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HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan
FINAL EXAM STUDY GUIDE
∙ NATIONALISM IN THE MIDDLE EAST
∙ The Ottoman Empire fell apart during WWI. Britain and France became greatly involved in the Middle East during WWI and WWII.
o Mandate System – (British and French came in when the Ottoman Empire broke up and instilled this system) neocolonialism, protection, exploitation, essentially it was all about control with the promise of independence somewhere down the road
∙ Middle Eastern nationalism – it was all about modernization, modernize the economy, society, etc. through reforms (bring it into the 20th century); revival of Islam, Islamic fundamentalism, emphasis on getting back to a way of life that is reflected in Islamic teaching, live according to the Quran; oil/oil money was also very much sought after, the Middle East has been galvanized by this new found wealth in oil
If you want to learn more check out What is the impact of tordesillas line on language?
o Sunnis – majority, wanted separate church and state
o Shi’ite – minority, wanted no separation between church and state
∙ Turkey – was an ally of the Germans during WWI, so when the Germans were defeated the Ottoman Empire was “finished off,” and the modern state of Turkey arose, there were British and French troops in Turkey, Sunni state We also discuss several other topics like Who is the father of humanism?
o Mustafa Kemal (Ataturk) – “the father of modern Turkey,” nationalist, he and his followers wanted to get western troops/power out of Turkey and become independent If you want to learn more check out What companies signed the harkin engel protocol?
Revolution – led by Mustafa Kemal, they overthrow the old government (Sultan), they make it a republic, Kemal then becomes the first president and writes a constitution
Kemalism – he is going to modernize and secularize Turkey, modernize along western lines, he mimics the west (“modernization = westernization”), he wants to be an equal
player with the west, he even required people to dress like the West, some of the other
impacts of Kemalism include:
∙ Caliph – leader of the Islamic community, Kemal thought they had too much
power and exerted too much religious influence over Turkey so he abolished it If you want to learn more check out What are the phases of matter?
∙ Islamic Law – Kemal also abolishes this and establishes a new law code that is
very Western/European, law is no longer informed by the Quran
∙ Polygamy – abolished this as well (men could no longer have more than one
woman/lover) If you want to learn more check out What is the “boomerang model” and what can it achieve?
∙ Universal Suffrage – Kemal established this, so everyone could now vote
∙ Metric System/Education – adopts this system and also encourages higher
education in Turkey
∙ Iran – this modern state is huge and is very rich in oil, oil fields were found here during WWII, Shi’ite State o Shah Reza Pahlavi – was in power from 1925 to 1941, came to power as an officer in the Iranian army during the overthrow of the previous government, he wants to modernize Iran in Western ways (much like Kemal), he tries to implement similar reforms as Kemal did in Turkey, again he is mimicking the West (it’s not as popular here in Iran as in Turkey), he let in a lot of Western money and investors (not very popular either) If you want to learn more check out Ichthyology is the study of what?
Britain and Russia came in to help overthrow Pahlavi (because of how unpopular he was among the Iranian people) and to gain oil fields in Iran
o Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi – son of Shah Reza Pahlavi, he is put into power after his father, he is very authoritarian, censorship of press, wants to modernize Iran and grow economy, he lets in foreign investors and uses foreign money, he is very familiar with colonialism and repression, he also mimics the West (this all makes him very unpopular), he had very poor relations with the Shi’ite Clergy, this man was not a religious person
Ayatollah Khomeini – leader of the Shi’ite Clergy, became weary of the Shah’s regime, he attempted a revolution in 1963, was forced to go to Paris (exiled there), but this
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became a rallying point for all those opposed to the Shah, he is the inspiration of this
movement of dissidence
o White Revolution – Shah’s idea to modernize Iran, it started with land reform, had huge plots of lands in the hands of a few people, peasants wanted their own land, the idea was to grow the Iranian economy by granting land reforms, he creates plots and redistributes land (the plots are so tiny you can’t live off of them though), this creates a class of impoverished people who leave the countryside and go to the city to try and find work, this leads to shanty towns and more poverty, he was also about growing the industrial sector, he is banking on foreign investment/oil money, this drove a lot of small entrepreneurs out of business, Iran saw more big Western companies coming in and shutting down small family owned businesses, there weren’t enough jobs in the cities for the peasants, he tries to encourage education and a new way of life, overall this movement went really badly, it blows up
o Iranian Revolution – (19781979) students were protesting in 1978, Khomeini is still stuck in Paris but is communicating with his followers who rally behind him, they are very critical of the Shah, the Shah’s response was to send in troops and kill these students (in the Shi’ite world, it is believed that when someone dies in this way there is a mourning procession of the family/friends in memory of the deceased, there are almost a hundred processions in memory of these students) so the Shah tries to suppress these processions because he doesn’t like the reminder of what he did, Shah would direct fire on the processions (death > more mourning), the processions became bigger and bigger because it became a sense of protest as well, the Shah knows he is slipping from power, Shah finally ops for exile at the end of 1978
Ayatollah Khomeini returns in February 1979 from Paris, and his supporters are many, he assumes control of government and creates a Shi’ite State (no split between government and religion), the Shah was so hated for his allowance of foreigners into Iran and for his underestimation of the Shi’ites, so this was a relatively easy move for Khomeini to create this Shi’ite State, the clergy is embedded within the local communities
∙ Egypt – had been an object of Western imperialism, the Suez Canal was a huge part of Western economy, when the Ottoman Empire breaks up Britain obtained a mandate in Egypt (Britain became a “protector” of Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine through the Mandate System)
o Nasser – he is an Arab nationalist and a nationalist leader of Egypt in the 1950s, in 1952 he and others participated in a military overthrow of the Mandate System and an overthrow of the local king of Egypt and they establish themselves in power (Nasser is the head of power), he inspired Arabs elsewhere like in Iraq and with the Palestinians, he becomes the face of Arab nationalism
Nasser policies – He is a socialist. This works hand in hand with Arab nationalism in the Middle East. Land reforms were a big part of his program. He redistributes massive
amounts of lands, so workers can have their own land to work. There is also
nationalization of industry. He wanted to modernize the economy based on technology. He promoted the adoption of more modern tools. This also included nationalizing the Suez Canal, which was built by the British and French. Nasser made this a major
international issue and eventually a war.
