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MSU / Food Science and Nutrition / NFS 2293 / What do you call the ranking of foods based on their nutrient composit

What do you call the ranking of foods based on their nutrient composit

What do you call the ranking of foods based on their nutrient composit

Description

Chapter 2 


What do you call the ranking of foods based on their nutrient composition?



adequacy (dietary) 

providing all the essential nutrients, fiber, and energy in amounts sufficient to  maintain health.  

Healthy Eating Index  

a measure that assesses how well a diet meets the recommendations of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.  

balance (dietary)  

providing foods in proportion to one another and in proportion to the body's needs.  

Daily Values (DV)  

reference values developed by the FDA specifically for use on food labels.  added sugars  Don't forget about the age old question of What is caliph?

sugars and other kcaloric sweeteners that are added to foods during processing,  preparation, or at the table. _____ ______ do not include the naturally occurring  sugars found in fruit and milk products.  


What is disaccharide?



discretionary kcalories  

the kcalories remaining in a person's energy allowance after consuming enough  nutrient-dense food to meet all nutrient needs for a day.  

eating pattern  

customary intake of foods and beverages over time.  

empty-kcalorie foods  We also discuss several other topics like Two dominant languages in the region?

a popular term used to denote foods that contribute energy but lack protein,  vitamins, and minerals.  

enriched  

the addition to a food of specific nutrients to replace losses that occur during  processing so that the food will meet a specific standard.  We also discuss several other topics like Who is nicolo machiavelli?

exchange lists  

diet-planning tools that organize foods by their proportions of carbohydrate, fat, and protein. Foods on any single list can be used interchangeably.  


What is epinephrine?



food group plans  

diet-planning tools that sort food into groups based on nutrient content and then  specify that people should eat certain amounts of foods from each group.  food substitutes  

foods that are designed to replace other foods.  

fortified  

the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present  in insignificant amounts. ____ can be used to correct or prevent a widespread  nutrient deficiency or to balance the total nutrient profile of a food.  Don't forget about the age old question of What companies signed the harkin engel protocol?

health claims  

statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition.  

imitation foods  

foods that substitute for and resemble another food, but are nutritionally inferior to  it with respect to vitamin, mineral, or protein content. If the substitute is not inferior

the the food it resembles and if its name provides an accurate description of the  product, it need not be labeled "____".  

kcalorie (energy) control  

management of food energy intake.  

legumes  

plants of the bean and pea family, with seeds that are rich in protein compared to  other plant-derived foods.  

moderation (dietary)  

providing enough but not too much of a substance.  We also discuss several other topics like What is the law of conservation of matter?

nutrient claims  

statements that characterize the quantity of a nutrient in a food.  

nutrient density  

a measure of the nutrients a food provides relative to the energy it provides. The  more nutrients and the fewer kcalories, the higher the ______ _____ .  nutrient profiling  We also discuss several other topics like Why is it so challenging for international human rights treaties to make a difference?

ranking foods based on their nutrient composition.  

percent Daily Value (%DV)  

the percentage of a Daily Value recommendation found in a specified serving of  food for key nutrients based on a 2000-kcalorie diet.  

portion sizes  

the quantity of a food served or eaten at one meal or snack, not a standard amount. processed foods  

foods that have been treated to change their physical, chemical, microbiological, or  sensory properties.  

refined  

the process by which the coarse parts of a food are removed. When wheat is ____  into flour, the bran, germ, and husk are removed, leaving only the endosperm.  serving sizes  

the standardized quantity of a food; such information allows comparisons when  reading food labels and consistency when following the Dietary Guidelines.  solid fats  

fats that are not usually liquid at room temperature; commonly found in most foods  derived from animals and vegetable oils that have been hydrogenated. Solid fats  typically contain more saturated and trans fats than most oils.  

structure-function claims  

statements that characterize the relationship between a nutrient or other substance in a food and its role in the body.  

textured vegetable protein  

processed soybean protein used in vegetarian products such as soy burgers.  

variety (dietary)  

eating a wide selection of foods within and among the major food groups.  

whole grain  

a grain that maintains the same relative proportions of starchy endosperm, germ,  and bran as the original (all but the husk); not refined.  

.  

 (terms on food labels) more

at least 10 percent more of the Daily Value for a given nutrient than the comparison food; synonyms include added and extra.  

