the source and prevent plagiarism 3. Stealing another's work or words and passing them off as your own a. Plagiarism 4. Oral citations a. Add to your credibility and prevent you from plagiarizing; should use even if paraphrasing 5. Types of sources a. Newspaper, scholarly journals, magazines, professional/trade publications, government publications, web sources, textbooks, surveys 6. Paper distributed daily/weekly containing news, articles of opinion, features, and advertising a. Newspapers 7. Citing newspapers & magazines In text: author & year a. Verbal: author, date, paper's title b. Reference list: author, date, title, publication name, pages 8. Scholarly journals: a. Typically publish articles quarterly that are written by experts reporting their findings from research; considered most credible; specific topics 9. Citing scholarly journal articles & professional/trade publications In text: a. Author & year b. Verbal: Author & year c. Reference: Author, year, title, publication, pages 10. Similar to newspapers but more specialized in a specific area, published less often, and more credible. a. Magazines 11. Written by members of a given field; provide credible information from the perspective of an expert on the subject a. Professional/trade publications 12. Cover a wealth of information published by the branches of the government; extremely credible; citation depends on type of document being cited a. Government publications 13. Web sources: a. Any source found on the internet 14. Citing web sources Verbally: a. website name and also the organization backing it b. Reference: depends on type of source 15. Textbooks: a. Often a good starting point for research; contains valuable information but it may be outdated 16. Interviews: a. May give you specific, up to date information for your speech and lead you to other excellent sources 17. Small groups of people with a particular characteristic convened for a focused discussion of specific things; often better than interviews and provide more information. a. Focus groups 18. Survey requirements: a. quantitative and qualitative; statistical data vs feelings/perception 19. Supporting material (SET): a. statistics, examples, testimony 20. A complete sentence that claims or denies that something is true or desirable; can be fact. value, policy a. Idea/claim 21. Functions of SET: a. To gain and hold the audience's attention; enhance the value of what you're saying and provide evidence; balance between detail and simplicity 22. Claim of fact: a. Asserts/denies that something is, was, or will be 23. Claim of value: a. Answers the question "of what worth or morality is something?" 24. Claim of policy: a. Answers the question what should be done 25. Types of supporting material: a. examples, quantification, testimony, analogy, explanation, repetition/restatement, audio/visual aids 26. Can be real or hypothetical; serve as evidence in the reasoning process known as induction a. Examples 27. Usually more meaningful to the audience; can provide specific support the audience needs; focus on the past a. Real examples 28. Emphasize conjecture, possibility, and probabilitynot certainty. Must remain realistic; allow us to experience a situation personally; a. Hypothetical examples 29. One of the most involving, enjoyable, and memorable ways to support your speech; must make a point; start with something interesting, create conflict, solve it and relate the story back to the point a. Stories/extended examples/illustrations/narratives 30. Gives you the precision you need to clarify a point or the evidence you need to prove a point; includes measurements and statistics; mean , median, mode, range, percentage a. Quantification Numerical data 31. Experiences, beliefs, words of other individuals and useful in building credibility. a. Testimony 32. Indirect quotation: a. Paraphrased quotations 33. Direct Quotation: a. Exactly what a person says, word for word 34. Analogy: a. Comparisons and contrasts; both literal and figurative; 35. Providing more detailed information to clarity your meaning; provide answers to what, how why; include definitions; simple; avoid using complicated ones too much a. Explanation 36. Used to reinforce ideas we wish to communicate; promotes clarity and retention; emphasize transitions a. Repetition/Restatement 37. Increase the audience's understanding, interest, and retention; reinforce ideas; be careful of how many you use; a. Audio/visual aids 38. Hasty generalization: a. fallacy that draws a conclusion based on insufficient evidence 39. False division fallacy: a. Fallacy that occurs when a speaker divides or categorizes and issue in an artificial way 40. Bandwagon fallacy: a. Fallacy in which speaker attempts to rally support by claiming everyone does something or thinks something 41. Post hoc/propter hoc: a. Fallacy X happened before Y, therefore X caused Y 42. Ad hominem: a. fallacy Attack on an individual rather than their standpoint; personal and unethical attack 43. Red herring: a. fallacy Distractions (fallacy) 44. Appeal to tradition: a. fallacy This has always been so, so it should stay that way 45. Circular argument: a. fallacy Arguments fall back on themselves 46. Effective representational aids: a. Enhance and aid in a speaker's message 47. Types of presentational aids: a. objects, handouts, graphics, boards, videos, audios, slideware 48. Graphics: a. 2 dimensional representations of reality, probability, or imagination; be clear in your use of these and make sure they're appropriate 49. Provide a specialized visual representation of numerical data that are generally easy to read and understand because they provide visual comparison. a. Graphs 50. NICE presentations: a. Neat, interesting, clear, effective 51. A system of symbols that we use to share meaning: a. Language 52. Description of the speech sounds of a language and the way these sounds change when combined with other sounds a. Phonology 