∙ Suez War – 1956, British and French vs. Nasser/Egypt
∙ Israel gets involved with the British and French in the Suez War, Israel says they have their own reasons for getting involved in this war
o The U.S. will support Israel and the U.S.S.R. will support Nasser/Egypt. The Middle East will become like a Cold War playground.
∙ They say the Suez War was an Israeli victory, but it really just demonstrates the
growing tension in the Middle East.
∙ Aswan Dam – Nasser’s program, this dammed the Nile River so it doesn’t flood, it essentially creates a huge lake so the water can be used for irrigation and such, Nasser went to the world bank and asked for money (Britain and France were going to give him money but ended up backing out), damming this endangered historic monuments so it meant moving these huge monuments to new grounds in order to save them (impressive feat)
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∙ Israel – comes into existence in 1948, in the late 19th century Jewish nationalism was found in expression of Zionism which was the expression of the Jews to have their own nationstate, it emerges first in central Europe, the original homeland was Palestine that would become Israel
o Balfour Declaration – 1917 the Britain said they believed there should be a nationstate created for the Jewish population, they express their willingness to support the Jews (felt bad about the Holocaust), Israel is put in place in 1948 (however it was almost immediately attacked by the Arabs in Palestine)
∙ In the 19201930s many Jews move to the land of Palestine, and momentum develops here. All the anti Semitism under Hitler and the Holocaust led many more Jews to move to Palestine. The Palestinian/Arab population was meant for the Jewish people and the Arab people to both stay in Palestine (split the land). War came to head around 1948 when Israel was established. The Israelis won the war and began to expand (there were many Palestinian refugees as a result). Many of the refugees went to refugee camps in adjacent Arab territories (Egypt, Syria, Jordan, etc.). There are still Palestinians that live in Israel (in the West Bank and in the Gaza Strip). There is much conflict as a result.
o 1st War – 1948 over Israel when it is first established (Israelis won)
o Suez War – 1956 over Suez Canal in Egypt (Israelis won)
o Six Day War – 1967, Egypt was massing troops on the Israeli boarder, so Israel decided to hold a strike against Egypt on their boarders (this was a stunning victory for Israel), this only lasted 6 days, but they accomplished a major expansion for Israel (they increased 4 times their size: picked up Jerusalem, West Bank, Gaza, and the Sinai Peninsula)
o Yom Kippur War – in 1973 during the holy days of Yom Kippur and Ramadan, the Arabs (Palestine) surprise attack Israel, there was much devastation, but Israel got it together and counterattacked the Arabs (Israel ends up pulling out the win) Israel seems invincible
∙ Peace Process – after the Yom Kippur War the PLO got involved
o PLO – a political group (Palestinian Liberation Organization), it has a military arm and for much of its existence was a terrorist group (for example in 1973 the PLO attacked the Israelis in the Munich Olympics, they killed several athletes), the next year the Israelis shot down a Libyan aircraft
o Jimmy Carter – in 1978 encouraged talks between Israel and the Arabs/Egypt/etc. o Camp David – 1979, Egypt came to recognize Israel as a nation and they called a 3year truce to see if they could workout some of their issues
Anwar Sadat – Egyptian President, talked at Camp David
Menachem Begin – Israeli Prime Minister, talked at Camp David
∙ In some parts of the occupied territories, Israelis moved in, set up housing and kicked Palestinians out of their own land.
o Intifada – 1987, refers to an uprising of Palestinians against the Israelis, included civil disobedience, violence, it shows how miserable things are for the Palestinians in their land, this leads to Oslo
o Oslo Accords – 1993, President Bill Clinton met with Yitzhak Rabin (Israeli Prime Minister) and Yasser Arafat (PLO/Palestine) to try and solves the problems in Palestine with Israel, the PLO agrees to recognize the existence of Israel, and Israel agrees to take steps to turn Gaza and the West Bank over to the Palestinians
The PLO later becomes like a political party with Yasser Arafat as the head in Gaza. o Second Intifada – 2000, there are more uprisings and more unrest between Israel and Palestine, the Israelis still respond with violence
∙ “EYES ON THE PRIZE” VIDEO
∙ America’s Civil Right Movement
o Albany, Georgia
o Birmingham, Alabama
∙ There was much racism and segregation in the U.S. during this time. Blacks became unhappy with how they were being treated and began to demand equal rights.
