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PSY 250 Exam 6: FINAL EXAM Study Guide

by: Kristen Shelton

PSY 250 Exam 6: FINAL EXAM Study Guide PSY 250

Marketplace > Central Michigan University > Psychlogy > PSY 250 > PSY 250 Exam 6 FINAL EXAM Study Guide
Kristen Shelton
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Book pages included I included more info just in case
Abnormal Psychology
Deskovitz, Mark
Study Guide
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Shelton on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 250 at Central Michigan University taught by Deskovitz, Mark in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 207 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at Central Michigan University.


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Date Created: 04/29/16
Exam 6 Study Guide Covering Chapters 16 & 17 Chapter 16 – Therapy I. Why people go to therapy? a. Stressful life circumstances i. Different for every person ii. Financial, social, family life, health issues, job loss, college  students iii. Feel vulnerable (Abnormal Psychology p. 549) iv. Tend to be open to psychological treatment (Abnormal  Psychology p. 549) v. Learn coping skills, provides additional support, cognitive­ behavioral therapy vi. Clients may gain considerably & in a brief time ((Abnormal  Psychology p. 549) b. Long standing problems i. Mental health issues ii. Shy & inhibited personalities – social skill seeking iii. Seek psychological assistance out of dissatisfaction & despair  (Abnormal Psychology p. 549) iv. May enter therapy with high motivation but persistent patterns  of maladaptive behavior may generate resistance (Abnormal  Psychology p. 549­550) v. These are harder to treat vi. Therapist must contend (Abnormal Psychology p. 550) c. Reluctant clients i. Referred by a physician (Abnormal Psychology p. 550) ii. Children 1. Parents reluctant to therapy once they find out that their  behavior is what shapes their child’s behavior (Abnormal Psychology p. 550)  iii. Clients with substance abuse disorders that are threatened to go  to therapy (Abnormal Psychology p. 550) iv. Clients ordered by court to seek therapy v. Marital therapy 1. Mostly the male feels reluctant a. Masculine stereotypes (Abnormal Psychology p.  550) d. Personal growth i. Have problems that would be considered relatively normal  (Abnormal Psychology p.550) ii. Seeking to be a better person 1. Generally very motivated 2. Easy & wonderful to work with II. People who offer therapy a. Physicians i. In addition to caring for their patients physically, also trusted  advisors in emotional problems too ii. Recognize psychological problems beyond their expertise &  refer to specialists (Abnormal Psychology p. 550) b. Psychiatrists i. Have medical training ii. Prescribe psychoactive medications iii. Administer other forms of medical treatment 1. Electroconvulsive therapy (Abnormal Psychology p. 551) c. Psychiatric Social Workers d. Psychologists i. Someone with a PhD in clinical psychology ii. Have a masters degree in clinical psychologists e. Pastoral Counselors i. Religious counselors 1. Minister 2. Priest 3. Rabbi 4. Limit counseling to religious matters/spiritual support 5. Refer to specialists if beyond their expertise (Abnormal Psychology p. 550) III. Therapeutic Relationship a. Most important aspect to therapeutic gain i. Want your client to like you ii. Sense of respect between client & therapist iii. Different for each person iv. Establish an emotional bond/connection b. Therapeutic Alliance i. A sense of working collaboratively on the problem ii. Agreement between patient & therapist about the goals & tasks  of therapy iii. Affective bond between patient & therapist (Abnormal Psychology p. 551) iv. clear communication is also important (Abnormal Psychology  p. 551) v. a client’s expectation of receiving help is also important 1. patients who expect therapy to be effective engage more  in the process (Abnormal Psychology p. 551) IV. Drugs a. Antipsychotics i. Used to treat psychotic disorders 1. Schizophrenia 2. Psychotic mood disorders a. Mania b. Psychotic depression c. Schizoaffective disorder ii. Ability to alleviate/reduce the intensity of  delusions/hallucinations 1. Blocking dopamine receptors iii. 60% schizophrenics have a resolution of positive symptoms  w/in 6 weeks when treated w/ antipsychotics b. Antidepressants i. Most commonly prescribed ii. More than 90% patients being treated for depressive disorders  use antidepressants iii. SSRI’s – selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors 1. Preferred 2. Easier to use w/ fewer side effects 3. Treat: a. Panic disorder b. Social phobia c. Generalized anxiety disorder d. OCD e. Bulimia nervosa iv. SNRI’s – serotonin & norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors 1. Similar side effects to SSRI’s 2. Help # of patients who haven not responded well to other antidepressants c. Benzodiazepines i. Antianxiety drug 1. Used for conditions where tension & anxiety are  significant components 2. Do not provide a cure 3. Keep symptoms under control until patients are able to  receive other forms of effective psychological treatments ii. drug of choice iii. rapidly absorbed from the digestive tract iv. start to work very quickly v. one problem is that patients can become dependent on them (Abnormal Psychology p.569­574) V. Measuring Success a. Therapist’s impression of changes that have occurred i. Likely to be biased in favor of