 (terms on food labels) organic  

on food labels, that at least 95 percent of the product's ingredients have been  grown and processed according to USDA regulations defining the use of fertilizers,  herbicides, insecticides, fungicides, preservatives, and other chemical ingredients.   (energy) kcalorie free  

fewer than 5 kcalories per serving  

 (energy) low kcalorie  

40 kcalories or less per serving  

 (energy) reduced kcalorie  

at least 25 percent fewer kcalories per serving than the comparison food.   (fat and cholesterol) percent fat-free  

may be used only if the product meets the definition of low fat or fat-free and must  reflect the amount of fat in 100 grams (for example, a food that contains 2.5 grams  of fat per 50 grams can claim to be "95 percent fat-free")  

(fat and cholesterol) fat-free  

less than 0.5 gram of fat per serving (and no added fat or oil); includes zero-fat, no fat, and non fat.  

(fat and cholesterol) low fat  

3 grams or less of fat per serving  

 (fat and cholesterol) less fat  

25 percent or less of fat than the comparison food.  

 (fat and cholesterol) saturated fat free  

less than .5 gram of saturated fat and ).5 gram of trans fat per serving.   (fat and cholesterol) low saturated fat  

1 gram or less of saturated fat and less than ).5 gram of trans fat per serving.  (fat and cholesterol) less saturated fat  

25 percent or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined than the comparison  food.  

 (fat and cholesterol) trans fat-free  

less than 0.5 gram of trans fat and less than 0.5 gram of saturated fat per serving.   (fat and cholesterol) cholesterol-free  

less than 2 milligrams of cholesterol per serving and 2 grams or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving.  

 (fat and cholesterol) low cholesterol  

20 mg or less of cholesterol per serving and 2 grams or less of saturated fat and  trans fat combined per serving.  

 (fat and cholesterol) less cholesterol  

25% or less cholesterol in the comparison food (reflecting a reduction of at least 20  mg per serving), and 2 g or less of saturated fat and trans fat combined per serving. (fat and cholesterol) extra lean  

Less than 5 g of fat, 2 g of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and 95 mg of  cholesterol per serving and per 100 g of meat, poultry, and seafood.   (fat and cholesterol) lean  

Less than 10 g of fat, 4.5 g of saturated fat and trans fat combined, and 95 mg of  cholesterol per serving and per 100 g of meat, poultry, and seafood. For mixed  dishes such as burritos and sandwiches, less than 8 g of fat, 3.5 g of saturated fat,  and 80 mg of cholesterol per reference amount customarily consumed.

 (carbohydrates: fiber and sugar) high fiber  

5 g or more of fiber per serving. A high-fiber claim made on the food that contains  more than 3 g of fat per serving and per 100 g of food must also declared total fat.  

(carbohydrates: fiber and sugar) sugar-free  

Less than 0.5 g of sugar per serving.  

(sodium) sodium-free and salt-free  

Less than 5 mg of sodium per serving.  

(sodium) low sodium  

140 mg or less per serving  

 (sodium) very low sodium  

35 mg or less per serving  

Chapter 3-4

Acceptable daily intake (ADI)  

The estimated amount of the sweetener that individuals can safely consume each  day over the course of a lifetime without adverse effects  

Acid - base balance  

The equilibrium in the body between acid and base concentrations  Amylase  

An enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose (a form of starch). Amylase is a carbohydrase,  an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates  

artificial sweeteners  

Sugar substitutes that provide negligible, if any, energy; sometimes called  nonnutritive sweeteners

Carbohydrates  

Compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as  monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most, but not all, carbohydrates  have a ratio of one carbon molecule to one water molecule: (CH2O Condensation  

A chemical reaction in which water is released as two molecules combine to form  one larger product  

Dental caries  

Decay of teeth  

Diabetes  

Metabolic disorders, metabolism characterized by elevated blood glucose resulting  from insufficient or ineffective insulin; the complete medical term is diabetes  mellitus. When blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but below the diagnosis of diabetes, the condition is called prediabetes  

Dietary fibers  

In plant foods, the non-starch polysaccharides that are not digested by human  digestive enzymes, although some are digested by GI tract bacteria  

Disaccharides  

Pairs of monosaccharides linked together

Epinephrine  

A hormone of the adrenal gland that modulates the stress response; formerly called  adrenaline. When administered by injection, epinephrine counteracts anaphylactic  shock by opening the airways and maintaining heartbeat in blood pressure  Fermentable  

The extent to which bacteria in the GI tract can break down fibers to fragments that  the body can use  

Fructose  

A monosaccharide; sometimes known as fruit sugar or levulose. Fructose is found  abundantly and fruits, honey, and saps  