∙ Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. led the SCLC in hopes of gaining support for equal rights for blacks. o 16th Street Church (huge protest was held here)
o “Bull” Connor put the protest to rest.
∙ Riots moved to other cities around the country.
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∙ August 28, 1963 – Black March on D.C.
o Over 200,000 people came to march
o Dr. King gave his famous “I have a dream” speech
∙ U.S. CIVIL RIGHTS MOVEMENT
∙ The U.S. was a very segregated society. It was only on the social level in the North, but law in the South enforced segregation.
o Jim Crow – refers to all laws passed in the 1880s that separated whites and blacks Plessey v. Ferguson – the laws were reinforced under this court case, they ruled under the idea of “separate but equal,” segregation was okay as long as people were seen as
∙ The blacks in the south were exposed to terrorism, and whites acted violently against the blacks outside the law (lynching is the main example of this).
o Ku Klux Klan – group of white people would get together and lynch (take the individual out and hanging them out in the country somewhere, often it was preceded by torture, it often drew crowds and became a social event)
∙ The Civil Rights Movement sought to end this poor treatment for blacks.
o W.E.B. Dubois – black intellectual from Harvard (1903), he was the first black to earn his Ph.D. from Harvard (earned it in history), he was a brilliant historian and was very involved with the growing black consciousness, it was a paramount importance for black people to understand what their history and heritage was and to take pride in being black, he also was very interested in generating this sense of heritage beyond the U.S., he was also a part of teaching the PanAfricans about who they are, he brought together the PanAfrican Congress (who met in Paris): Pan Africanism – refers to Africans wherever they are in the world, he was also an integrationist, he sought integration for blacks into white society
o Marcus Garvey – was more radical than Dubois, shared the idea of “promoting black selfesteem” with Dubois, but he said back to Africa, his agenda was for blacks to move back to Africa and for Africa to decolonize and become independent (this was before WWII)
∙ Brown v. Board of Education – 1954, a major Supreme Court decision (Earl Warren) was Chief Justice at the time, this said that “Separate but Equal” was constitutionally wrong, they said it violated the 14th Amendment, this case was not only land marked but was really a huge game changer
o NAACP – National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, this group had been working for years to get the court to hear cases and start the desegregation movement in America ∙ Montgomery Bus Boycott – 1955, this was such a big deal because it involved the nonviolence protest that became the hallmark of the Civil Rights Movement (black people moved into white people space and began to undermine the whole idea of segregation), this event caught peoples’ attention
o Rosa Parks – whites sat in the front of the bus and blacks sat in the back of the bus, so this lady sat in a white person’s spot and refused to move, she was arrested and people boycotted the bus system for over a year because it refused to budge on the matter, it was coordinated by the NAACP
∙ Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. – was a minister at a Baptist church in Montgomery, he also served time in jail, he promoted nonviolent protest (student of Gandhi, likes his ideas and values: take the moral high ground and serve as an example for others), he was also reinforced by Christianity, many of the principle players of the Civil Rights Movement were religious and of the clergy (Christian/Jewish)
∙ Eisenhower Administration (Central High School) – 1957 (Little Rock, Arkansas), was going to be the first school desegregated, this was the first example of executive intervention to help the Civil Rights Movement o Orville Faubus – put an end to the desegregation act, brought in soldiers to prevent the 1015 black students from going into the school, there was an incredible standoff between white people and the Arkansas National guard and the couple of black students, in the end these students were allowed to enter the high school
∙ SitIns – black people moved into white people space, this was nonviolent but really played with their minds o Woolworth’s – (Greensboro, North Carolina), 4 black college students went to this diner and sat in white space, the workers refused to wait on them, eventually these guys leave and go out and pray, within 2 days there are 80 some people trying to do this, as a result you see more and more sit ins
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∙ Highlander School – in Tennessee, a school that trained people in forms of civil disobedience and social change, Dr. King had gone to seminars here, people were trained and this school became a major part of the Civil Rights Movement, promoted nonviolent protest, they taught them how to act and protest ∙ Integration of Universities – really doesn’t happen until the early 1960s
o James Meredith – 1962, black man gained acceptance into Ole’ Miss, white people waited and protested black people entering the school
o Vivian Malone – 1963, black woman gained acceptance into University of Alabama (boo bammers), the governor stood in front of her and gave his “segregation today and tomorrow speech”
o Harold Franklin – 1964 black man gained acceptance into Auburn University (WAR DAMN), this was much more peaceful than Ole’ Miss or Bama
∙ Fred Shuttlesworth – invited Dr. King to Birmingham to lead the Civil Movement, this man was also a major proponent of the movement, the protest in Birmingham showed the nation how bad things were ∙ “Bull” Connor – political figure who worked to shut down black protests in Birmingham, this is when the nation stood up and took note about how bad things were in the south
o Birmingham Bombing – 1963, tried to shut down protests and ended up killing 4 little church girls o March on Washington – 1963, many people (200,000) both whites and blacks traveled to Washington D.C. to march on the city and protest segregation, they said integration was part of the moral values of this country, this is where Dr. King gave his famous “I have a Dream” speech ∙ Civil Rights Act of 1964 – Lyndon Johnson was president at this time and the Vietnam War was still going on, Johnson came to believe that it was time for major changes in the U.S. in favor of the Civil Rights Movement, he had been in Congress for a long time (he knew everyone and knew how to get what he wanted), he worked hard to get this act through Congress, Birmingham was a huge part of the Civil Rights Movement (it brought much attention), the federal government said that it would not support segregation in public institution (and if segregation persists in places that receive government funding they will lose that money)