seeing client as competent &  successful b. A client’s reports of change i. Not necessarily a reliable source of info on therapeutic  outcomes c. Reports from the client’s family or friends i. May be more objective d. Comparison of pretreatment & post treatment scores on personality  tests/other instruments e. Measures of change in selected overt behaviors (Abnormal Psychology p.552) VI. Harmful Therapy a. Between 5­10% of clients deteriorate during treatment (Abnormal  Psychology p.553) b. Borderline personality disorder & OCD typically have higher rates of  negative treatment outcomes (Abnormal Psychology p.553) c. Problems in therapeutic alliance account for some instances of  treatment failure (Abnormal Psychology p.553) d. It is necessary for therapists to: i. Monitor their work w/ various types of clients to discover any  such deficiencies  ii. Refer clients w/ whom they may be ill­equipped to work to  other therapists (Abnormal Psychology p.553) e. The worst therapists are the ones most reluctant to use such patient  monitoring methods (Abnormal Psychology p. 554) f. Boundary Violations – the therapist behaves in ways that exploit the  trust of the patient or engages in behavior that is highly inappropriate i. Ex. Taking patient to dinner; buying patient gifts ii. Sexual relationship (Abnormal Psychology p.554) g. Critical incident stress debriefing – risk for PTSD h. DARE programs – increases intake of substances i. Boot camp intervention for conduct disorder – amplifies conduct  problems j. Expressive­experiential therapies – amplifies painful emotion k. DID­oriented therapy – initiation of other personalities l. Recovered­memory techniques – produces false memories of trauma m. Grief counseling for individuals w/ normal bereavement reactions –  depressive symptoms increase n. Attachment therapies – ex. Rebirthing; death/injury to child, trauma in the child can occur o. Scared straight intervention – amplifies conduct problems p. Facilitated communication – accuses family members of child abuse  even though it isn’t true VII. Behavioral Techniques a. Behavior Therapy – is a direct & active treatment that recognizes the  importance of behavior, acknowledges the role of learning & includes  thorough assessment & evaluation (Abnormal Psychology p.556) b. “un­learning” maladaptive behaviors (Abnormal Psychology p.556) c. Exposure Therapy i. Exposes client to anxiety­provoking stimuli ii. Fear­producing stimulus in a therapeutic manner 1. Systematic desensitization – in a more gradual way 2. Flooding – in a more extreme manner (Abnormal Psychology p.556) d. Aversion Therapy i. Aversion therapy – modifying undesirable behavior by the old­ fashioned method of punishment ii. Drugs that have noxious effects 1. Antabuse: induces nausea & vomiting when a person  who has taken it ingests alcohol iii. Electric shock not used anymore iv. Wear an elastic band on the writ & to “snap” it when  temptation arises v. Used to treat different behaviors: 1. Smoking 2. Drinking 3. Overeating 4. Drug dependence 5. Gambling 6. Sexual deviance 7. Bizarre psychotic behavior (Abnormal Psychology p.557) e. Modeling i. Modeling – the client learns new skills by imitating another  person 1. Patient/therapist who performs the behavior to be  required (Abnormal Psychology p.557­558) f. Systematic Use of Reinforcement i. Systematic programs that use reinforcement to eliminate  unwanted behavior or to elicit & maintain desired behavior  have achieved notable success 1. Called “contingency management programs” ii. Used with children 1. Shape/breakdown behaviors 2. Used with lower intellectual functioning individuals 3. Also with people of high functioning a. Depression – low mood (Abnormal Psychology p.558) g. Token Economies i. Based on principles of operant conditioning ii. Token economy – an individual is reimbursed for desired  behaviors (Abnormal Psychology p.558) VIII. Rational Emotive Behavioral Therapy (REBT) a. Albert Ellis b. Attempts to change a client’s maladaptive thought processes which  cause the behaviors i. Restructure an individual’s belief system & self­evaluation c. One method is to dispute a person’s false beliefs through rational  confrontation i. “Why should your failure to get the promotion you wanted  mean that you are worthless?” d. Use behaviorally oriented techniques i. Homework assignments given to encourage clients to  experience new things (Abnormal Psychology p.559) IX. Cognitive­Behavioral Therapy a. Two themes: i. The conviction that cognitive processes influence emotion,  motivation, and behavior ii. The use of cognitive & behavior­change techniques in a  pragmatic manner b. Beck’s Cognitive Therapy i. Developed for the treatment of depression & later for anxiety  disorders ii. Treatment used for a broad range of conditions 1. Eating disorders 2. Obesity 3. Personality disorders 4. Substance abuse 5. Schizophrenia  iii. Clients are made aware of the connection between their patterns of thinking and their emotional responses iv. Taught to identify their own automatic thoughts & to keep  records of their thought content & emotional reactions v. Identify logical errors with therapists help (Abnormal Psychology p.559­560) X. Client­Centered Therapy a. Carl Rogers b. Unconditional Positive Regard c. Be transparent & calm d. Reflective Listening – repeating back to the client to have them open  up more & make them feel closer & comfortable to the therapist e. Help clients become able to accept & be themselves