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WSU / Communications / COMM 105 / How does this mean we are progressing as a human race?

How does this mean we are progressing as a human race?

How does this mean we are progressing as a human race?

Description

School: Washington State University
Department: Communications
Course: Global Communications
Professor: Dixon
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: communication
Cost: 50
Name: Com 105 Final Study Guide
Description: This is the study guide for the final exam in Com 105. It covers every day of notes I have taken as well as summaries of the readings.
Uploaded: 04/30/2016
42 Pages 43 Views 17 Unlocks
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Com 105 Final Study Guide This is the final study guide for Com 105, and it is a compilation of all the class notes since week 1, as well as summaries of all the required readings for the course. Good luck on the final, you can do it! Have a fantastic summer! 


How does this mean we are progressing as a human race?



Class Notes:

 There may be some repeats in here, as I simply copied and pasted all the notes taken, including reviews for other exams.

The beginning human communication:

∙ how do we define communication and apply it to global issues? ∙ We have to look at communication from the beginning of our history ∙ we share a sophisticated level of communication, which we share with  primates

∙ 500k years ago - Homo Erectus "Art"

o The emergence of complex human communication

∙ 50k years ago - behavioral modernity arrives

o display culture and language in a way they never had before, through  art


How are people using the internet and deep web to do dangerous things?



o Human beings were able to communicate in ways they never had  before

∙ 3200 BCE - Homo Sapiens first use of written language  

o first symbols as writing system in Mesopotamia  

∙ Today - we use incredible ways of communicating  Don't forget about the age old question of What are the most common myths about communication?

o social media

o How does this mean we are progressing as a human race? o Where are we going in terms of communication?

What is Communication?

∙ Communication: "A systematic process in which individuals interact with and  through symbols to create and interpret meanings" Don't forget about the age old question of Why does the incidence of most cancers correlate with an increase in age?

o Systematic: involves interrelated parts that affect one another o Process: ongoing and always in motion. We are always communicating  with one another, you are always communicating.


Why is it that people tend to think mass media has a significant uniform effect on people?



If you want to learn more check out How lighting affects the setting and mood persistence of vision?

o Symbols: Language and behaviors that represent concepts and ideas.  We have many different symbols that have a strong meaning. For  example: religious symbols (the cross, the star of David).

o Meanings: Interpret and make meaning of symbols. People look at the  same symbol but have different interpretations.  If you want to learn more check out What country was the focal point of the "great war of africa"?
If you want to learn more check out What qualifies as an eating disorder?
We also discuss several other topics like What step should be taken when intervening with his risky behaviors?

Dimensions of Communication:

∙ Level of Observation: communication can apply to both broad or specific  events.  

∙ Intentionality: communication can involve purposeful messages, but also  some without intention. This is not usually the case with our communication,  we are not being as purposeful as we think.

∙ Judgment: communication can be successful exchange of information, but  also unsuccessful as well. Sometimes we communicate something but the  psychology of what is being said back tends to garble and change the meaning

of the communications. Miss communication is normal but can be  embarrassing and problematic.

Global Scale:

∙ Interpersonal communication:

o learning new customs and non-verbal traditions across cultures to  respect the other. Physical space is something that changes across  countries, some cultures get much closer to others, which in other  cultures may seem like an invasion of personal space.

∙ Mass Communication:

o Media regulations on the global scale

o what are some of the standards that determine if the press is restricted or not and how that affects the population

∙ Social Media from the global perspective:

o wiki leaks - posts information that the public was never meant to see,  giving a great amount of power

o the way people adapt to censorship  

o how are people using the internet and deep web to do dangerous  things?

Culture Part 1

∙ Uncontacted tribes still exist  

∙ What is culture? In Tusculanae Disputationes, Cicero wrote of a cultivation og  the soul or "cultura animi"

∙ A range of human phenomena not directly attributed to genetic inheritance ∙ Culture is socially constructed  

Culture as anthropological term:

∙ Evolved Human capacity to classify and represent experiences with symbols Cultural Dimensions  

∙ Material Culture - physical artifacts created by a society

o Tangible objects  

o can serve practical purpose or not

∙ Intangible Culture - language, customs, ect.

o The things that make us really who we are

o central to how we view the experience, and engage with the world  around us

o cultural practices impact world views, beliefs, and maternal culture o people of different faiths have different views on the subject of  evolution

o these are the things that shape our morals and actions

Cultural Values and Perceptions:

∙ A singular issue can be seen in different ways

∙ There are very different cultural displays around the world, for example  alcohol consumption around the world is viewed differently.

∙ Some activities which are viewed as normal and acceptable in some cultures  are not the same in other countries.

∙ Culture is not genetically inherited, it is taught through the social  environment, and it is created by people.

∙ "Culture: a range of human phenomena not attributed to genetic inheritance" and "human ability to classify and represent experiences with symbols"

∙ Material and intangible cultures are not mutually exclusive, when a physical  object represent something of intangible culture.

∙ Color is very important for interpreting a symbol, and culture aids in  interpreting color. For example, one color might mean happiness in one culture, and then in another culture it might mean symbolize death.

∙ Grounded Cognition Theory: "Humans represent abstract concepts in terms of concrete experiences in physical world" we take physical manifestations and  apply them to abstract concepts. It is a way of influencing people. For example, product distributors know the color green is generally considered good to  people in the U.S so they put green on the nutrition label to make people feel  as if something is healthier.

∙ We take things in through our senses and then we interpret them in different  ways depending on our cultural and psychological filters

∙ Perception: "perception is the socio-psychological process of obtaining  information and interpreting the meaning"

∙ " we impose meaning or come to a collective agreement about what certain  things mean"

∙ Stages of Perception:  

o Selection: selecting information from our environment to process and  make sense of later. This is limited for us.

 things that are important to us to select are unexpected nature  or rarity of experience.

 Repetition of Experience can capture your attention

 The intensity of your experience  

 Things that have a negative affect will gain greater attention  than something with a positive affect.

 It is ingrained in humans to determine if something is a threat or not and react accordingly.

o Organizing: once you have gathered information you must organize  and make sense of it

o Interpretation: what sort of meaning does the information have to you  after you have organized it?

Cultural Values and Perceptions Part 2:

∙ "Perception is the socio-psychological process of obtaining information and  interpreting its meaning"

∙ Types of human perception:

o Visual - ability to perceive visual phenomena  

o Sound - ability to perceive sound by detecting vibrations  o Speech - process by which sounds are heard, interpreted and  understood. It is a sound but it has complex meaning

o Haptic Perception - perception through touch

o Taste - ability to perceive the flavor of substances

∙ Stages of Perception:

o Selection - we select things from the environment to perceive, can be  anything from the list above. We cannot perceive everything in the world  around us, meaning we have limited capacity to perceive things. We  choose things to focus on based on unexpected or rarity of an event,  repetition of experience, and the intensity of experience.

 Weapon Focus Effect: victims of violent crime usually focus on  the weapon which is the immediate threat. Focusing on the weapon,

leaving out peripheral details, and the memory of the event is  

distorted

o Organization into (perceptual) schema - a mental framework to  organize information that we select into constructs, which are  

organizational schema that are based off of past experiences. This is how  we make sense of the information we take in.

o We have four types of schema we use to organize:

 Physical Constructs (outward appearance) - such as the height,  skin tone, attractiveness  

 Role Constructs (social or professional position) - teacher,  accountant, sister

 Interaction Constructs (behavior) - outgoing, aggressive, shy  (this can change from culture to culture because it is based on  

people's experiences)

 Psychological Constructs (thoughts and feelings) - such as  angry, self assured, insecure

o Interpretation - based on your personal experience, your knowledge,  Cultural Upbringing  

∙ Accuracy of Perception: Misperception

o Cognitive Biases - involve perceptual distortion, inaccurate judgment,  and illogical interpretation.  

 Psychological in nature - everyone commits these kind of biases  influences all stages of perception (selection, organization, and  interpretation)  

 "Pareidolia" = finding faces in random things, we are  

programmed to look for faces

o Stereotypes - generalizations about a person based upon the group to  which they belong.  

Interpersonal Communication:

∙ We are bias to select certain pieces of information over others ∙ Sometimes we select things that are pointed out to us, as well as unusual  situations

∙ We only process select information and we can be bias to select one thing  over the other which affects the way we make sense of the world. ∙ subjective validation = we take vague and non-specific statements and make  meaning of it, and make ourselves believe it is personal to us.

∙ Stereotypes: generalizations about a person based on the group to which  they belong, and people can belong to many different groups thus having  many stereotypes.

o The first thing we do when we see an individual we organize them to  find what group they belong to.

o Second we cognitively activate the schema of that group, so people  can cognitively activate more than one schema about various groups o Finally, we generalize those schemata to that person, this is when the  stereotype is applied and tied to the individual we are seeing.

∙ Mass media plays a role in how we make constructions about certain groups ∙ We tend to view Bias as a negative connotation, however stereotype always  carry bias.

∙ Selective Memory Bias - the tendency to remember information that supports stereotypes while forgetting information that does not.

