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Final Exam Notes Chapter 2-6, 18-20

by: Gabriel Brooks

Final Exam Notes Chapter 2-6, 18-20 FNH 2293

Gabriel Brooks

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Here are the notes for the Final Exam! Good luck!
Individual and Family Nutrition
Dianne Tidwell
Study Guide
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gabriel Brooks on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to FNH 2293 at Mississippi State University taught by Dianne Tidwell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 251 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Nutrition in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Mississippi State University.

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Date Created: 04/29/16
Chapter 2 adequacy (dietary) providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to maintain health. Healthy Eating Index a measure that assesses how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. balance (dietary) providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs. Daily Values (DV) reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels. added sugars sugars and other kcaloric sweeteners that are added to foods during processing, preparation, or at the table. _____ ______ do not include the naturally occurring sugars found in fruit and milk products. discretionary kcalories the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough nutrient-dense food to meet all nutrient needs for a day. eating pattern customary intake of foods and beverages over time. empty-kcalorie foods a popular term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein, vitamins, and minerals. enriched the addition to a food of specific nutrients to replace losses that occur during processing so that the food will meet a specific standard. exchange lists diet-planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Foods on any single list can be used interchangeably. food group plans diet-planning tools that sort food into groups based on nutrient content and then specify that people should eat certain amounts of foods from each group. food substitutes foods that are designed to replace other foods. fortified the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts. ____ can be used to correct or prevent a widespread nutrient deficiency or to balance the total nutrient profile of a food. health claims statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition. imitation foods foods that substitute for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to it with respect to vitamin, mineral, or protein content. If the substitute is not inferior the the food it resembles and if its name provides an accurate description of the product, it need not be labeled "____". kcalorie (energy) control management of food energy intake. legumes plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared to other plant-derived foods. moderation (dietary) providing enough but not too much of a substance. nutrient claims statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food. nutrient density a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. The more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the ______ _____ . nutrient profiling ranking foods based on their nutrient composition. percent Daily Value (%DV) the percentage of a Daily Value recommendation found in a specified serving of food for key nutrients based on a 2000-kcalorie diet. portion sizes the quantity of a food served or eaten at one meal or snack, not a standard amount. processed foods foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory properties. refined the process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed. When wheat is ____ into flour, the bran, germ, and husk are removed, leaving only the endosperm. serving sizes the standardized quantity of a food; such information allows comparisons when reading food labels and consistency when following the Dietary Guidelines. solid fats fats that are not usually liquid at room temperature; commonly found in most foods derived from animals and vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated. Solid fats typically contain more saturated and trans fats than most oils. structure-function claims statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body. textured vegetable protein processed soybean protein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers. variety (dietary) eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups. whole grain a grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starchy endosperm, germ, and bran as the original (all but the husk); not refined. . (terms on food labels) more at least 10 percent more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient than the comparison food; synonyms include added and extra. (terms on food labels) organic on food labels, that at least 95 percent of the product's ingredients have been grown and processed according to USDA regulations defining the use of fertilizers, herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, preservatives, and other chemical ingredients. (energy) kcalorie free fewer than 5 kcalories per serving (energy) low kcalorie 40 kcalories or less per serving (energy) reduced kcalorie at least 25 percent fewer kcalories per serving than the comparison food. (fat and cholesterol) percent fat-free may be used only if the product meets the definition of low fat or fat-free and must reflect the amount of fat in 100 grams (for example, a food that contains 2.5 grams of fat per 50 grams can claim to be "95 percent fat-free") (fat and cholesterol) fat-free less than 0.5 gram of fat per serving (and no added fat or oil); includes zero-fat, no- fat, and non fat. (fat and cholesterol) low fat 3 grams or less of fat per serving (fat and cholesterol) less fat 25 percent or less of fat than the comparison food. (fat and cholesterol) saturated fat free less than .5 gram of saturated fat and ).5 gram of trans fat per serving. (fat and