∙ Voter Registration – voting in the South for black people had historically been very difficult (legally they had the right to vote), but it was difficult to exercise that right because local communities had put in laws that put an obstacle in front of blacks (i.e. Poll Tax – made people pay to vote, Literacy Tests, Fear of getting killed/hurt)
o Freedom Summer – 1964, major effort on the part of Civil Rights workers (a lot of university students from up North), they came down and tried to help blacks register to vote so they could exercise their rights
o Selma – another place that attracted much attention, people worked here to register blacks to vote as well, a deacon of a church was shot and killed here, so they organized a protest in Selma (march from Selma to Montgomery, AL), they started on a Sunday but the police showed up on the Pettus Bridge (many were clubbed and attacked to try and get the march to end), this became known as “Bloody Sunday,” President Johnson sent troops in to assist the Civil Rights marchers, the march finally took place after White House intervention
SNCC – referred to the Student NonViolent Coordinating Committee
∙ Voting Rights Act of 1965 – other Civil Rights legislation, it outlawed the Poll Taxes, Literacy Exams, and any other obstacles that stood in the way of blacks voting, this was the apex of the Civil Rights campaign ∙ DECOLONIZATION IN AFRICA
∙ Effects of the World Wars in Africa – World Wars were hugely important in black consciousness and the want for freedom. Africa played a major role in WWI. The Western allies moved in and occupied the German colonies during WWI, but they lost them anyways with the Treaty of Versailles. African soldiers manned the armies here; they fought on behalf of Britain and France (around a million Africans served during WWI). France brought African troops to France as well. This created an early want for decolonization among a small group of African intellectuals. However, more Africans served in European armies in WWII. Africa also provided an economic contribution to Europe (they got raw materials from them). Exports from the Belgium Congo to Europe went up 14 times (hugely important to the European war effort). Some Africans did make money off of this “help Europe” effort (income levels as a whole went up slightly). On the other hand, the war effort created huge shortages of goods in Africa. There were economic
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hardships as a result of the war. The political impact of the war on Africa shook it up. Africans wanted freedom after WWII. When Britain demobilized, some soldiers got the right to buy land in Africa for very cheap (GI Bill essentially), but African soldiers didn’t get anything. The Africans became very skilled at modern warfare during WWII. WWII destroyed the myth of white superiority for Africans; when they saw white man were as scared as they were, bled like they did, etc. it showed that the only difference between whites and blacks was their skin.
o W.E.B. Dubois – he reached out to Africans and connected their want for freedom with the American Civil Rights Movement (PanAfricanism and “Black Nationalism”)
∙ American Civil Rights successes inspired activists in Africa to take action.
o Kwame Nkrumah – becomes the face of decolonization, went to school in the U.S., was first educated by European Missionaries in Ghana (Gold Coast), then went to U.S. for college (Penn), he led decolonization in Ghana, in Ghana (after WWII) they faced economic problems, there was a shortage of consumer goods, they thought the British were messing with their economy, thus the Ghana people boycotted European goods (1948), in this context Kwame Nkrumah gains his power and is able to lead the decolonization effort, they wanted to transfer some of the power to the Ghanaians who lived there, the nature of the British regime here was much less brutal than the Belgians in the Congo, so the British began negotiating and designating more important positions for Ghanaians, after WWII Britain no longer challenged things, they just wanted to negotiate, by 1951 the Ghanaians had a number of members in the Cabinet and had gained a majority in the Legislature
The Ghanaians gained independence in 1957 with relatively little violence/effort.
o Ripple effect – in 1960 Nigeria began to transition out and into independence (same with French West Africa), the French pulled out after a vote for independence (this all happened in a relatively peaceful matter)
∙ Belgian Congo – the Congo boundary is so artificial, it is a construct of Europeans, there were 200 different languages in the Congo, in the late 1950s as some of the educated people (like Patrice Lumumba) began to speak up
o Lumumba – became the face of decolonization, negotiated with the Belgium government, so in 1959 the Belgium government decided to step out, but violence broke out (early stages of civil war), the differences in the Congo led to this violence and unrest (should it be loose states or unified?), Lumumba said it should be a highly unified nation, but a lot of people didn’t want this, the mineral rich provinces also didn’t want to be unified, so the Belgium government stepped back in and freeelections take place, Lumumba became the Prime Minister, but it doesn’t really change anything (sects of people are trying to break away) this led to the civil war in the Congo, this became a Cold War battlefield (the U.S. and Soviet Union was worried about what was happening in Africa), the U.S. was worried that the Congo and other parts of Africa were becoming puppets of Russia, the Congo became such a battle ground that Lumumba himself was assassinated in response to his policies (the U.S. and the CIA had involvement in his assassination because he was receiving money and aid from Russia): the U.S. was still hung up on the idea of containment of Communism
∙ White Settler colonies are ones in which a bunch of white people move into the space, farm the land, and build their homes there.