∙ Cultural Stereotypes can affect our organization of people of certain groups  such as Americans vs. Japanese culture, or our stereotypes of Nerds vs. who  "nerds" actually are (Bill Gates)

∙ Interpersonal Communication: someone sends a message to one person, and  then receive feedback from the other person.  

∙ Source Message Channel Receiver Model (SMCR)  

o the source is the individual which is creating the message to send to  the other person. They have a special set of skills, and have baggage that  influence everything they do. The message that the source comes up with  can be interpreted differently between the sender and the receiver,  leading to misunderstanding.  

o Using all that baggage they will encode a message, combining all their  baggage into the message which can either be very strategic or less  strategic. Messages are meant to have meaning to the sender and the  receiver.  

o once the message is created it must go through a channel, (hearing,  seeing, touching, ect) it is the medium through which the message is  communicated

o the receiver decodes the message they receive, organizing the  information based on their own baggage and deconstructs the message to get the meaning

o People are senders and receivers of information simultaneously  ∙ Messages:

o Verbal - communication via words, either through written and vocalized language.

 Channels - hearing, seeing, touching,  

 Context - the information that surrounds communication and  helps convey a message. Things such as the tone of voice a person  uses when talking to you

 Same verbal message can mean different things (emotional  context, cultural context, euphemism, sarcasm)

o Verbal Communication -levels of quantity

 succinct - few words and avoids loss of face  

 exacting - enough words to convey message and no more (too  few = ambiguity; too many = exaggeration). Low to "middle of the  road" context cultures. (England)

 Elaborate - a lot of talking, detailed description and information.  Common in high context cultures. (Arabic-speaking countries)

o Contextual and Personal Styles:

 Contextual style/ sensitivity - language reflects the hierarchy of  the situation, thus maintaining barriers of high power - distance  cultures (the use of titles and the use of formality/informality)

 Personal style - language breaks down hierarchy of the situation. More common in low power-distance cultures

o Nonverbal

Interpersonal Communication Part 2:

∙ People are senders and receivers  

∙ It is a constant flow of both sending and receiving  

∙ What people send and what other people receive might be different based on the things which define a person as an individual

∙ Burlose = unidirectional but it is trans directional

∙ Verbal Messages - context

o Emotional context (common example: if you feel someone is upset with you, so you ask "are you upset?" and they say no "no." but the tone of  their voice, and body language suggests otherwise)

o Cultural Context (example: pants in American English means trousers,  whereas pants in Britain means underwear.)

o Euphemisms: (example: drug names, code language for bad activities) o Sarcasm: (example: a form of humor, saying something you do not  mean to make a point)

o Culture can shape the use of context

∙ Verbal communication - levels of quantity  

o Succinct - using the bare minimum to communicate only what needs to be.

o Exacting - communicating just enough information but not too much  personal information

o Elaborate - communicating a lot of information, being open a lot, giving a lot of personal and social information

∙ Contextual and Personal Style:

o Contextual style/sensitivity - careful about using names which  demonstrate hierarchy  

o Personal style - being personal, with friends

∙ Affective & instrumental styles  

o Affective Messages are emotionally sensitive both in receipt and  delivery. Requires intuition and reading of subtle verbal/non-verbal cues. ∙ Most common in the middle east, Latin America, and Asian  cultures

o Instrumental orientation is 'raw' and focused on information transfer.  Common in low-context cultures such as Switzerland, Sweden, and the US. o We sometimes support hierarchy through the verbal communication  we use

Nonverbal Messages:

∙ Kinesics  

o Body movement: posture, gestures

o Facial expressions

∙ Eye contact (oculesics)

∙ Proxemics

o How people use the space to communicate with others

o Study the way people use physical space to convey messages o Example: The US

∙ Intimate distance - confidential communication

∙ Personal distance - family and close friends

∙ Social distance - more business conversation

∙ Public distance - public speaking, ect.

o Can vary across cultures

o US distance norms are farther than parts of the Middle East or South  America

o Distance norms are shaped by environmental and social forces ∙ Chronemics

o How time is used with in a culture

∙ Monochronic  

 Linear schedule  

 Individualistic cultures such as the US, Canada, Australia  ∙ Polychronic  

 Doing several things

 Accomplishment is secondary to involvement  

 Focus on the group as a whole

 Latin America, Middle East

o Cultural Differences:

∙ Punctuality  

∙ Speed of speech

∙ Daily Agenda  

o Concept of time shaped can be shaped by social forces

o Based on the relative nature of time, in how different cultural traditions view time different than others.

o Other cultures might care how your time is spent, and the expectations of time are different.

∙ Chromatics  

o How color is used to communicate

o Grounded cognition theory - taking abstracts and giving them  meanings, such as associating an action with a color

∙ Some might say nonverbal communication is key: 93% of human  communication is nonverbal

o 7% verbal

o 38% tonal messages

o 55% physiology  

Interpersonal Communication:

∙ Verbal versus non-verbal

o When people say that 93% of human communication is non-verbal,  here is the breakdown:

∙ 7% verbal

∙ 38% tonal messages

∙ 55% physiology  

o But this is not really true because then people would not need to learn  foreign languages

o 7%-38%-55% rule only applies to very specific contexts, especially how we communicate emotions and attitudes (like vs. dislike)

o Mehrabian studies:

∙ Nonverbal communication is useful for communicating attitudes  and emotions

∙ If words are incongruent with tone or physiology, people tend to  rely on non-verbal elements ( for example: if you ask someone how  they are, and they reply in a regular voice "I'm fine" then they might  indeed be fine, but if you ask and they say "I'm Fine" but in a harsh

tone, and show body language that says otherwise, you may  

understand they are not fine).

∙ 7%-38%-55% rule is Only based off two studies with an all female sample

o People may assume that non-verbal behavior is instinctive or part of  "human nature"

∙ Biologically innate

∙ Evolutionarily adaptive

o Charles Darwin wrote "The Expression of Emotions in Man and  Animals" to study if evolution had an effect on emotions

∙ Universality of basic emotional expressions

 Anger

 Disgust

 Fear

 Happiness

 Sadness

 Surprise

 Contempt  

∙ These are discrete emotions and they affect the way people  react to situations  

∙ Emotions are arguably universal, however cultural displays rules  moderate emotional displays

o On average, people are about 54% accurate in detecting deception o Cops fare no better than college students in detecting lies o The three common "signs" are false correlates of deception

Barriers to cross-cultural communication:

∙ Language:

o Going to a country that does not share the same language as your  home country

o Language is unique, in the United States for the most part the  language is the same across the board, but in India there are many  different languages across the area. People in certain regions speak  different languages that are totally different.

o Dialects are also important, because there can be many differences  within a language, such as Arabic language spoken, but some of the  dialects across the area are so different it is like speaking another  language.

o Styles of Formality can lead to barriers because expectations of formal, written communication are different across cultures. In the US someone  might begin with a nicety to prime the person receiving the message to  think good things before they are given bad news, where as in Japan they  give bad news by indirect discussion.

o Perception can cause a barrier in communication, because it is a  person's view of reality. So people perceive things differently, such as  marketing campaigns, company slogans, ect.

o Class and Familiarity cause barriers because the idea of class differs  across cultures. The US tends toward a 'non-class' orientation and a  loose/familiar communication style, however in Arabic speaking countries  class can be recognized based on the way that they speak, maybe slowly  and deliberately with high level of vocabulary.  

o Geography and time cause barriers because of time differences, and  physical space between people. Geography determines the time  differences between places, which impacts work schedule. And Holidays  change how people interact with each other.  

o Non-verbal communication creates barriers because one culture might  view a non-verbal behavior as disrespectful, whereas another culture  might see it as acceptable or even polite.

∙ Negotiation:

o Process of bargaining between one or more parties to arrive at a  solution that is acceptable to all

o Negotiation is all about interaction

Negotiation:

∙ The process of bargaining with one or more parties to arrive at a solution ∙ It is about interaction

∙ Very similar to communication, and it is a way we make more sense of the  people we are encountering

∙ It occurs on a large scale but also a interpersonal level. It can go from very  macro to a very micro scale

∙ In history the Silk Road was a significant connection between cultures which  allowed people from different places to interact with other cultures, and people had to negotiate on a very broad scale with others from all around the world.  Another example of integration is the Atlantic Slave Trade, when people from  Africa were violently forced to adopt and become accustomed to European  traditions and life.

∙ Communication Acculturation Theory: the idea that we understand there are  differences in cultural beliefs and traditions, there are other ways of living and  communicating around the world. There are differences in traits, beliefs, and  values which cause barriers. "Cross cultural adaptation as a collaborative effort in which a stranger and the receiving environment are engaged in a joint  effort." Acculturation can have an influence on immigrant group's  communication, such as immigrants adopting some American ideals and  cultures but still proud of their heritage. An example of communication  acculturation theory is the Mediterranean area, where trading has been going  on for years and you can see in the languages which include words and roots in many different languages, such as the Sicilian Language which is made up of  Greek, Italian, and Arabic.  