cholesterol) low saturated fat 1 gram or less of saturated fat and less than ).5 gram of trans fat per serving. (fat and cholesterol) less saturated fat 25 percent or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined than the comparison food. (fat and cholesterol) trans fat-free less than 0.5 gram of trans fat and less than 0.5 gram of saturated fat per serving. (fat and cholesterol) cholesterol-free less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol per serving and 2 grams or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving. (fat and cholesterol) low cholesterol 20 mg or less of cholesterol per serving and 2 grams or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving. (fat and cholesterol) less cholesterol 25% or less cholesterol in the comparison food (reflecting a reduction of at least 20 mg per serving), and 2 g or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving. (fat and cholesterol) extra lean Less than 5 g of fat, 2 g of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving and per 100 g of meat, poultry, and seafood. (fat and cholesterol) lean Less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and 95 mg of cholesterol per serving and per 100 g of meat, poultry, and seafood. For mixed dishes such as burritos and sandwiches, less than 8 g of fat, 3.5 g of saturated fat, and 80 mg of cholesterol per reference amount customarily consumed. (carbohydrates: fiber and sugar) high fiber 5 g or more of fiber per serving. A high-fiber claim made on the food that contains more than 3 g of fat per serving and per 100 g of food must also declared total fat. (carbohydrates: fiber and sugar) sugar-free Less than 0.5 g of sugar per serving. (sodium) sodium-free and salt-free Less than 5 mg of sodium per serving. (sodium) low sodium 140 mg or less per serving (sodium) very low sodium 35 mg or less per serving Chapter 3-4 Acceptable daily intake (ADI) The estimated amount of the sweetener that individuals can safely consume each day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effects Acid - base balance The equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations Amylase An enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose (a form of starch). Amylase is a carbohydrase, an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates artificial sweeteners Sugar substitutes that provide negligible, if any, energy; sometimes called nonnutritive sweeteners Carbohydrates Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydrates have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule: (CH2O Condensation A chemical reaction in which water is released as two molecules combine to form one larger product Dental caries Decay of teeth Diabetes Metabolic disorders, metabolism characterized by elevated blood glucose resulting from insufficient or ineffective insulin; the complete medical term is diabetes mellitus. When blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but below the diagnosis of diabetes, the condition is called prediabetes Dietary fibers In plant foods, the non-starch polysaccharides that are not digested by human digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria Disaccharides Pairs of monosaccharides linked together Epinephrine A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called adrenaline. When administered by injection, epinephrine counteracts anaphylactic shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat in blood pressure Fermentable The extent to which bacteria in the GI tract can break down fibers to fragments that the body can use Fructose A monosaccharide; sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose. Fructose is found abundantly and fruits, honey, and saps Galactose A monosaccharide; part of the disaccharide lactose Glucagon A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood glucose concentration. Glucagon elicits release of the glucose from liver glycogen stores Gluconeogenesis The making of glucose from a non-carbohydrate source such as amino acids or glycerol Glucose A monosaccharide; sometimes known as blood sugar in the body or dextrose in foods Glycemic index A method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose Glycemic response The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an insulin response Glycogen An animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; storage form of glucose manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrates and is not counted as a dietary carbohydrate in foods. Glyco = glucose, gen = gives rise to. Hydrolysis A chemical reaction in which one molecule is split into two molecules, with hydrogen (H) added to one and a hydroxyl group (OH) to the other (from water, H2O) Hypoglycemia An abnormally low blood glucose concentration Insoluable fibers Non-starch polysaccharides that do not dissolve in water. Examples include the tough, fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and the skins of corn kernels Insulin A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other things) elevated blood glucose concentration. Insulin controls the transport of glucose from the blood stream into the muscle and fat cells Kefir A fermented milk created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria that breakdown lactose to glucose into galactose, producing a sweet, lactose-free product Ketone bodies Acidic compounds produced by the liver during the breakdown of fat when carbohydrate is not available Ketosis An undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine Lactase An enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose Lactose A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; commonly known as milk sugar Lactase deficiency A lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) Lactose intolerance A condition that results from the inability to digest the milk sugar lactose; characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Lactose intolerance differs from milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the protein in milk. Maltase An enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose Maltose A disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar Monosaccharides Carbohydrates in the general formula CHO that typically form a single ring. the monosaccharides important in nutrition are hexoses, sugars with six atoms of carbon and the formula C6H12O6 Nonnutritive sweeteners Sweeteners that yield no energy (or insignificant energy in the case of aspartame) Nutritive sweeteners Sweeteners that yield energy, including both sugars in sugar alcohols Phytic acid A non-nutrient component of plant seeds, also called phytate. Phytic acid occurs in the husks of grains, legumes, and seeds and is capable of binding materials such as zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine, which the body excretes unused Polysaccharides Compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together. An intermediate string of 3 to 10 monosaccharides is called an oligosaccharide Protein-sparing action The action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be used for other purposes Resistant starches Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy people (Added sugar) malt syrup A sweetener made from sprouted barley and containing mostly maltose (Added sugar) maple sugar A sugar (mostly sucrose) purified from the concentrated sap of the sugar maple tree (Added sugar) molasses The thick brown syrup produced during sugar refining. Molasses retains residual sugar and other byproducts and a few minerals; blackstrap molasses contain significant amounts of calcium and iron (Added sugar) nectar A sugary fluid secreted by plants to encourage pollination by insects (Added sugar) raw sugar The first crop of crystals harvested during sugar processing. Raw sugar cannot be sold in the United States because it contains too much filth (dirt, insect fragments, and the like). Sugar sold as "raw sugar" domestically has actually gone through more than half of the refining steps (Added sugar) tagatose Poorly absorbed monosaccharide similar in structure to fructose; naturally occurring or derived from lactose (Added sugar) turbinado sugar Sugar produced using the same refining process as white sugar, but without the bleaching and anti-caking treatment. Traces of molasses give turbinado its sandy color (Added sugar) white sugar Granulated sucrose or "table sugar", produced by dissolving, concentrating, and recrystallizing raw sugar Chapter 5-6 Essential amino acid Histidine Isoleucine Leucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Threonine Tryptophan Valine Nonessential amino acid Alanine Arginine Asparagine Aspartic Acid Cysteine Glutamic Acid Glutamine Glycine Proline Serine Tyrosine Proteins compounds arranged into amino acids linked in a chain amino acids building blocks of proteins r-group unique side group of amino acids nonessential amino acids amino acids that the body can synthesize essential amino acids amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet physiological needs conditionally essential amino acid an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it peptide bond a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of another, forming a link in a protein chain dipeptide 2 amino acids bonded together tripeptide 3 amino acids bonded together polypeptide many (10 or more) amino acids bonded together hemoglobin the globular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to the cells throughout the body denaturation the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents pepsin a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. It is secreted in an inactive form, pepsinogen, which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach proteases enzymes that hydrolyze protein peptidase a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds transcription the process of mRNA being made from a template of DNA translation the process of mRNA directing the sequence of amino acids and synthesis of proteins sickle-cell anemia a hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormal sickle shaped red blood cells. gene expression the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein matrix the basic substance that gives form to a developing structure; in the body, the formative cells from which teeth and bones grow collagen the structural protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons, ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made enzymes proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process; protein catalysts fluid balance maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of the body fluids edema the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the interstitial spaces; seen in protein deficiency acids compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution bases compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution buffers compounds that keep a solution's pH constant when acids or bases are added urea the principal nitrogen-excretion product of protein metabolism. complementary proteins 2 or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are supplied by the other whey protein a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass branched-chain amino acids the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue; falsely promoted as fuel for exercising muscles Chapter 18-20 who is more likely to widowed than married women 65 and over. disengagement theory of aging physical, psychological and social withdrawal from the wider world. the elderly can now face death with peace and know that their societies are minimal and they have said their goodbyes and nothing is left. activity theory of aging view that healthiest older persons maintain fairly stable levels of activity as long as possible. the amount and types of activity that occur appear to be a function of past life patterns role exit theory of aging view that retirement and widowhood terminated participation in society. this reduces opportunities for the elderly to remain socially useful. the loss of occupational status is devastating and demoralizes them social exchange theory of aging theory that people enter into social relationships to gain a reward (economic, sustenance, recognition, security, love, gratitude or social approval). To seek those rewards is at a cost and relationship remains if both reward from it. in old age, they find their bargaining position to be deteriorated and see a decline in power. what is the average marrying age for men and women? 