∙ Algeria – this had been a colony of France since 1834 (before the whole wave of New Imperialism), French families had moved and settled here generations ago, these families were known as Pieds Noirs (Black Feet), quite a number of Jewish families have been here for a long time as well, this will become a very violent episode
o Dienbienphu – 1954, this is a big deal for French colonies, it encouraged Algerians and other nationalists, the Algerian soldiers who served in Vietnam came home as nationalists and radicalized, their goal was NOT shared power, this is the post 1945world, so it is different, things changed over the course of WWII and news travels so much faster than before
o National Liberation Front (FLN) – this was the nationalist party in Algeria, they were talking about independence from day one, they are convinced they can obtain it (but the French are not interested
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in negotiating at all: they lost Vietnam so they don’t want to lose their colonies), as a result there is a large war
∙ War against the French – France vs. Algeria, there was a use of terrorism, this was a war that was very complex, it is a triangular kind of war (Algerians vs. French vs. Pieds Noir [they are aggressively against independence]), this was covered internationally, it becomes a large international issue in 1956
o Suez War – 1956, the FLN was receiving support from other North African states (including Egypt) and the French wanted to stop this, so this was another reason for the Suez War previously discussed, by attacking Egypt France looked really bad internationally
∙ The war against the French continued on. The Pieds Noir didn’t want to be kicked out or lose control. Back home in France there is more and more sentiment to get out of the war, but they don’t because the Pieds Noir have a lot of power in France (they have delegates in France government).
o Fall of the Fourth Republic – 1960, this war became so bad and so controversial that the government collapsed in France, the Fifth Republic came into control under Charles DeGaulle (he had led the free French during WWII), he says they need to stop and negotiate
o So DeGaulle looks over the next two years to negotiate with the Algerians and give them independence, but when he tries to do this there are 4 veteran Pieds Noir who try to take control of things (this was a failed attempt for the Pieds Noir), finally in 1962 the Algerians won their independence
∙ South Africa – this was a prolonged independence effort, this was the greatest example of a White Settler colony in Africa, the first white people to move to South Africa was the Dutch (Boer War, etc.), they first established themselves here in the 17th century, there were other Europeans that went to South Africa as well, then in the late 18th century the British started to move there for the mining industry (Gold, Diamonds, Cecil Rhodes), there is certainly a minority, many spoke Afrikaans (spoke Dutch), the majority of the population was still black/African (70%), there were two other groups as well (Coloreds: white and African (mixed) and Indians: Asians), in 1910 they negotiated a relationship (the British and Africans/Afrikaners) so they let the Afrikaners keep political power but the British could mine the goods as much as they wanted
o Apartheid – apartness/separateness, a policy of segregation, it became the official policy of the Afrikaners, recognized white, mixed, Asian, and black, different groups were treated differently in the eyes of the government, if you were a black farmer in South Africa you were dispossessed of your land, they took the lands of the South African and established “home lands” for the different African tribes, people were supposed to be in these “native” home lands (this was about 10% of the land in South Africa), the government took them from the good land and moved them to marginal land, the blacks carried passbooks, they were not citizens but the books had a little bit of history for each person and it had some of your work history, these were used to restrict movement, blacks were paid less than other people, it also said that people couldn’t leave their homeland except for under certain conditions, if you went to the city you could only stay for 10 days, families were separated by this rule, they designated townships that could be occupied by blacks (became slums), apartheid essentially legally prevented the interaction between whites and blacks
It was under these conditions that black nationalism grew. The events in the U.S. with the Civil Movement also promoted a lot of nationalism.