∙ Integrative Communication Theory : Argues that all humans conform to new,  culturally unfamiliar environment. People unlearn who they were originally. An  example is that Native Americans in the early 1900 would dress like Europeans  in an attempt to assimilate to the Europeans.

o Zero-sum process: new comer loses characteristics of original cultural  identity. They lose the background of their ancestors

∙ Uncertainty Reduction Theory: It is all about how we reduce uncertainty  between the people we meet. All interaction we have with a person is  uncertain because we never know how someone will react. We try to reduce  uncertainty by gathering more information from the environment around us,  and get more information. This information is used to predict the other's  behavior and actions, and decide if they will be a threat after the interaction.

o Cognitive Uncertainty - level of uncertainty associated with beliefs or  attitudes of each other

∙ Initial Interaction - people not aware of each-others' beliefs and  attitudes. This happens when we meet someone for the first time. EX: assigned roommate

∙ Ways of reducing this Uncertainty:

 Self-Disclosure - talking about one's self and admitting  intimate things in hopes the other person will disclose this  

information as well. Increased intimacy.

 Verbal Communication - as verbal communications  

increase the uncertainty decreases.

 Nonverbal "warmth" - showing friendly nonverbal  

messages, ex: smiling.

o Behavioral Uncertainty - pertains to the extent to which behavior is  predictable in a given situation.

∙ Initial Interaction - people not able to predict behavior of each  other.

∙ Ways of reducing this Uncertainty:

 Norms - have been developed to reduce behavioral  

uncertainty. They are a standard or pattern, especially of social  behavior, that is typical or expected of a group. How someone  

conducts themselves behaviorally, and what society says is ok.  Ex: shaking hands is a way to show you are friendly and reduces uncertainty. If one ignores such norms, behavioral uncertainty  

increases because we cannot predict what is going to happen  

from then on. Because of this, the interaction may end, because  the person seems threatening or too much uncertainty has  

mounted.

∙ Injunctive Norms - what we perceive other people  

want us to do.  

∙ Descriptive Norms - what we perceive other people  do.

o Stages of reduction theory: The stages of interaction

∙ (1) entry stage - use of behavioral norms. Dependent on cultural norms.

∙ (2) personal stage - probing others for indications of values  morals, and personal issues.

∙ (3) final stage - strangers decide whether they want to continue to develop relationship.

- tend to approach negotiations using our own cultural norms

∙ Norms are vastly different

∙ When you are in a different culture it is good to understand the norms of the  culture you are in, and do not rely on snap judgments

Effects of Cultural Differences:

∙ Not all aspects of culture are equally significant (handshakes) ∙ Norms for interaction may be different for you, as an outsider, than for  "cultural insiders"

∙ You don't know as much as you think you do about the other party's culture. Other Aspects of Negotiation:

∙ Distributive Negotiation - bargaining that occurs when two parties with  opposing goals compete over a set value

o Zero sum

o Both trying to get the best deal, but gain for one means loss for the  other

∙ Integrative Negotiation - bargaining that involves cooperation between  groups to integrate interests, create value, and invest in the agreement ∙ Ex: the issue of the free space in the chinese see and who owns it, should  china be allowed to build military islands there.

Beginning the Mass Communication Module:

∙ Mass Media: communications which use mass medias and technologies which reach a mass audience, meaning it reaches a very large number of people. ∙ History of Mass Media:

o Mass communication has only been around for a little while o 3500 B.C.E: the first pictographs carved into stone, this was first  designed for the masses, because if it was designed for a small amount of  people they would not have gone through the trouble to carve it. o 2500 B.C.E: the Egyptians invents Papyrus  

o 1000 B.C.E: Phonetic writing

o 1500s: the emergence of print media allowed people to print and  distribute mass amounts of books, and this could be done quickly. The  example is the Guttenberg Bible, which he printed for people to have.

o 1860s: these are the first audio recording, when they can capture  sound and then play it back. This was fundamental for today such as  music.

o 1910s: the emergence of cinema and recording movies and films for  people to watch. It started off as a sideshow attraction, but then became a main form of entertainment. There is a well-known example which is "A  Trip to the Moon" by George Milliare.

o 1920s: Radio emerged as the main form of entertainment, and had a  profound effect on the listeners. Orson Wells told the story called "the War of the Worlds" on the radio, but people did not hear the part that said it  was fake, so they actually thought aliens were invading New Jersey.

o 1950s: was the "Golden Age of Television" which replaced radio as the  main form of entertainment. This was during the rise if the middle class,  and televisions became the new item that the middle class had. There was generally very few channels and the family would sit around the tv  together and watch a show.

o 1990s: the internet came into play, and the phone and internet were  connected meaning you could not use both the phone and the internet at  the same time.

o 2000s: the smart phone comes out, which allowed media to be moved  with a person and control so many different things.

o Future: there are new ways of experiencing the world and new  entertainments. Some media is used, especially virtual reality, to use for  practical purposes.

o Entertainment vs. Journalism:

∙ Entertainment Media - mass media which holds the attention  and interest of a mass audience, with the intention of giving pleasure and delight. Whether this is something funny, or something you  watch because you like it. Examples: Sports (football, soccer, cricket,  ect. People come together to watch the same thing), Movies (Titanic,  Star Wars, Avatar, ect. These can be funny, or about real events),  Television (shows, as well as netflix and HBO Go), Novels (we still use  it, and it spreads around the world, such as the Harry Potter), News  Events (some become entertainment events, such as the OJ Simpson  Trial because they allowed cameras in the court room and it was a  media circus and Micheal Jackson Trial. Right now it is the political  sphere, with Trump vs. Sanders and all the candidates).

∙ News Media - mass media whose focus is on delivering news to  the general public or target audience. Examples: Newspapers  

(dominant form of news consumption back in the day, this has  changed with the rise of the internet, but they have adapted to online media), local Television ( local areas to one nation or even one state), Cable television (allows for international news outlets), alternative  media (grows due to the internet, allows anyone to become a part of  the journalism process because they can create a blog. An example  of this is the ISIS media department which is very media savvy),  Citizen Journalism (people have the ability to film things with their  phone, and report on things through digital technology).

∙ Global Scale: how does all of this relate across the globe?  Media Policy Around the World:

Globalization: is the process of international integration arising from the  interchange of world views, products, ideas and other aspects of culture. It can have different connotations with different people, such as people  believing it imposes Western Culture on the rest of the world, which loses the  rest of the cultures around the world. It works against indigenous and  distinctive media content.

The other side of the argument is that globalization can work toward  acculturation and integrative communication. There is more of a collaborative  process where media is negotiated so that there is elements from the  developing country mixed with elements from the country which produces the  media.

Effects of Globalization:

∙ Integrative Communication Theory (the negative argument): Exportation  of Western mass media to developing countries. the introduction of  Western mass media comes at the expense of developing countries'  cultural traditions. Shows produced in America but go to another country  does not really change the plotline, because that country cannot make the

storyline their own, they can only change the lip dub to a new language.  The flow of values from developed countries to developing countries. As a  result, professional Western productions will overwhelm locally produced  programming. An example would be the Simpson as an international  cartoon. The storyline cannot really be altered.

∙ Acculturation Theory (the positive argument): Exportation of Western  mass media to developing countries. The exported Western Media can be  adapted to the norms and customs of the developing countries. While the  shows originated in Western Mass Media, there is more of a creative  license for the show to be changed in the developing countries culture and norms. A great example is the different versions of "American Idol" in  other cultures, where the storylines can be changed and include more of  the local culture.

∙ Emerging global media: innovation and acculturation. Developing  countries often "personalize" their media. Similar to the acculturation  theory, indigenous culture melds with western media to produce unique  media product.

U.S Media Regulations:

∙ In Mass Media there is NEVER free flow of information. There are still  restrictions despite the first amendment. There are supreme court cases  which set the bounds.

∙ Federal Communications Commission (FCC) - created via Communications  Act of 1934. Acts as federal regulator of broadcast stations, radio  operators, and broadcast news.

∙ FCC does not regulate print media.

∙ First Amendment Challenges:

∙ Content regulation - regulation of media content by government  authority. Regulate what is and is not produced.  

 Lovell v. City of Griffin 1938 - Lovell was Arrested for distributing  religious material without permission from the city. It was ruled  by the supreme court that this was unconstitutional. If you are  

on a street corner and pass out information it is not illegal.

 Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo 1974 - Florida law  

requiring newspapers to allow equal space to political  

candidates for editorials or ads. (ruled unconstitutional)

 Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC 1969 - FCC law required  

broadcasters to present all sides of controversial issues of public importance (Fairness Doctrine). (ruled constitutional) FCC  

voluntarily removed doctrine in 1987.  

Global Media Policy Continued…  

Obscenity Regulations:

∙ First Amendment protects speech in U.S.

o Limited content regulation

o Limited censorship

o Does not allow for the free flow of media, there are some regulations o FCC regulates broadcast media - (e.g., fairness doctrine and  obscenities)

o U.S. Government can censor news if deemed "clear and present  danger" to national security. Very high burden of proof required (NY Times  v. US, 1971).

∙ First Amendment Challenges:

o Content Regulation - regulation of media content by government  authority

∙ Lovell v. City of Griffin, 1938

∙ Miami Herald Publishing Co. v. Tornillo, 1974

∙ Red Lion Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 1969

o Prior Restraint and Censorship - rules against certain content and  government forced redaction of media content.