53. The rules governing the way we combine words into phrases and sentences 54. Syntax 55. The meaning we attach to words a. Semantics 56. The study of the relationship between language and its users a. Pragmatics 57. Characteristics of language: a. Language is symbolic, Language has both denotative and connotative meanings, and language varies it its levels of abstraction 58. We hear something and think of different things depending on our own experiences a. Language is symbolic 59. Ogden & Richards; A symbol is not the thing that it symbolizes a. Triangle of meaning 60. Denotation : a. The dictionary definition of a word 61. Connotation: a. The feelings/thoughts associated with a word 62. Bypassing: a. Occurs when a sender intends one denotation for a words and the receiver attaches another 63. Ladder of abstraction: a. The higher one goes, the more abstract the meaning of the word 64. Synecdoche: a. Uses part of a concept to refer to the entire concept 65. Metonymy: a. Uses a word associated with the concept to express the concept 66. Oxymoron: a. Links two words that are usually contradictory 67. Standards of effective language: a. Appropriateness, clarity, vivid 68. Process of changing, shaping, or reinforcing attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors a. Persuasion 69. Coactive approach: a. Bridging between audience and speaker, support 70. Combative approach: a. Distance, threats 71. Expressivist approach: a. all persuasion is bad and should not be studied 72. Easiest type of persuasion: a. reinforcing existing beliefs 73. Receptive audience: a. establish rapport, clear goals, emotional examples, call for action 74. Neutral/apathetic audience: a. create interest and gain attention, establish rapport and common beliefs, appeal to the needs of loved ones, modest goals 75. Hostile audience: a. be subtle, establish rapport and common beliefs, uses plenty of sources and establish credibility, acknowledge other viewpoints, modest goals 76. Topical order: a. Should be used for claims of fact 77. 2 part organizational pattern: a. Questions of value 78. MMS, Problem solution, comparative advantage, reputational approach: a. Claims of policy 79. Friendly audience: main points, issues and plans, advantages and disadvantages, process of elimination structure a. Comparative advantage 80. Hostile audience: a. main points and issues 81. Motivational appeal: a. Positive: benefit to our life outweighs the consequences b. Negative: fear of not responding, hurt a loved one, real and close at hand 82. Ethos: a. Appeals to credibility 83. Pathos: a. Appeals to emotions 84. Logos: a. Appeals to a sense of logic 85. Slippery slope fallacy: a. a happens, then b, and then through a small series of steps eventually x y and z will happen too 86. Genetic fallacy: a. conclusion is based on an argument that the origins of a person, idea, institute or theory determine its character, nature, or worth 87. Straw man fallacy: a. Build a small argument up and then attack it 88. INNOCULATION EFFECT: a. Listeners will vary in the degree of resistance they have toward accepting BAVs different than their own; we have more resistance to change when we have time to build up counterarguments against it 89. Nonsequitur fallacy: a. statement is not connected in a logical or clear way to anything said before it 90. Social judgement theory: a. We are always comparing our BAVs to others 91. Cognitive dissonance: a. we always want our BAVs to line up with our actions, but sometimes they do not 92. Gradual change approach: a. We are more likely to change our BAV when the change called for is gradual 93. Theory of reasoned action: a. How attitudes may influence our behavior 94. Theory of planned behavior: a. Need to make sure the audience understands that they can do something 95. Goals of ceremonial speaking: a. Create mood , interest, credibility, establish worth of recipient, express gratitude, pay tribute to someone or something 96. Speech of introduction: a. Make the audience want to hear the speaker 97. Speeches of presentation: a. Establish the worth of the recipient in receiving the award 98. Speeches of acceptance: a. Express gratitude; acknowledge others 99. Commemorative speeches:; a. Pay tribute to a person, event, or institution 100. Principles of special occasion speaking: a. Be brief, meet expectations, stress common values, accuracy, highlight significance, remember your role 101. Oral readings: a. Appropriate delivery is key to effective oral readings; prepare it like a manuscript 102. Group/team presentations: a. An individual or a team of speakers presents the findings of task group's deliberations 103. Panel discussion : a. A small group of individuals holds a discussion of ideas in front of an audience 104. Symposium: a. Several individuals deliver related speeches in front of the audience 105. Forum: a. Audience members ask questions of speakers who respond with brief impromptu speeches 106. Task leader: a. Help set goals and create agendas 107. Socioemotional leader: a. Will promote a productive interpersonal climate in the group 108. Information provider: a. Contributes ideas to the group 109. Central negative: a. Will instigate conflict by evaluating idea and assessing opinions 110. Tension releaser: a. Help members feel comfortable with one another 111. Refers to the commitment of group members to the goals of the group and to the group itself a. Cohesion 112. Claim point the arguer is trying to prove is the ________. a. Thesis 113. Data a. Evidence used by the arguer to prove a point 114. Warrant: a. Justifies leaping from the data to the claim 115. Qualifiers: a. Statements that indicate the strength of the argument; probably, maybe, possibly 116. Inductive reasoning: a. What's true of the examples is true of the group they represent 117. Deductive reasoning: a. What's true of a group is true of its members
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