o African National Congress (ANC) – very prevalent in South Africa, but moved into surrounding nations as well, had a policy of nonviolence, when the apartheid comes into play the ANC ramps things up
Nelson Mandela – he would become the face of South African black nationalism, emerges through the ANC, he is a mover and shaker in the ANC, and in 1961 he
condoned and organized an act of violence (for which he was arrested), the first 18 years he stayed in prison he was in the worst conditions, he is released from prison in 1993, his deal was that he wasn’t willing to leave jail because he didn’t want to seize his political nationalism, in jail he became a public figure, his position was majority rule (blacks
could participate) and there is proportional representation (one person one vote), kind of democratic, he did not want the whites to leave South Africa, he said it was their home too, he said they whites belonged there as much as the blacks did
1970s and 1980s – apartheid is made known internationally and so is Mandela
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o Soweto Uprising – there was an effort by the government to make the children of Soweto learn to speak Afrikaans, there was an uprising and 575 people were killed (5 of which were white, everyone else black), this drew a lot of international attention, this pressure intensifies in the 1980s: people began boycotting goods from South Africa
Desmond Tutu – black man, voice of reason who urged nonviolence, he helped keep the lid on in South Africa
Botha – next Afrikaan to come to power, made concessions, he made reforms that made things worse for the blacks, on the 10 year anniversary of the Soweto Uprising people remembered and he shut it down, his resistance to change for blacks forced things to
come to head, the movement within South Africa came on fire, he would resign and be replaced
De Klerk – came to power after Botha, elected in 1990, he negotiates and implements majority rule, gave blacks a vote, ended apartheid and established majority rule in 1993, then when Mandela got out of jail in 1993 he was elected in 1994 as the new president of South Africa
∙ COLLAPSE OF COMMUNISM AND THE SOVIET UNION
∙ The Soviet Union was an empire of 15 separate nations; it was a multinational empire. The collapse of the Soviet Union refers to the breaking away of a number of nations from the large empire, leaving only Russia. o Warsaw Pact – a military alliance in response to NATO (unified the Soviet Union) ∙ There were major points when Eastern nations tried to break away from Soviet domination. The Hungarians tried early in 1956. Then, in Prague (Czechoslovakia) they tried to break away in 1968; this is referred to as Prague Spring. The uprisings were crushed. The Eastern nations always failed because of how violently the Soviets put down the uprisings. However, a number of causes led to the breakup of the Soviet Union: o Economic Failure – one of the major reasons the Soviet Union fell apart, in the 1980s things were not going well in Eastern Europe, the economies were not productive under Communism, there was no incentive for productivity, it was inefficient, they became debtor nations (Eastern Europe had to borrow money just to keep their governments afloat from the West)
o Consumer Culture of West – the Westerners are shoppers, images of the West were getting harder to block, Easterners saw how well people were living in the West (material goods, homes, cars, etc.), this is going to make them highly unsatisfied with their governments
Medical care, social services, income guaranteed, retirement guaranteed (Easterners got all of this under Communism, but they were not happy because they weren’t living
lavishly like the West)
o Unrest in Poland – people begin to form unions
Solidarity – the leader was an electrician, Lech Walesa, this was an umbrella union, there were about 10 million people in it by 1980, this man became a national hero and the face of Solidarity, it became so big that the Polish government had to crack down and remove it, this idea was popular and didn’t go away (just underground)
Pope John Paul II – endorsed solidarity and reform in Poland, after 1982 Solidarity is underground
∙ Gorbachev – became the leader of the Soviet Union, he was unlike any other leaders of the Soviet Union, he was welleducated (Lenin was the last leader to have a college degree), he was an attorney and young, he was charming, he was not a Stalinist, he was warm and fuzzy, he was loved by the West and was open to changing Communism
o Stalinist – (Stalinism), means harsh, removed, they are hardliners, oldfashioned Communists o Glasnost – policy under Gorbachev, means “openness,” he wants critics of the government to speak up and share their thoughts/feelings, so people felt for the first time that they could express their unrest and unhappiness with the government (Gorbachev is still a Communist, he just recognizes that he has to change it a bit to make it work, he was inspired by Lenin’s NEP, he is all for product incentive, he argued privatization and market forces)
o Perestroika – a revolution of the mind, it is a program to promote efficiency and productivity, he brought in foreign economies, promoted profit incentives, there were major obstacles to change: Price of goods
Little incentive for productivity
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Massive investment needed for modernization – there needed to be a massive infusion of cash, its infrastructure needed modernized
∙ Downfall of Communism/Soviet Union triggers – these are the fundamental issues that lead to the fall o Nationalist movements emerged – these were the “breakaway” republics, they were the first to go (Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Ukraine, Georgia > these are Balkan States), these national movements trigger the fall
o Democratic Opposition – Gorbachev allowed people to express themselves, so a very vocal movement of democratic opposition came to head
Andrey Sakharov – Russian physicist, led this opposition to Russian control
Alekxandr Solzhenitsyn – was also a large critic
o Economic Crisis in 1988 – this also helped to bring down the government
∙ Changing relations between the U.S. (and Western European Nations) and the U.S.S.R. – there had been arms talks before with some limited success, but they got real under Gorbachev and Ronald Reagan, this allowed improvements to happen (in 1987 they signed a major arms control agreement, each side cut back on its threat of nuclear weapons, etc.), Margaret Thatcher (Prime Minister of England) was also a proponent of this time, the three of them became “buddies,” the talks were so peaceful and productive, this was the beginning of new relations with the Soviet Union, this is sort of the end of the Cold War and the “Iron Curtain,” the Soviet Union was opening up to the west
o Chernobyl – a nuclear reactor site located in the Ukraine that exploded, it was a nuclear disaster in 1986 when the Ukraine was still part of the Soviet Union, before they would have hidden/covered this from the West, but instead Gorbachev made them aware and let them see what was happening, this WestEast relationship was very good
∙ The Eastern Nations became independent under Gorbachev (around 1989), he realized that it was time to let them go, but there were governments within these nations that were bound and prepared to react, Poland finally became free of the Soviet Union and had a complete governmental change because of the Solidarity, they worked through Solidarity to gain seats in the Parliament and vote the Soviets out, this was done at great personal risk, Czechoslovakia students and intellectuals led the way, in East Germany the government was deeply entrenched and did not want to see any erosion of Communist power, it was the old refugee problem again, the Germans saw how much better it was in the West so they began fleeing once again (they fled to Hungary then elsewhere because of the Berlin Wall), this process started and continued for months and became an embarrassment for the German government, they were forced to open the gates of the Berlin Wall (this was the great symbol of the fall of Communism), the West watched with interest and emotion as the Berlin wall was opened up and would soon be destroyed
∙ LATIN AMERICA SINCE 1945
∙ This is a Cold War battleground. Economic change and the want for economic change were paramount in Latin America. Their economy was based on exporting goods to Europe and America. It’s not good for an economy to be based just on exporting (it’s not balanced and it’s susceptible to changes in the market). After WWII (1945), the major initiative on the Latin American government was to fix the economy. It tried to boost the agricultural economy; they tried to produce a more productive/stable economy (one that raises living conditions in the area).