∙ Near v. Minnesota, 1931 - Minnesota law gave state power to  handout injunctions against media publishing malicious, scandalous,  or defamatory comments. Local newspaper had investigative stories  about the police force, and used "offensive language" (ruled  

unconstitutional, the newspaper was allowed to print the stories). ∙ Nebraska Press Association v. Stuart, 1976 - can press be  prevented from releasing information seen as "implicative of guilt" of  a criminal defendant? (ruled unconstitutional, it could be a problem  but it could be avoided by having jurors unable to see the news so  they won't be influenced)

∙ New York Times v. United States, 1971 - Nixon claimed executive authority for force the New York Times to suspend publication of  classified information (the "Pentagon Papers"). (Ruled NO "clear and  present danger" from publishing materials.)

o Defamation - the action of damaging the good reputation of someone;  slander and libel. Can result in civil (not criminal) punishments. ∙ New York Times v. Sullivan, 1964 - Established "actual malice"  standard. You have to show that the information used to defame was  false, but if there was a reasonable suspicion that the information is  false, then it can be considered as such.

∙ Gertz v. Robert Welch, inc. 1974 - states are free to establish  standards of liability for defamatory statements.

∙ Texas Beef Group v. Winfrey, 1997 - Oprah Winfrey was sued for  a show she did about beef health risks.

∙ Obscenity:

o FCC regulates broadcast stations and policies (public airwaves) against obscenity.

o FCC v. Pacifica Foundation 1978 - defines the 7 dirty words you can't  say on TV and established decency regulation, from 6am to 10 pm. o Unintentional or fleeting obscenities:

∙ 2004 Superbowl - most watched, recorded, and replayed  television moment in TIVO history, FCC fined CBS recorded $550,000. Appealed and ruling reversed.

∙ FCC fleeting expletives regulations ruled unconstitutional, they  cannot hold the live tv stations accountable for something they  cannot control.

∙ Media Regulations Around the World:

o Free speech of the press worldwide

o 2006 Thai coup d'etat against Prime Minister Thaksin Shinawatra. The  leaders of Thailand's military coup closed more than 300 community radio stations. They monitored all the media other than that. They dissolved  Thailand's 1997 constitution, which guaranteed press freedom. They  cancelled radio stations and news on TV which expressed people's  opinions on the issues around them.  

Global Media Policies:

 Egypt - "Arab Springs"

∙ Egyptian Uprising -> ousting of Mubarak

∙ Election of Morsi

∙ "Coup" removes Morsi and Muslim Brotherhood from power. ∙ Attempt to control Muslim Brotherhood voice via media control. ∙ Egyptian Minister of Foreign affairs: "[Muslim Brotherhood media] incites  violence and murder in Egypt  

∙ Requests European officials to close pro-Muslim Brotherhood satellite  channels.

China:

∙ In China, the system that restricts online access is call The Golden Shield Obscenity Laws:

∙ US obscenity laws determined by federal, state, and local governments ∙ Enforced by regulators; reviewed by judiciary  

∙ Obscenity Laws based on moral values  

∙ The standard for obscenity can differ between countries.

∙ Religion plays an important role in determining moral values ∙ Different standards for obscenities in different cultures

∙ Standards of obscenities evolve and change overtime.

Changes in Obscenities: Iran

∙ Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, had warm relations with the West,  even maintain diplomatic relations with Israel.

∙ Advocated greater secularism in society

∙ In Iran's Past when there were good relations with the U.S: Secular clothing,  especially for women, more acceptable in the public sphere  

∙ 1979 Iranian Revolution: Replacement of Pro-Western monarchy with anti west theocracy  

o Ayatollah Khomeini

∙ Broke off ties with West and Israel

∙ Argo Movie - details the story of U.S. Embassy employees  escaping during the Revolution

∙ Greater emphasis of religion in society  

∙ New media restrictions on obscenity introduced. Everything  became more conservative especially in dress for women.

Overview of global journalism:

∙ Government sanctioned news versus private news:

o Many news organizations are private organizations.

o Some are semi-official (independent in name but has significant ties to  the government)

∙ Fars News Agency  

∙ Presenting news media which is in line with the government's  views

o Some are official News organizations.

∙ Xinhua News Agency (China) - official press agency of People's  Republic of China - it is part of the Chinese government.

o Some are publically funded.

∙ BBC (UK) - funded by government, independent of direct  government intervention.

∙ News reporting and government control:

o Private, public, semi-official, and official news agencies can be  influenced by government.

o Self-censorship can occur with private news.

o Reporters without boarders claims the media in Zimbabwe involves  "surveillance, threats, imprisonment, censorships, blackmail, abuse of  power and denial of justice are all brought to bear to keep current leaders  in power.

o Semi Official news examples:

∙ Official and Semi-official news agencies often balance interest of state with interest of the people

∙ 2014 Hong Kong Protests - when British Rule ended China  agreed they would protect Hong Kong and allow autonomy. But there  were changes proposed in 2014 which would change the democratic  rule in hong kong. Many Hong Kong residents believed mainland  China reducing the autonomy of HK.

Global Media and Propaganda

Recap of Global News Media:

∙ Private (CNN, Disney, ABC…)

∙ Semi-official (FARS Iran news)

∙ Official (Xinhau news in China)

∙ Public (BBC, PBS)

All forms can be manipulated by the government.

Propaganda - form of communication intended to influence attitude of population  toward some cause or position.

When we think of propaganda we tend to view it negatively, but it really is in the  eye of the beholder.

Characteristics of Propaganda:

∙ Strong ideological bent - political, social, economic, ect.

∙ Propagandists are not about trying to be neutral or objective - they have an  agenda to advance.

∙ Propaganda can be good or bad - depending on the eye of the beholder. We  have tended to view is as bad because we do not like the idea that the  message of propaganda is influencing us, and making us think differently. Even if the message is good, we do not want to be manipulated.

∙ Is institutional in nature - is practiced by organized groups, whether it is the  government, political lobbies, private corporations, religious groups, or social  movements.

∙ It involves mass persuasion; often using the mass media to advance its  message.

∙ Tends to rely on ethnically suspect methods of influence (such as deception,  racism, ect.).

∙ Primary concern is persuasion, ethics come at a distant second. Edward Berneys and Guatemala:

∙ Edward Berneys - was a key public relations figure in U.S. Nephew of Sigmund Freud

∙ Involved in a campaign; believed manipulation of public opinion necessary  part of democracy.

∙ Some of his propaganda activities assisted covert CIA operations (operation  PBSUCCESS).

∙ Decree 900 passed in 1952 during the Guatemalan Revolution - redistributed  unused lands to local peasants.

∙ Major land owners were not happy with the decree

∙ To get American government involved, United Fruit Company employed  Bernays to create psychologically inflammatory disinformation against Arbenz  Govt. of Guatemala.

North Korea:

∙ Has one of the most sophisticated propaganda machines around. Persian Gulf War:

∙ Persian Gulf War (1990-1991)

∙ Nayirah testified about Iraqi troops removing babies from incubators  ∙ Claim is unsubstantiated  

∙ Later revealed she was the daughter of Kuwaiti ambassador to the U.S. and  coached by PR firm, Hill Knowlton to persuade public about dangers of Saddam Hussein.

Iraq War (2003-2011):

∙ Al-Zarqawi was someone who beheaded people, and was extremely violent,  the U.S made cartoons threatening him and distributing it by throwing them  out of planes over towns where he could be living.

∙ Pentagon program involved planting stories in Iraqi media that demoralized  insurgents.

Israel vs. Hamas and Hezbollah:

∙ Hamas = terrorist who gained control of Gaza, pushing out Israeli people.  They create propaganda to speak to the Israeli population, but the reaction was not what they wanted.

∙ Shia terrorist organization Hezbollah is threatening the area of Lebanon  Media Effects Part 1:

The goal of propaganda and whether it is good or bad is up to the eye of the  beholder.

Media Effects Paradigms:

∙ Most of us would like to think we are not effected by media, but then they  think others are effected by mass media. This is called the third person effect. 1 Hypodermic needle Model - media can affect you in a very strong way and  inject you with information. This assumes that people are passive viewers of  the information. All aspects of media will affect all aspects of human  behavior/attitudes.

a 1950s - the television became a common staple in American homes, but  there were only a few choices in programs to watch.

2 Minimal Effects - it does affect people, but it is not as bad as the hypodermic  needle model.

a 1960s --1980s - rise of cable television with more choice.  

2 Powerful media rediscovered (1970 - present)

a Agenda-setting: News media doesn't tell us how to think, but it tells us  what to think about. Millions of important events occur every day. News  media can only select a small number of these events to focus on and  report on. The things they decide to report on influences us about what we think is important. Agenda setting effects are dependent on (1) news  coverage and (2) placement of the news (front page vs. buried on page  12). We and the media tend to focus on the one but not the many,  meaning people fail to connect to news reports of tragedies which have  many victims, but rather they connect better to stories with identified  victims. An example is the Rwandan Genocide (April 7- July 15, 1994)  there were systematic massacres of 500k to 1 million died in 100 days.  Gikondo Massacre - 110 people killed in front of unarmed UN observers.  But this event did not garner that much media attention because there  was confusion about what was going on, but even when we were aware,  they did not report much on it. We are more likely to remember certain  people, therefore news tends to choose one individual to focus on. Psychic Numbing: the vast size of victims goes beyond our level of  comprehension. We shut down emotionally. As human beings we simply  cannot understand that level of violence.