Galactose  

A monosaccharide; part of the disaccharide lactose  

Glucagon  

A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to low blood  glucose concentration. Glucagon elicits release of the glucose from liver glycogen  stores  

Gluconeogenesis  

The making of glucose from a non-carbohydrate source such as amino acids or  glycerol  

Glucose  

A monosaccharide; sometimes known as blood sugar in the body or dextrose in  foods  

Glycemic index  

A method of classifying foods according to their potential for raising blood glucose  Glycemic response  

The extent to which a food raises the blood glucose concentration and elicits an  insulin response  

Glycogen  

An animal polysaccharide composed of glucose; storage form of glucose  manufactured and stored in the liver and muscles. Glycogen is not a significant food source of carbohydrates and is not counted as a dietary carbohydrate in foods.  Glyco = glucose, gen = gives rise to.  

Hydrolysis  

A chemical reaction in which one molecule is split into two molecules, with  hydrogen (H) added to one and a hydroxyl group (OH) to the other (from water,  H2O)  

Hypoglycemia  

An abnormally low blood glucose concentration  

Insoluable fibers  

Non-starch polysaccharides that do not dissolve in water. Examples include the  tough, fibrous structures found in the strings of celery and the skins of corn kernels  

Insulin

A hormone secreted by special cells in the pancreas in response to (among other  things) elevated blood glucose concentration. Insulin controls the transport of  glucose from the blood stream into the muscle and fat cells  

Kefir  

A fermented milk created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus and other bacteria  that breakdown lactose to glucose into galactose, producing a sweet, lactose-free  product  

Ketone bodies  

Acidic compounds produced by the liver during the breakdown of fat when  carbohydrate is not available  

Ketosis  

An undesirably high concentration of ketone bodies in the blood and urine  Lactase  

An enzyme that hydrolyzes lactose  

Lactose  

A disaccharide composed of glucose and galactose; commonly known as milk sugar  Lactase deficiency  

A lack of the enzyme required to digest the disaccharide lactose into its component  monosaccharides (glucose and galactose)  

Lactose intolerance  

A condition that results from the inability to digest the milk sugar lactose;  characterized by bloating, gas, abdominal discomfort, and diarrhea. Lactose  intolerance differs from milk allergy, which is caused by an immune reaction to the  protein in milk.  

Maltase  

An enzyme that hydrolyzes maltose  

Maltose  

A disaccharide composed of two glucose units; sometimes known as malt sugar  Monosaccharides  

Carbohydrates in the general formula CHO that typically form a single ring. the  monosaccharides important in nutrition are hexoses, sugars with six atoms of  carbon and the formula C6H12O6  

Nonnutritive sweeteners  

Sweeteners that yield no energy (or insignificant energy in the case of aspartame)  Nutritive sweeteners  

Sweeteners that yield energy, including both sugars in sugar alcohols  Phytic acid  

A non-nutrient component of plant seeds, also called phytate. Phytic acid occurs in  the husks of grains, legumes, and seeds and is capable of binding materials such as  zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and copper in insoluble complexes in the intestine,  which the body excretes unused  

Polysaccharides  

Compounds composed of many monosaccharides linked together. An intermediate  string of 3 to 10 monosaccharides is called an oligosaccharide  

Protein-sparing action  

The action of carbohydrate (and fat) in providing energy that allows protein to be  used for other purposes  

Resistant starches

Starches that escape digestion and absorption in the small intestine of healthy  people  

 (Added sugar) malt syrup  

A sweetener made from sprouted barley and containing mostly maltose   (Added sugar) maple sugar  

A sugar (mostly sucrose) purified from the concentrated sap of the sugar maple tree  (Added sugar) molasses  

The thick brown syrup produced during sugar refining. Molasses retains residual  sugar and other byproducts and a few minerals; blackstrap molasses contain  significant amounts of calcium and iron  

(Added sugar) nectar  

A sugary fluid secreted by plants to encourage pollination by insects  

(Added sugar) raw sugar  

The first crop of crystals harvested during sugar processing. Raw sugar cannot be  sold in the United States because it contains too much filth (dirt, insect fragments,  and the like). Sugar sold as "raw sugar" domestically has actually gone through  more than half of the refining steps  

(Added sugar) tagatose  

Poorly absorbed monosaccharide similar in structure to fructose; naturally occurring or derived from lactose  

(Added sugar) turbinado sugar  

Sugar produced using the same refining process as white sugar, but without the  bleaching and anti-caking treatment. Traces of molasses give turbinado its sandy  color  

(Added sugar) white sugar  

Granulated sucrose or "table sugar", produced by dissolving, concentrating, and  recrystallizing raw sugar  