∙ The social structure has changed too: mainly the middle class. There is a huge gap between the wealthy landowners and their employees, but this is thrown off with the growing middle class. People are living more and more in cities.
∙ There was instability in the government after 1945. There were revolutions and coups. A lot of the countries experienced left wing policies and dictatorships. The volatility was result of the effort to change the economy and fix poverty. More recently, in the 1990s, there has been more of a trend away from dictatorships and towards democratic regimes.
∙ The Catholic Church also played a major role in Latin America and so did Protestant denominations. In the 1970s1980s, there was an idea:
o Liberation Theology – a movement among priests and nuns in Latin America, it was a theology of social activism, it combines traditional Christian concern for the poor with elements of Marxist (Socialist) ideology, these monks and nuns are out there working with people, Protestant denominations have also started helping in this
Final Exam (Page: 10)
∙ Guatemala – one of the first places to exhibit these characteristics
o Population was mostly Indian, illiterate, and lived very poorly, they worked for a handful of very wealthy landowning families
o Were one of the exporter nations (exported coffee and bananas)
o 1944 – Arevalo came to power and he wanted to address the poverty of Latin America, he embarked on some of the reforms, he tried to start socialist reforms and land reform, he starts by just trying to improve labor conditions, he was a nationalist and this caused conflict with this group:
United Fruit Company – were an American company that exported fruit to the U.S. and elsewhere, they owned enormous plots of land
o In 1951, Arbenz was elected president of Guatemala, he is more radical, he begins nationalizing companies, he said if land is owned but not being used then the uncultivated land would be taken by the government and redistributed as small farms to poorer people, this made the United Fruit Company very angry and they complain to the U.S. government and what the U.S. government did was put a group together (army) and they went in and overthrew Arbenz
∙ Cuba – another example of a place that showed this characteristics
o Was a place of incredible poverty, had a major export (sugar cane), going into the 1950s most of the population was in the countryside and poor, the cities did have a growing middle class in them, the cities became the playground for Americans (Havana), there is a lot of American business influence here, they have invested and own a lot of property in Cuba
o Batista – in power in Cuba from 1934 for a long time, he worked to make Cuba better, but when it came down to it, he did nothing, he really just became a dictator and nothing really was solved o Castro – emerged as a revolutionary, in 1953 he was put on the map, he was an attorney but became a revolutionist, he leads a small uprising and is put in prison but then moves to Mexico and hooks up with:
Che Guevara – revolutionary, from Argentina, he and Castro become a team and return to Cuba in 1958
o They led a revolution in Cuba, by 1961 Castro had bad relations with the U.S., land reform was finally given to the farmers by the creation of collectivized farms, Castro also nationalized industry and more, they now have good quality health care and education, the problem with this revolution was that it never revitalized the economy, Cuba became very dependent on foreign aid from Russia, then when the Soviet Union fell apart Cuba kind of did too, today there have been negotiations between the U.S. and Cuba
∙ Chile – another example with these characteristics
o 1960s, it was not like Guatemala or Cuba, it had a more stable democracy, but in the late 1960s and early 1970s it was having some issues with the economy, the number one export was copper, there was a huge American interest in Chile
o Allende – elected president of Chile, he is a Socialist, he campaigns that he’ll address all the economy problems, there are bad relations between Allende and his parliament, he can’t get the legislation through parliament so he resorts to rule by decree (Enabling Act), it gave him dictatorial power, his policies were very unpopular among American corporations
o Nixon was president of the U.S. at this time and became deeply involved in a military overthrow of Allende with the Chileans, they also bombed the presidential palace and assassinated him Junta – government by a committee/group, a military Junta comes to power
General Pinochet – he emerges as the dictator of Chile but is ousted eventually
o Under Pinochet, civil rights and liberties didn’t exist under Pinochet, people disappeared, it came a human rights issue
∙ Nicaragua – another example
o Since the 1930s to the 1970s the family of Somoza (father then son) had been the presidents of Nicaragua, this family owned ¼ of the land in Nicaragua, in 1972 there was a huge earthquake in Nicaragua and lots of nations sent money, the Somoza family stole the foreign aid money that had been sent to help them rebuild, the opposition voices to them began to emerge in the early 1960s
Sandinistas – were socialists that protested Somoza (antiSomoza), they try to change Nicaragua, the Somozas hated them and were very hostile toward them
Final Exam (Page: 11)
o Chamorro – a journalist, published antiSomoza material and he ends up being assassinated o The U.S. was interested and increasingly involved here, they didn’t want leftists/socialists/Marxists coming to power, and the Fruit Company didn’t want to lose land