Identifiable victim effect: we have a stronger emotional connection with  single victims then a group.

∙ More willing to offer aid.  

∙ "A single death is a tragedy, a million deaths is a statistic"

For agenda setting: news agencies prefer stories with identified victims. Even when stories discuss stories with mass casualties, people may not be emotionally affected.

a Spiral of Silence

b Cultivation Theory

1 Negotiated Influence - (powerful effects but only certain circumstances and for  certain people)(1980s - present)

a Framing (Robert Entman, 1992): the way we tell stories can affect the way people view the event. Example: the Russians shot down a Korean airline  and the magazine wrote it as a murder in the air when it was a tragic  accident. However, when Americans accidentally shot down the Iran Air,  they try to explain and make it really more of an accident than the other  time it happened. Another example: Hurricane Catrina, the pictures of  people taking food from a grocery store and one was described as  "looting" the store where as others were described as "finding" food. "To  frame is to select some aspects of a perceived reality and make them  more salient in a communicating text, in such a way as to promote a  particular problem definition, casual interpretation, moral evaluation,  and/or treatment recommendation."

Framing tells us how we think about issues.

Conflict Frame: might be reporting on multiple sides of a story where there are different opinions, so that the audience can get the full perspective.  Creates perception that there's debate surrounding issues that may not be debated in expert communities (e.g., climate change).  

Episodic Framing: focusing on the individual rather than the society as a  whole. Effect - more emotional empathy and remember the events better. Thematic framing - focusing on society rather than the individuals.

Judgement and Decision Making:

∙ Two Parallel routes in human judgment and decision making. ∙ Systematic Processing: Careful, conscious processing. There is a high  motivation to process information. This type of processing is not relied on for  day to day activity.

∙ Heuristic Processing: fast instinctive, subconscious, processing. There is low  motivation into processing information. These are snap judgements which not  much processing goes into processing information.  

∙ Priming: It is something you encounter(word or action) which suddenly affects your thinking in a future moment. It is implicit memory in which exposure to a  stimulus influences a response to another stimulus. Exposure to something can affect the way we behave when we encounter another something. It is  SUBCONSCIOUS form of human memory concerned with perpetual  identification of words and objects. We are aware of the prime, but not of how  that prime can affect us.

∙ Implicit Memory: is a type of memory in which previous experiences aid the  performance of a task without conscious awareness of these previous  experiences.

∙ Negative Media leads people to seek out more negative media than positive  media.

∙ People associate colors with different meanings, which can prime us: o Red -> danger, alert

o Yellow -> caution

o Green -> go, natural, environmental

Types of Heuristics:

∙ Availability heuristic: judgment based on ease of recall (what comes to mind  when you think about it). Sometimes can lead us to think untrue things. Media  Effect: Perceive risk of harm is high when it is in fact very, very low.Messages  which are memorable can elicit an availability response. Messages are  generally more memorable when they are extreme, often in a negative light.  More (negative) emotional arousal then the greater recall we have on the  information. There is greater availability due to emotional response.  

∙ Representativeness: judgements based on representation. Messages which  provide representation can elicit this heuristic. Sometimes we rely on  representation that result in errors in judgements.  

∙ Anchoring and Adjustment Heuristic: Human tendency to rely too heavily on  the first piece of information offered (the "anchor") when making decisions.  People's judgements and decisions are often influenced by an initial anchor.  

Once an anchor is set, other judgements are made by adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting.  

Media Effects Part 3:

Types of Heuristics:

Representativeness - judgement based on perceived representation. Sometimes we  rely on representation that result in errors in judgement. Messages that provide  representation can elicit this heuristic. For example: we think there are many shark  attacks and they are likely when in reality they are extremely rare, but because the  media shows stories about shark attacks regularly people think they are more likely  to happen.

Anchoring and Adjustment - deals with the first piece of information we receive,  because it can affect our subsequent judgement making even when the information  is not really that important. Once the anchor is set, other judgements are made by  adjusting away from that anchor, and there is a bias toward interpreting other  information around the anchor. Example: Negotiation, the first price is most  important. When a house is put up for sale they set an initial price for people to  work around. Media Coverage is an important anchor (Political Polls).

More Traditional Mass Media Effects:

Spiral Of Silence - how mass media can effectively shut down and end  conversations about opposition views. Proposed in 1974 and it explains the  tendency of people to remain silent when they feel their views are opposed by a  majority view. There is fear of being ostracized or fear of reprisal. This was created  by Elisabeth Noelle - Neumann. Example: during George W. Bush's presidency  people found the media covered pro-war views, thus affecting the general people  who protested the war. It also relates to the psychologic effect of normative social  influence.

Cultivation Theory - Created by George Gerbner in the 1970s. This theory says that  television viewers are cultivated to view reality similarly to what they watch on  television. Heavy television viewers are more likely to be affected. Over or under  representation of issues can lead to misperceptions about reality. Part of the theory  is "Mean World Syndrome" which says that people who watch a lot of crime shows  tend to think crime is a regularity in society.

Spiral Of Silence: Global Scale

∙ RT is Russian State - supported news

∙ Accused of pro-kremlin bias

∙ Converge of anti-Putin protests different from Americans

∙ Government use media to elicit the spiral of silence  

∙ If you were to survey people today they would most likely say that the world  is extremely violent, more than it has been because of the amount of violent

that is reported on. However the world has never been more peaceful as it is  today, but because the media reports so regularly on these things people think  that there is a lot of violence. This is due to the cultivation theory, because  people believe that life on earth works the same way it does on television, and  television focuses on violence to get attention.

∙ Journalism takes advantage of people's need to know what threats or  potential threats around them, in order to gain viewership.

∙ Cultivation theory appears to work for high income and medium income,  whereas people living in poorer neighborhoods are used to crime around them  so the media does not affect them quite as much.

Violent Media:

∙ Some gaming stats:

o Gaming Industry made 10.5 Billion in revenue in 2009

o Average age of gamers is 34

o Gamers play average of 8 hours per week

o 40% of gamers are female

o The game console can be affected by the gender of the person o The type of media people choose to consume produces different  results

∙ Virtual Reality:

o The introduction of immersive virtual reality  

o Today video game violence is even more realistic than ever, and it  becomes difficult for young people to tell the difference between the  game and reality  

∙ Violent Media is linked to:

o Aggressive thoughts

o Reduced Empathy

o Perceived Aggression (how we see others interaction with us) ∙ Limitations to Studies:

o Survey studies: (1) correlation only; no causation (2) could be that  aggressive people watch violent media

o Field Experiments: (1) do not eliminate self-selection bias due to lack of random assignment.

o Laboratory Experiments: (1) can show causation because using  random assignment eliminates self-selection bias (2) findings may not  reflect what occurs in real world.

∙ Media Violence and aggression  

o Evidence that violent media influences cognitions (i.e., thoughts). o But the effects likely depend on a number of factors  

∙ Developmental stages (younger children more susceptible to  violent media effects)

∙ Personality traits (aggressive prone people more likely to select  violent media)

Video Games: A Global Perspective  

∙ The World Wide video game industry grew 9% in 2013 and now exceeds $76  billion with projections it will reach over $86 billion by 2016.

∙ The European market for games is almost $20 billion.  

∙ China saw 34% increase in games revenue in 2012.

∙ The games industry in India grew 16% in 2012, to $227 million. Violent Media's Influence: A Complicated Picture  

∙ Violent crime has decreased over time and is probably at its lowest level in  recorded history not only in the United States but around the world. ∙ This does not mean that violent media in the form of cartoons or video games does not affect people particularly children.

∙ What you find scientifically (children are more aggressive after watching  video games) does not always match what is going on (the world is the most  peaceful it has ever been).

Media Violence: The Evidence  

∙ We are primed to think of good or bad things, and violent media primes to  think of hostile thoughts.  

∙ Violent media is linked to:

o Aggressive Thoughts - claimed to have both short and long term  effects

o Reduce Empathy - for victims of violent crime or sexual assault o Perceived Aggression  

Laboratory Experiments:

∙ Lab settings present an artificial environment: Do effects then represent what occurs in reality

∙ Would the person pick to consume that media in the first place? Media violence and aggression:

∙ Evidence that violent media influences cognitions (i.e. thoughts) ∙ But the effects likely depend on a number of factors  

o Developmental stages (younger children are more susceptible to  violent media effects)

o Personality traits (aggressive prone people more likely to select violent  media)

∙ No conclusive evidence that violent media causes violent acts or behaviors. Video Game Addiction:

∙ Reported on through an international perspective

∙ People who play video games at the expense of other things and have terrible results, sometimes even death.

o 1981 Jeff Dailey died while playing "Berzerk"

o 2005 Lee Seung Seop lost his job and became addicted to Starcraft.  Dies after 50 hour binge session.

o Jan 19, 2015 - Taiwan man dies after 3 day online gaming binge. o There are many other cases including where children die when their  parents will not stop gaming to feed them.  