Chapter 5-6

Essential amino acid  

Histidine  

Isoleucine  

Leucine 

Lysine  

Methionine  

Phenylalanine  

Threonine  

Tryptophan  

Valine  

Nonessential amino acid  

Alanine  

Arginine

Asparagine  

Aspartic Acid  

Cysteine  

Glutamic Acid  

Glutamine  

Glycine  

Proline  

Serine  

Tyrosine  

Proteins  

compounds arranged into amino acids linked in a chain  

amino acids  

building blocks of proteins  

r-group  

unique side group of amino acids  

nonessential amino acids  

amino acids that the body can synthesize  

essential amino acids  

amino acids that the body cannot synthesize in amounts sufficient to meet  physiological needs  

conditionally essential amino acid  

an amino acid that is normally nonessential, but must be supplied by the diet in  special circumstances when the need for it exceeds the body's ability to produce it  

peptide bond  

a bond that connects the acid end of one amino acid with the amino end of  another, forming a link in a protein chain  

dipeptide  

2 amino acids bonded together  

tripeptide  

3 amino acids bonded together  

polypeptide  

many (10 or more) amino acids bonded together  

hemoglobin  

the globular protein of the red blood cells that carries oxygen from the lungs to  the cells throughout the body

denaturation  

the change in a protein's shape and consequent loss of its function brought  about by heat, agitation, acid, base, alcohol, heavy metals, or other agents  

pepsin  

a gastric enzyme that hydrolyzes protein. It is secreted in an inactive form,  pepsinogen, which is activated by hydrochloric acid in the stomach  

proteases  

enzymes that hydrolyze protein  

peptidase  

a digestive enzyme that hydrolyzes peptide bonds  

transcription  

the process of mRNA being made from a template of DNA  

translation  

the process of mRNA directing the sequence of amino acids and synthesis of  proteins  

sickle-cell anemia  

a hereditary form of anemia characterized by abnormal sickle shaped red blood  cells.  

gene expression  

the process by which a cell converts the genetic code into RNA and protein  

matrix  

the basic substance that gives form to a developing structure; in the body, the  formative cells from which teeth and bones grow  

collagen  

the structural protein from which connective tissues such as scars, tendons,  ligaments, and the foundations of bones and teeth are made  

enzymes  

proteins that facilitate chemical reactions without being changed in the process;  protein catalysts  

fluid balance  

maintenance of the proper types and amounts of fluid in each compartment of  the body fluids  

edema  

the swelling of body tissue caused by excessive amounts of fluid in the  interstitial spaces; seen in protein deficiency

acids  

compounds that release hydrogen ions in a solution  

bases  

compounds that accept hydrogen ions in a solution  

buffers  

compounds that keep a solution's pH constant when acids or bases are added  

urea  

the principal nitrogen-excretion product of protein metabolism.  

complementary proteins  

2 or more dietary proteins whose amino acid assortments complement each  other in such a way that the essential amino acids missing from one are  supplied by the other  

whey protein  

a by-product of cheese production; falsely promoted as increasing muscle mass  

branched-chain amino acids  

the essential amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which are present in  large amounts in skeletal muscle tissue; falsely promoted as fuel for exercising  muscles  

Chapter 18-20

who is more likely to widowed than married  

women 65 and over.  

disengagement theory of aging  

physical, psychological and social withdrawal from the wider world. the elderly  can now face death with peace and know that their societies are minimal and  they have said their goodbyes and nothing is left.  

activity theory of aging  

view that healthiest older persons maintain fairly stable levels of activity as long as possible. the amount and types of activity that occur appear to be a function  of past life patterns  

role exit theory of aging  

view that retirement and widowhood terminated participation in society. this  reduces opportunities for the elderly to remain socially useful. the loss of  occupational status is devastating and demoralizes them  

social exchange theory of aging  

theory that people enter into social relationships to gain a reward (economic,  sustenance, recognition, security, love, gratitude or social approval). To seek  those rewards is at a cost and relationship remains if both reward from it. in old

age, they find their bargaining position to be deteriorated and see a decline in  power.  

what is the average marrying age for men and women?  29 for men and 26 for women  

by age 25 what is the statistic for people?  

44% have had a baby and 38% are married  

what leads to higher divorce rates?  

cohabitation  

what percentage of adults have a social media account?  75% and 1/5 have posted a video online  

what percentage have piercings?  

what is the religious aspect like for this age?  