f. Therapists establish a psychological climate in which clients can feel  unconditionally accepted, understood & valued as people g. Therapists don’t  i. Give answers ii. Interprets what a client says iii. Probe for unconscious conflicts iv. Steer the client toward certain topics (Abnormal Psychology p.561­562) XI. Gestalt Therapy a. Fritz Perls b. Present tense i. Here & now c. Gestalt = “whole” in German d. Emphasizes the unity of mind and body e. Teaches clients to recognize the bodily processes & emotions they had been blocking off from awareness f. Goal: i. Increase self­awareness & self­acceptance g. Commonly used in a group setting but emphasis is on one person at a  time h. Act out fantasies over feelings & conflicts i. “be” the objects in dreams & report on the experience (Abnormal Psychology p.562­563) XII. Freudian/Psychoanalysis a. Sigmund Freud b. Unconscious motivation c. Talk what comes to mind d. Psychodynamic therapy – a broad treatment approach that focuses on  individual personality dynamics e. Oldest form of psychological therapy f. Two basic forms: i. Classical psychoanalysis 1. An intensive (3 sessions per week) long term procedure  for uncovering repressed memories, thoughts, fears &  conflicts 2. These stem from problems in early development 3. Helps individuals come to terms w/ them ii. Psychoanalytically oriented psychotherapy 1. Based on psychoanalytic concepts 2. Schedule less frequent sessions (1 per week) 3. Sit face­to­face instead of recline on couch 4. Active conversational style where the therapist attempts  to clarify distortions & gaps in the client’s construction  of the origins & consequences of his/her problems 5. Challenge client “defenses” g. Freudian Psychoanalysis i. 4 basic techniques 1. free association a. an individual must say whatever comes into his/her mind regardless of how personal, painful or  seemingly irrelevant b. client lies in a relaxed position on a couch c. therapist takes position behind the client d. explore contents of preconscious 2. analysis of dreams a. forbidden desires & feeling may find an outlet in  dreams b. manifest content – dream as it appears to the  dreamer c. latent content – actual motives that are seeking  expression 3. analysis of resistance a. resistance – an unwillingness/inability to talk about certain thoughts, motives, or experiences 4. analysis of transference a. transference – people carrying over attitudes &  feelings that they had in their relations w/ a  parent/other person close to them b. countertransference – the therapist reacts in accord w/ the client’s transferred attributions rather than  objectively i. must be recognized & handled properly XIII. Couple/Family Therapy a. TBCT – traditional behavioral couple therapy i. Based on a social­learning model & views marital satisfaction  & marital distress ii. Short term treatment iii. Guided by a manual iv. Increase caring behaviors in relationship v. Teach partners to resolve their conflicts in constructive ways 1. Training in communication skills & problem solving vi. Does not work for all couples vii. Improvement rates 64% b. IBCT – integrative behavioral couple therapy i. Focuses on acceptance 1. Includes strategies that help each member of the couple  come to terms w/ & accept some of the limitations of  his/her partner 2. Improvement rates 80%  c. Family therapy – approaches designed to reduce high levels of  criticism i. Family tension have been successful in reducing relapse rates in patients w/ schizophrenia & mood disorders d. Structural family therapy – if the family context can be changed, then  the individual members will have altered experiences in the family i. Will behave differently ii. Focused on present interactions (Abnormal Psychology p.564­567) Chapter 17 – Contemporary & Legal Issues XIV. Assessing for Dangerousness a. Overall # of assaultive patients is relatively low b. A history of violent behavior & some classes of mental disorder  appear to be associated w/ violence c. More likely among those w/ symptoms of psychosis d. Disorders that have increased risk for violent behavior: i. Schizophrenia ii. Mania iii. Personality disorder iv. Substance abuse v. Rare conditions of organic brain injury & Huntington’s disease e. Professionals must maximize the # of people who take appropriate &  timely actions for the safety of life & property when predicting  dangerousness f. Look at past history of violence w/ a client g. Tarasoff­decision – the duty­to­warn ruling; spells out a therapist’s  responsibility in situations where there has been an explicit threat on a specific person’s life i. Left other areas of application unclear (Abnormal Psychology p.593­595) XV. Not guilty by insanity a. Known as the NGRI plea i. “not guilty by reason of insanity” ii. attempt to escape the legally prescribed consequences of their  crimes b. these defendants claim that they were not legally responsible for their  criminal acts c. most likely to be successful if: i. a diagnosed mental disorder, particularly a major mental  disorder ii. a female defendant iii. the violent crime was other than a murder iv. there had been prior mental hospitalizations v. 3 states have abolished the attribution of insanity 1. Idaho 2. Montana 3. Utah  vi. States adopted GBMI – guilty but mentally ill 1. A defendant may be sentence but placed in a treatment  facility rather than in a prison (Abnormal Psychology p.596­599) d. Not seen in DSM­5


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