Media Effects Paradigms:

1 Hypodermic Needle Model  

2 Minimal Effects  

a 1960s-1980s - rise of cable television with more choices  

2 Powerful media rediscovered (1970s - present)

a Agenda setting

b Spiral of Silence

c Cultivation theory

2 Negotiated Influence - (powerful but only certain circumstances and for certain  people) (1980s - present)

a Framing  

b Priming

Framing:

∙ Episodic - focusing on and individual rather than society as a whole ∙ Thematic - focusing on society rather than the individual

Are media effects universal or are they conditional?

We know not everyone is affected in the same way by media messages. Why is it that people tend to think Mass media has a significant uniform effect on  people?

Cultivation Theory - people who consume a lot of news on television will be more  effected to think the world is the same in real life as it is on television. It has been found that cultivation theory most strongly affects people of high  income, particularly white people

What are the reasons for the differences?

∙ Exposure to unfamiliar conditions

∙ Over representation of events unlikely to occur in environment Sometimes using different frames can evoke feelings in people to persuade them in  a specific direction.

Sometimes persuasive attempts can backfire in a "boomerang effect", and the  results we get can be quite different than expected.

Psychological Reactance - reaction to stimuli perceived to impact choices or  alternatives. People do not want to feel limited in their choices, because they think  the message is trying to sway their choices, as well as saying their choices are bad  ones.

Motivated Reasoning - process new information in way that suits their own goals.  We want information which we gain to somewhat conform to our preconceived  beliefs and attitudes, because new information which does not match will probably  not make us drop our beliefs we already hold.  

Boomerang Effects - unintended consequences of an attempt to persuade resulting  in the adoption of an opposing position instead. When the intended reaction is not  the desired one, but rather the exact opposite of what was intended. Sometimes things you think are persuasive are not actually having the effect you  want.

Uniform media effects exist, but are rare.

Most media effects are conditioned by individual differences.

Think about how your individual characteristics influence how media affects you.

Media Effects Paradigms:

1 Hypodermic Needle Model  

2 Minimal Effects  

a 1960s-1980s - rise of cable television with more choices  

2 Powerful media rediscovered (1970s - present)

a Agenda setting

b Spiral of Silence

c Cultivation theory

2 Negotiated Influence - (powerful but only certain circumstances and for certain  people) (1980s - present)

a Framing  

b Priming

Framing:

∙ Episodic - focusing on and individual rather than society as a whole ∙ Thematic - focusing on society rather than the individual

Are media effects universal or are they conditional?

We know not everyone is affected in the same way by media messages. Why is it that people tend to think Mass media has a significant uniform effect on  people?

Cultivation Theory - people who consume a lot of news on television will be more  effected to think the world is the same in real life as it is on television. It has been found that cultivation theory most strongly affects people of high  income, particularly white people

What are the reasons for the differences?

∙ Exposure to unfamiliar conditions

∙ Over representation of events unlikely to occur in environment Sometimes using different frames can evoke feelings in people to persuade them in  a specific direction.

Sometimes persuasive attempts can backfire in a "boomerang effect", and the  results we get can be quite different than expected.

Psychological Reactance - reaction to stimuli perceived to impact choices or  alternatives. People do not want to feel limited in their choices, because they think  the message is trying to sway their choices, as well as saying their choices are bad  ones.

Motivated Reasoning - process new information in way that suits their own goals.  We want information which we gain to somewhat conform to our preconceived  beliefs and attitudes, because new information which does not match will probably  not make us drop our beliefs we already hold.  

Boomerang Effects - unintended consequences of an attempt to persuade resulting  in the adoption of an opposing position instead. When the intended reaction is not  the desired one, but rather the exact opposite of what was intended. Sometimes things you think are persuasive are not actually having the effect you  want.

Uniform media effects exist, but are rare.

Most media effects are conditioned by individual differences.

Think about how your individual characteristics influence how media affects you. Computer Mediated Communication:

Global Statistics:

7.18 Billion People in the World

2.95 Billion Active Internet Users (41%)

2.03 Billion Active Social Media Users (28%)

3.61 Billion mobile phone users (50%)

1.56 Billion active mobile social Media users (22%)

When we talk about social media across the world we have to think about policies  and limitations put into place by the country on the people. For example, China has  banned Facebook because they have deemed it threatening to their country, where  as Japan chooses to use another platform just because they prefer it better.  

Computer Mediated Communication (CMC): this is any form of communication  between two or more individual people who interact and can influence each other  via separate computers through the internet or a network connection (using social  software).

CMC does not include the methods by which two computers communicate, but  rather how people communicate via computers.

Are we more able to deceive each other over text messages, and does it happen  more often?

Theoretical Perspectives of CMC:

Psychological - social cognition, interpersonal perception, attraction, and  persuasion.

Sociological - group dynamics, social structure, community, reputation, trust Philosophy - ethics of digital communication

CMC topics:

∙ Social presentation and perception - how do people present themselves to  put their best foot forward.

∙ Online communities

∙ Personal business reputation - review sites and how people make sense of the information, lot of false information here

∙ Censorship and free expression - how social and digital media have opened  the questions not only in the US about where free speech draws its limits online ∙ Privacy and ethics - release of private and classified information. ∙ Intimate Relationships - how people show intimacy online

∙ Deception (people who lie online)

∙ Revolution and diplomacy

Technological determinism vs. Social Determinism

Whether or not technology changes the way people interact with others, does  society change with technological innovations?

Social determinism says people with all their diverse needs and what they want out  of life will make technology to suit those needs.  

If technological determinism might say technology affects all of us in the same way. They are polar opposites, and know what they are.

SIP Theory - people adapt to CMC

Technological constraints

Social Informational Processing theory - talks about how people are able to  overcome technological constraints, such as conveying emotion over texting.  Hyper Personal Model - CMC makes communication richer. This model suggests that  CMC often exceeds Face to Face communication due to technological affordances  not present in Face to Face contexts.

Sender - (Selective presentation) More favorable impressions from online  communication - because we have more resources for self-presentation. Receiver - (over-attribution of similarity) - absent important Face to Face cues,  receives feel that senders are "just like them".

Channel - CMC is asynchronous; always allowing senders to edit messages more  than in Face to Face.

Online Deception - On average people are only about 54% accurate in detecting  deception because they rely on cues which are not actually true in detecting it.  Butler Lie - politely initiate and terminate instant messaging conversations.  Ambiguities inherent in the technology: Time (you do not generally know when  someone has seen the message) and nonverbal cues.

We have always been liars, we lie around 3-4 times a day on average.  80% of Internet Shoppers change their minds about purchases based on online  reviews from other consumers.

Online Reviews:

∙ Liars use more personal pronouns more because they are trying to prove  their story

∙ Truthful reviews use less pronouns and focus more on geography. People are about 60% accurate in identifying deception online when it came to  reviews.

Social Media's Effects

∙ Mood

o Facebook news feeds effected how people feel and what they might  post about.

∙ Self Esteem  

o On average viewing your own profile on Facebook improves self esteem

o Updating Facebook profile also helps to improve self-esteem o Hyper-personal model - allows for better self-presentation ∙ Grades

o Time spent on Facebook correlated with involvement in extracurricular  activities (college students)

o Heavy Facebook use was associated with poorer grades, but not by  much. It is not as destructive as people believe it is.

o Sharing links on Facebook or checking other friend's associated with  higher grades.

o Time spent on Facebook correlated with involvement in extracurricular  activities.

o Heavy Facebook users are associated with poorer grades but not by  much.

o Sharing links on Facebook or checking other friends are associated with higher grades.

o Web 2.0 suggests that social media have the potential to form,  develop, manage relationships in new ways.

o That exchange is appealing because of the possibilities of influencing  people

o Problems from using social media:

∙ Facebook - Penn State "Secret" Frat Page

∙ Twitter - Justine Sacco

∙ Viral movements  

∙ ALS bucket challenge

∙ Cyberbullying - Tyler Clementi

∙ Revenge Porn - Kevin Bollaert's ugotposted.com and  

changemyreputation.com

o Social Media and Organization:

∙ Organizations - an organized body of people with a particular  purpose.

∙ Businesses - JPMorgan, McDonalds, Starbucks

∙ Society - Greek Organizations

∙ Social media can be an effective tool for managing  

organization's image

∙ Social media can also manage and create a crisis.

∙ From an organizational standpoint, a crisis is any incident  

threatening an organization's reputation or procedures of  

operation.

∙ An organizational problem is exposed to the public through the  media.

∙ Social media can be an effective tool for managing organization's image. ∙ Social Media can also manage and create a crisis

∙ From an organizational standpoint, a crisis is any incident threatening an  organization's reputation or procedures of operations,

∙ An organizational problem exposed to public attention.  

∙ People can create crisis - people have control over things on the web, and  there is not censorship in the U.S  

∙ Social media managers need to recognize that their plans can backfire and it  is not always going to work the way they want when people can do it their  selves.  

Taking Care (for you personally):

∙ Realize that social media sites are targets

∙ Also be careful what you disclose through the sites

o Avoid being too specific about your info

o Be careful about the info people might use to find you, including  pictures

o Consider how much you post about family and friends  

North Korea:

∙ The movie "The Interview" caused a major international problem after the  trailer for the movie depicted Kim Jong Un being assassinated.