o Ortega – is put into power, this concerns the U.S. government and the Fruit Company is upset by his raise to power, he leads a socialist program that included land reform (would take huge land owned by single families and pay the family then split it up for the peasants, they based the compensation on taxes), the Fruit Company didn’t keep good land so they could avoid high taxes and this came back and bit them, the U.S. then got more involved because they were worried about Communism here
Contras – U.S. effort (antiOrtega/antiSandinista) vs. the Sandinistas, as a compromise they held elections and the widow of Chamorro was chosen as a more modern candidate and president, but Ortega came back to power
∙ Juan and Eva Peron – rulers of Argentina
2. Saudi Arabia
5. United Arab Emirates 6. Kuwait
14. Colombia 15. Venezuela 16. Ecuador
20. Argentina 21. Ghana
24. South Africa 25. Congo
28. BOOK TERMS
SykesPicot Agreement: the
between Britain and
France that divided up the
Arab lands of Lebanon, Syria, southern Turkey, Palestine, Jordan, and Iraq
∙ Balfour Declaration: a 1917 statement by British foreign secretary Arthur Balfour that
supported the idea of a Jewish homeland in Palestine
∙ Treaty of Lausanne: the 1923 treaty that ended the Turkish war and recognized the territorial integrity of a truly independent Turkey
∙ Majlis: the national assembly established by the despotic shah of Iran in 1906
∙ Kibbutz: a Jewish collective farm on which each member shared equally in the work, rewards, and defense ∙ Petrodollars: the global recirculation by international banks of profits from the higher price of oil ∙ Neoliberalism: a return to policies intended to promote free markets and the free circulation of capital across national boarders
∙ Washington Consensus: policies restricting public spending, lowering import barriers, privatizing state enterprises, and deregulating markets
∙ Intifada: a prolonged campaign of civil disobedience by Palestinian youth against Israeli soldiers; the Arabic word intifada means “shaking off”
∙ Arab Socialism: a modernizing, secular, and nationalist project of nation building aimed at economic development and the development of a strong military
∙ Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): created in 1964, a loose union of Palestinian refugee groups opposed to Israel and united in the goal of gaining Palestinian home rule
∙ Common Market: the European Economic Community created in 1957
∙ Civil Rights Act: the 1964 U.S. act that prohibited discrimination in public services and on the job ∙ PanAfricanists: people who sought black solidarity and envisioned a vast selfgoverning union of all African peoples
∙ Cocoa Holdups: mass protests in the 1930s by Gold Coast producers of cocoa who refused to sell their beans to British firms and instead sold them directly to European and American chocolate manufacturers ∙ Pieds Noirs: the predominately Catholic French population in the French colony of Algeria, called “black feet” because they wore black shoes instead of sandals
∙ National Liberation Front: the victorious anticolonial movement in Algeria
∙ Apartheid: the system of racial segregation and discrimination that was supported by the Afrikaner government in South Africa
∙ African National Congress (ANC): the main black nationalist organization in South Africa, led by Nelson Mandela
∙ Détente: the progressive relaxation of Cold War tensions
∙ Perestroika: economic restructuring and reform implemented by Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev that permitted an easing of government price controls on some goods, more independence for state enterprises, and the establishment of profitseeking private cooperatives to provide personal services for consumers
∙ Glasnost: Soviet premier Mikhail Gorbachev’s popular campaign for openness in the government and the media
∙ Solidarity: led by Lech Walesa, a free and democratic Polish trade union that worked for the rights of workers and political reform
∙ European Union (EU): an economic and political alliance of twelve European nations formed in 1993 that has since grown to include twentyseven European nations
∙ Liberalism: a philosophy whose principle ideas were equality and liberty; liberals demanded representative government and equality before the law as well as such individual freedom of the press, freedom of speech, freedom of assembly, and freedom from arbitrary arrest
∙ Oligarchs: the small number of individuals and families that monopolized political power and economic resources
∙ CircumCaribbean: the region encompassing the Antilles islands as well as the lands that bound the Caribbean Sea in Central America and northern South America
∙ Caudillismo: government by charismatic figures who rule through personal power rather than the functioning of public institutions
∙ Manifest Destiny: the belief that God had foreordained the United States to cover the entire continent ∙ Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: the 1848 treaty between the United States and Mexico in which Mexico ceded large tracts of land to the United States
∙ Lerdo Law: an 1856 Mexican law that barred corporate landholdings
∙ Neocolonialism: the reestablishment of political and economic influence over regions after they have ceased to be formal colonies
∙ Free Womb Laws: a gradual form of abolition through which children born to slaves gained their freedom ∙ Porfiriato: the regime of Porfirio Diaz, who presided in Mexico from 1876 to 1880 and again from 1884 to 1911
∙ Latifundios: large landed estates
∙ AnarchoSyndicalism: a radical ideology that proposed the revolutionary reorganization of society into an egalitarian community ruled by labor unions
∙ Monroe Doctrine: established a U.S. sphere of influence over the Americas by opposing European imperialism on the continent
∙ Roosevelt Corollary: a corollary to the Monroe Doctrine stating that the United States would “correct” what it saw as wrongdoing in neighboring countries
∙ Junta: a government headed by a council of commanders of the branches of the armed forces 29.