1/4 are not connected to religion but pray often. this generation is less religious  because its a more educated generation  

what generation am I?  

millennial (we are the first generation with family planning and birth control)  what generation is the most culturally diverse?  generation x (65-80)  

what age is your physical peak?  

18-30  

what age does not have access to health care or an  inadequate income?  

18-24 is a very vulnerable time  

suggested amount of activity for adults  

20minutes 3-4 times a week. So a total of 150-180 hours a week  how do men and women manage stress?  

women manage stress with socialization and men get stressed because of  socializing. men experience more stress in work life, but women talk about it  more.  

why are men more likely to remarry sooner than women?  they are lonely and isolated  

distress vcs. eustress  

something negative vs. positive stress (getting pregnant)  

post formal operations  

-knowledge is relative

-contradictions exist

-search for an encompassing whole to organize existence  

moral development

what you think is right  

6 stages of moral development:  

-obedience and punishment (rule set by parent and don't realize other  viewpoints exist)

-individualism and exchange (everyone wants their own way in life) -good interpersonal relationships (compassion)

-maintaining social order (maintains rules but in a more advanced stage) -social contract and individual rights (not one straight answer to what the world  should be)

-universe principles (no longer there)  

what generation reports the most stress?  

generation X but say they handle it well. this is based on a large number of  doctor visits  

ericksons young adult stage  

intimacy vs. isolation  

marriage benefits:  

-income tax policies

-increased earnings

-benefit packages  

suicide hints  

withdrawing, hints of talk and giving things away  

levison stages and life transitions  

-leaving home

-new home, children, work, retiring and so on

why is pregnancy one of the biggest life transitions?  -acceptance

-9 months in you

-after on you and accepting that

-differentiating yourself form your mother and from your child  main reason for delay in marriage and children  economic uncertainty  

middle age age  

45-65  

when is your peak earning potential  

in midlife  

number of men with hearing loss in midlife  

1/3 men will have hearing loss and 1/4 won't hear a whisper

what correlated with diabetes and helps to show that one  has diabetes?  

eyesight  

when does menopause occur  

around age 50 and lasts for about 2-4 years. happens when estrogen goes down 

erectile disfucntional stats  

1/3 men age 50-90 will have them  

when does someone have their highest IQ?  

in their 50's  

what age group is moral examplers  

late adulthood  

what are the two happiest ages?  

29 and 69 because of the alignment of goals and achievements  

peak of creativity in the brain  

age 65-70  

maturity definition  

ability to chance and accept as demand changes  

infidelity in marriages  

1/4-1/5 of all marriages, emotional too. men higher rate than women but that  gap is closing  

what is the fastest growing generations  

85 and over  

over the age of 75 is what percentage of our population?  20%  

biggest problem among the elderly  

loss of function  

define midlife crisis  

lack of sense of worth and huge emphasis/value of what we do, not who we are  

who is likely not to end up in a nursing home?  ones who have three or more daughters  

geriatrics  

study of aging (there is no desire for this but its greatly needed)  4 paths of developing generatively

-biological

-parental

-work

-cultural  

extramarital  

sexual relations  

separation and divorce rates  

-women without HS diploma

-marriage at a young age

0more years together = less likely

-increase wives economic independence

-last child's departure from home  

what protects women against cardiovascular or coronary  disease  

longevity of estrogen in females  

euthanasia  

right to die  

ericksons stage from old age  

ego integrity vs despair  

pecks three tasks  

-ego differentiation vs. work role preoccupation

-body transcendence vs. body preoccupation

-ego transcendence vs. ego preoccupation  

how many people over the age of 85 live alone  50%  

bereavement  

period of grief and mourning after death  

stages of bereavement  

-shock, denial, numbness and disbelief

-pinning, yearning and depression

-emancipation from loved one and adjustment

-identity reconstruction  

leading cause of cancer for women  

lung cancer  

harvard longitudinal study of adult development  -ability to cope with stress

-active lifestyle

-strong social relationship

what are the stats saying about grandparents?  there are more grandmothers than grandfathers and they are all living healthier  now. 25% of grandparents are step-grandparents and all have an average of 5-6  grandchildren.  

death drop  

marked intellectual decline that occurs a short time before a person dies  what is the relationship between the silent generation and  death?  

it is not talked about  

define death with dignity  

dying being quick and natural  

life review  

work through life to appreciate it  

ericksons stages for young adulthood, middle age and old  age:  

-intimacy vs. isolation

-generavity vs. stagnation

-ego integrity vs. despair  

define gerontology  

the scientific study of old age, the process of aging, and the particular problems  of old people.

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