∙ North Koreans hacked into SONY and they leak 4 unreleased films on  November 27th

∙ Dec 3rd - SONY salaries leaked

∙ Dec 8th - Guardians of Peace "Stop immediately showing the movie of  terrorism which can break regional peace and cause War!"

∙ Dec 9th - leaked emails

∙ Dec 16th - hackers threaten violence on theaters showing "The Interview".  Which was a problem because the movie did not violate anything because of  the first amendment.

∙ Dec 17th - movie release scrapped by SONY because movie theaters saying it is too risky.

Silk Road:

∙ Changes in the way we engage in commerce and create new currency ∙ Elicit activities on the deep web

∙ A place to buy drugs and other illegal substances and actions yet people all  over the world used this website.

∙ The government is taking the way people use technology very seriously.

Digitalization of News and its Effects:

∙ User generated content and its effects  

∙ World Wide Citizen journalism

Yik Yak:

∙ There has been controversy over this anonymous app where people can post  offensive things where as others believe it is important to be confronted with  offensive speech  

News Media:  

∙ There has been a serious decline in revenue for news print and journalism ∙ More news organizations are turning toward the web and digital news media ∙ Online only news organizations are starting to be very popular, as well as  alternative news media forms.  

∙ Political Norms: the traditional view is that journalism is supposed to provide  a check on power. They wanted to expose problems in the political process,  and journalists are seen as important people who are supposed to provide the  facts for the citizens. This is why some countries restrict the access of citizens  and journalists to make sure citizens do not see any problems with the  government.

∙ Economic Norms: news is a business and must profit, so they must recognize  that viewership depends on how stories are written and how long they are in  the news for. This conflicts sometimes with political norms  

∙ Journalism Norms: news must adhere to principals of fairness, objectivity, and balance.  

∙ These norms are the traditional reporter will adhere to.

Digital Features of News:

∙ Around 30% of people using Facebook find their news through the site, ∙ 78% of people who read the news on Facebook did not have the intention of  reading the news when they started using Facebook

∙ Most people today are getting news from Facebook, Twitter, and other social  media sites rather than reading the paper.

∙ Entertainment news is a significant portion of what we read from news online Online Comments:

∙ Online comment sections a type of user-generated content.

∙ Turn news into a social experience

∙ Allows for innovative news engagement  

∙ This can spark debates and name calling

∙ Effects?

o Do comments influence our perceptions:

∙ Can (potentially) further polarize beliefs

∙ Increased third person effect

∙ Improve perceived credibility of journalists

o Anonymous comments more effective. Why?

∙ People identify more with anonymous postings.

∙ Social identification/deindividuation effect model  

Ethical dilemma:

∙ Good:

o Banning comments ensures article credibility

o Allowing comments provides platform for public opinion and greater  context

∙ Bad:

o Banning comments is essentially banning a form of online speech o Allowing comments interferes with journalism norms on objectivity,  fairness, and ethics

Questions arising:

∙ Who’s a journalist?

o Digital platforms allow for greater participation in journalism process o Traditional journalist as gatekeepers  

∙ Scans sources for news stories

∙ Only limited number of stories can be selected

∙ Selection criteria based on economic, political, and journalism  norms

∙ Stories made for audience consumption  

∙ This process illustrates journalists as gatekeepers

Alternative Media:

∙ Has always been around but the rise of the internet allows these  organizations to reach a wider audience and participate in more traditional  journalism.

∙ Digital platforms allow more inclusive journalism rather than exclusive. ∙ There are so many channels changing both news and entertainment media  consumption

∙ Alternative media differs from "gatekeeping journalism"

∙ These forms are definitely bias, they target an audience  

∙ Instead of fairness and balance like journalists have in the past, they openly  advocate for one view point

∙ Alternative Media organizations do not fully adhere to journalistic norms of  objectivity, fairness and balance.

Citizen Journalism:

∙ Mobile devices allow people to take pictures and put them online instantly  ∙ CNN and other journalistic organizations have embraced citizen journalism to  aid them in reporting and seeing things that CNN cannot get to.

∙ This has increased the reports and evidence of Police brutality, such as videos of Police attacking people. This has prompted a lot of conversation of issues,  racism, police brutality, police profiling, and others.

∙ Stories which might not have been available before are now available.  Top Citizen Journalism Moments:

∙ Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004 - effects were felt all around the world  ∙ Virginia Tech Massacre 2007 - first time there was insider footage from a  shooter attack inside a school, footage which a news organization could not get ∙ Protests in Burma 2007 - there were protests after an election which was not  honored. They restricted western media coverage, so citizens stepped in and  sent information to media outside Burma.

∙ Oscar Grant 2009 - video was taken of a police brutality event and it has  been widely used  

Problematic moments - citizen journalists do not always adhere to journalistic norms ∙ The Boston Bombing - people after the bombing tried to identify the bombers  themselves, making stories up about the crowd to try to solve the case  themselves. Some news sources even quoted random people who decided one  person in the crowd was suspicious.

A time where it was good for the people to make guesses:

∙ Jason Callahan - Grateful Doe, people who were not investigators tried to  identify an unidentified body pulled from a car wreck, and finally he was able to be identified by his mother when she reached the story much later. Mass Media power over population:

∙ When there are problems in a country they often go after social media to  block people from spreading anti-government ideas

∙ Arab Spring - a series of protests throughout the world starting in North  Africa. Related to labor issues and representation which lead to the resignation  of their leader. It spread from there across North Africa and into the Middle  East. The role of social media was consistent across the whole time. Social  media became an important tool for organizing protests and use doubled  during the event of Arab Spring. It was used to mobilize people, to let them  know when protests would happen and organize people together as a show of  force.

∙ 9 out of 10 Egyptian and Tunisian protesters used Facebook to organize  demonstrations.  

Outcomes of Arab Spring:

∙ Leaders ousted  

∙ Reforms passed  

∙ Civil War

∙ Unstable Government

Global Statistics (probably won't need to know these for the exam): ∙ 7.18 billion people in the world

∙ 2.95 Billion active internet users (41%)

∙ 2.03 Billion active social media users (28%)

∙ 3.61 Billion mobile phone users (50%)

∙ 1.56 Billion active mobile social media users  

Free Speech Review:

∙ US - first amendment gives us a direction of the bounds of free speech. There are certain boundaries and we cannot say just anything we want, but it gives  us a wide range of what we can say and the information we can  produce/communicate.

∙ Europe - France: free speech, greater restrictions on "hate speech". While it is protected in the United States it is not tolerated and criminal in other  countries.

∙ Sub Saharan Africa - Zimbabwe  

∙ Middle East - Egypt  

∙ South East Asia - Thailand, tourist friendly and open but still censored ∙ East Asia - China, one party rule, and there are a number of instances where  China has been faced with controlling outside information.

Video Notes:

∙ Chinese often do not know when their country is engaging with others  because of heavy censorship, which does not allow any Western media which  speaks ill of the Chinese government.

∙ Isaac Mao is a blogger from China and there are few Chinese bloggers, but it  has been a growing population.

∙ The government's response to the increase bloggers is to limit access more  and have more censorship.

∙ There has been some limitations lifted for famous websites, such as  youtube.com, but others are strongly forbidden such as Wikipedia. ∙ Hong Kong is a former British colony which is outside of the great firewall of  china, so people there can actually see the internet in its full capacity. ∙ Surveillance is prevalent in China, and the US actually had the ability to do  that at one point.

∙ Companies which host the blogs in China are responsible for what is posted,  and often will not post things which are written with taboo subject. ∙ Google has a Chinese sector which blocks searches on human rights and  other rights.

∙ Yahoo is under controversy because Chinese people trust yahoo email to  communicate with outside sources, but it is not private and some have been  jailed for their use of the service.

∙ The Olympics are a heavily censored subject online.

∙ Some believe that if the government is blocking a site they have a reason  while other citizens use a proxy server to get around the great Chinese firewall. ∙ Chinese government wants to keep the communist party in power, so while  they cannot forcibly block every little thing, but they do not want anyone to  organize to over throw them.

∙ Organizations use social media to manage and create crises ∙ One's best intention of solving a crises can backfire

∙ Crisis come in all shapes and sizes

∙ How can online activism backfire?

Streisand Effect:

∙ Trying to remove information which backfires and results in more people  seeing that content then the original person wanted.

∙ Originates from Barbra Streisand's attempt to stop a photographer from  posting a picture of her house and when people got wind of a dispute they  clamored to see the photo

∙ Example: There is a Wikipedia page on Pierre sur Haute Military Station and  French Intelligence Agency attempted to remove Wikipedia's article on the  station. When the news picked up on French Intelligence's request then it  became the most read page on French Wikipedia.