29 for men and 26 for women by age 25 what is the statistic for people? 44% have had a baby and 38% are married what leads to higher divorce rates? cohabitation what percentage of adults have a social media account? 75% and 1/5 have posted a video online what percentage have piercings? what is the religious aspect like for this age? 1/4 are not connected to religion but pray often. this generation is less religious because its a more educated generation what generation am I? millennial (we are the first generation with family planning and birth control) what generation is the most culturally diverse? generation x (65-80) what age is your physical peak? 18-30 what age does not have access to health care or an inadequate income? 18-24 is a very vulnerable time suggested amount of activity for adults 20minutes 3-4 times a week. So a total of 150-180 hours a week how do men and women manage stress? women manage stress with socialization and men get stressed because of socializing. men experience more stress in work life, but women talk about it more. why are men more likely to remarry sooner than women? they are lonely and isolated distress vcs. eustress something negative vs. positive stress (getting pregnant) post formal operations -knowledge is relative -contradictions exist -search for an encompassing whole to organize existence moral development what you think is right 6 stages of moral development: -obedience and punishment (rule set by parent and don't realize other viewpoints exist) -individualism and exchange (everyone wants their own way in life) -good interpersonal relationships (compassion) -maintaining social order (maintains rules but in a more advanced stage) -social contract and individual rights (not one straight answer to what the world should be) -universe principles (no longer there) what generation reports the most stress? generation X but say they handle it well. this is based on a large number of doctor visits ericksons young adult stage intimacy vs. isolation marriage benefits: -income tax policies -increased earnings -benefit packages suicide hints withdrawing, hints of talk and giving things away levison stages and life transitions -leaving home -new home, children, work, retiring and so on why is pregnancy one of the biggest life transitions? -acceptance -9 months in you -after on you and accepting that -differentiating yourself form your mother and from your child main reason for delay in marriage and children economic uncertainty middle age age 45-65 when is your peak earning potential in midlife number of men with hearing loss in midlife 1/3 men will have hearing loss and 1/4 won't hear a whisper what correlated with diabetes and helps to show that one has diabetes? eyesight when does menopause occur around age 50 and lasts for about 2-4 years. happens when estrogen goes down erectile disfucntional stats 1/3 men age 50-90 will have them when does someone have their highest IQ? in their 50's what age group is moral examplers late adulthood what are the two happiest ages? 29 and 69 because of the alignment of goals and achievements peak of creativity in the brain age 65-70 maturity definition ability to chance and accept as demand changes infidelity in marriages 1/4-1/5 of all marriages, emotional too. men higher rate than women but that gap is closing what is the fastest growing generations 85 and over over the age of 75 is what percentage of our population? 20% biggest problem among the elderly loss of function define midlife crisis lack of sense of worth and huge emphasis/value of what we do, not who we are who is likely not to end up in a nursing home? ones who have three or more daughters geriatrics study of aging (there is no desire for this but its greatly needed) 4 paths of developing generatively -biological -parental -work -cultural extramarital sexual relations separation and divorce rates -women without HS diploma -marriage at a young age 0more years together = less likely -increase wives economic independence -last child's departure from home what protects women against cardiovascular or coronary disease longevity of estrogen in females euthanasia right to die ericksons stage from old age ego integrity vs despair pecks three tasks -ego differentiation vs. work role preoccupation -body transcendence vs. body preoccupation -ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation how many people over the age of 85 live alone 50% bereavement period of grief and mourning after death stages of bereavement -shock, denial, numbness and disbelief -pinning, yearning and depression -emancipation from loved one and adjustment -identity reconstruction leading cause of cancer for women lung cancer harvard longitudinal study of adult development -ability to cope with stress -active lifestyle -strong social relationship what are the stats saying about grandparents? there are more grandmothers than grandfathers and they are all living healthier now. 25% of grandparents are step-grandparents and all have an average of 5-6 grandchildren. death drop marked intellectual decline that occurs a short time before a person dies what is the relationship between the silent generation and death? it is not talked about define death with dignity dying being quick and natural life review work through life to appreciate it ericksons stages for young adulthood, middle age and old age: -intimacy vs. isolation -generavity vs. stagnation -ego integrity vs. despair define gerontology the scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the particular problems of old people.


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