Backfiring effects of Online Activism:

∙ Hackers called Anonymous have decided to go after ISIS to hack their social  media. So they decided to identify ISIS terrorists and terror supporters via  Twitter to expose them to the police. This was an issue because many of the  people they identified as ISIS supporters were not actually supporters of ISIS.  They found that Anonymous was straying from their original goal of identify  ISIS supporters

Things to Review for the exam #3:

∙ CMC theories and models  

o Technical (idea that a technology is determining our actions and how  we operate in the world) versus social determinism (idea that something  is determining out future) versus Social (the relationship between is  flipped, and we make technology based on what we need, we determine  technology).

o SIP model versus Hyperpersonal model

∙ Influence of Social Media  

o Deception - people use more personal pronouns, people lie on dating  profile and they lie about the same rate but men are more likely to lie  about height and women are more likely to lie about weight.

o Grades - there is a common idea that using more media results in  lower grades which are not true, because it is actually the opposite.  People are exposed to more news and opinions, as well as higher self esteem.

o Self Esteem - the more social media we use means the more self esteem we have.  

∙ Digitalization of News Media  

o How it impacts political, economic, and journalistic norms (balance,  and objectivity, but there are economic norms because they need people  to buy the stories to read them).  

o Rise of citizen journalism and the effects (allows people to participate  in news gathering without the same norms as a real journalist)

o Effects of digital features (the rise of online newspapers and news  content which allows people to engage in a way they could not before with comment sections. This can lead to name calling and negative feelings  about a news story. It has led to a number issues).

∙ Case Studies: Arab Spring, Chinese Internet censorship, North Korean hacking scandal, Silk Road case.

Overview:

∙ Stages of human communication and culture:

o 500k years ago - homo erectus "art"

o 50k years ago - Behavioral Modernity (more complex thought and  communication) arrives

o 3200 B.C.E - Homo sapiens first use of written language (beginning the way we communicate through written communication)

o Intangible culture - language, customs, can impact thoughts as well as  how we view each other.  

o Material Culture - physical objects which may have a functional person  while others may symbolize something. It can sometimes bleed into  intangible culture.  

∙ Interpersonal Communication Model:

o Berlos's SMCR Model of Communication (unidirectional): Source -->  encodes -> Message --> channel --> decodes -> Receiver. This applies to  texting.

o Transactional model of communication (simultaneous directions):  People are senders AND receivers. It does not go one way. This is more  face to face

∙ Human Perception:

Stages of Human Perception (cognitive biases in Human perception) ∙ Selection:

∙ We can identify information needed to survive

∙ We see something alarming to determine if that information is needed  to survive

∙ We are automatically focusing on information to snap judge if we need  to fight or flight

∙ When we have high motivation to learn something we will focus our  energy on selecting information pertinent to us.

∙ EX: things that get more information will be recalled more easily. When people are asked about risk of low risk situations such as shark  attacks or airplane crashes, they often over estimate it because the  media covers it extensively.

∙ Organization into schema:

∙ We want to organize in a way which makes sense to us and often take  past experience into account.

∙ EX: people see faces on things when there are not faces, because the  brain is trained to see recognize faces. Or when people see a person  with a distinct physical appearance, they are likely to categorize  them with others from the past who have looked similar.

∙ Interpretation:

∙ We need to determine if the information is threatening or what the  information means to us.

∙ EX: people have the tendency to take vague things and make them  personal and applied to their life, such as horoscopes.  

∙ Human Deception:

∙ People are about 54% accurate when detecting deception  

∙ Gaze avoidance, postural shifting, and response latency are NOT good  indicators of deception

∙ Liars do not look to the left. There have been rumors which are widely  known about how to detect deception which is not true.

∙ People who are lying are often more likely to use personal pronouns. ∙ Lying happens online as much as face to face.

∙ Components of nonverbal communication and culture differences: Nonverbal communication:

∙ Kinesics - body movement, eye contact

∙ Proxemics - use of physical space

∙ Chronemics - concept of time (Monochromic (do one thing at a time) vs.  Polychronic (start multiple activities at once) cultures)

∙ Chromatics - the use of colors to communicate things, but different colors  mean different things in different cultures. They can be used to  communicate things in everyday life.

∙ Is 93% of human communication is nonverbal? (False).  

∙ Mehrabian studies: 7%-38%-55% if 93% of communication was nonverbal  then we would be able to understand most of a conversation in a foreign  language. Nonverbal elements are important for nonverbal contexts such  as feelings and attitudes. If words are incongruent with tone or physiology, people tend to rely on non-verbal elements. People tend to rely on the  non-verbal aspect more, because the tone might not match the actual  words, leading to a deeper meaning.

∙ Cross Cultural communication theory:

∙ Uncertainty Reduction Theory - there is always a degree of uncertainty  when talking to people, and people try to get as much information as we  can to increase socialization as well as survival. It is based on the premise  that we have different types of uncertainty, behavioral uncertainty is  trying to understand what another person is going to do, and over time we have made norms to help reduce that uncertainty. For example, people  shake hands. We also have cognitive uncertainty, and we want to know  what another person is thinking about beliefs, attitudes, values. One way  to reduce it is self- disclosure in hopes to get someone to open up about  themselves.  

Summaries of Readings:

These are summaries of the readings assigned throughout the course. I did not copy any of the readings word for word due to issues of copyright, so these are my summaries after reading.

Colgate’s Distasteful Toothpaste: 

- The key take way from this reading is that different cultures can see things  differently, and have different understandings of the same thing, which  means when one culture thinks something is offensive another culture will  not see it as offensive.

- Colgate Toothpaste bought another toothpaste company, named Hawley &  Hazel, which had a preexisting toothpaste brand which was successful in  Asian countries. This toothpaste was called “Darkie” and had a white man in  blackface on the packaging. Asian people really liked the toothpaste, thought  it worked well, and even said the packaging was what encouraged them to  use the product. In contrast, when American’s found out about the “Darkie”  toothpaste they were offended, and wanted “Darkie” toothpaste to be

discontinued. In the end Colgate changed the packaging and the name to  “Darlie” toothpaste which was close to “Darkie”, to keep customer loyalty in  Asia, but no longer affect the Americans.

Euro Disneyland 

- There were several issues and things which happened when Disney decided  to set up their new location in France because of the cultural differences  between the French and the Americans.  

- At first the French resisted the idea of Disneyland in their culture because it  would influence French children badly, and that the French Government would take a large amount of land from farmers so that Disney could build the park  on it.  

- While the park would create jobs for French people, some French people  thought that managers having flexible hours would be bad for the people, but they were necessary for the park because of the seasonal variations with the  park. Summer is more popular therefore they need more workers than in the  middle of the winter when there are less people in the parks.

- There were issues and negotiations about where the money from the park  would go, because it was an American company on foreign soil. There had to  be negotiations so that Disney had to pay the French people and government  some of the money they made.

- There were issues of American’s imposing their rules and cultures on the  French people in the park. For example, the park had a ban on alcohol, but  the French drink wine with many meals and have a different opinion on where it should be allowed.

- Even the food had to be adapted to European taste, to be less spicy so that  they would like it.

- Disney was very strict on the appearance of their employees, such as their  hair color, and the jewelry they could wear. While this was acceptable to  Americans, the French could not understand how the Americans did not value the individualism of people.

- When the French visited the park the first time they were shocked as to the  personal space issues, because in Disney Parks people are physically close  when they wait in line, and are in a small space. The French were not used to  this close contact.

- Lastly, the parks initial advertisements were in American English, which  shocked the French, making them feel like strangers in their own country, and not invited to the park at all.

“Pornography law bans in UK”  

The UK is implementing a ban on 10 sexual acts which are considered “harmful” to  minors. Most of the acts are considered violent in nature, for example strangling  and whipping. There are people against this ban because they believe it is other  people’s morals being imposed on all the people in the UK. Also people believe they  need to represent everyone’s fantasies, so that porn is not boring and they can  make more money. They also believe that if this freedom to watch this type of porn  is taken from them, other freedoms will be taken.

“Introduction to Journalism Norms”  

∙ Pack journalism is when news becomes reported in a homogeneous way and  remains in tact about how to present stories to the public.

∙ There are three normative orders:

o Norms about the journalism profession

o Norms about the proper role of the press in politics

o Norm constraints of the business side of news organizations ∙ Pressure on Journalists is constantly changing, and the norms are always  shifting due to the balances among political, professional, and economic  norms change.

∙ Viewpoints are often overrun with official sources.

∙ The “get an official reaction” rule is formally institutionalized, meaning  reporters work with officials who have a lot of power within the positions of  decision/policy making processes.

∙ Representative Democracy is best shown when there are reports from  officials who have a wide range of views in a debate.

∙ Journalists can be pressured to report on stories even when there is  suspicious activity and the possibility of corrupting influences surrounding the story.

∙ Elections are often reported in “horse race” fashion, with dramatic “war room  stories” which makes the candidates seem as though they are at battle and  there is always someone who is ahead and someone who is behind.  

∙ Something that is very big for American journalists is any story of a threat to  U.S security, as it evokes strong emotions for people and endorses both  popular culture as well as patriotism.

∙ Sometimes when Journalists seem to be going off and reporting somewhat  how they see fit, officials might attempt to regain control over a situation by  preforming some institutional processes which the journalists will feel  compelled to cover because of the more confining reporting rules.

∙ Because of the norms of reporting that journalists often have to conform to,  they often fail in convincing the public that their report is the best one to  follow on the subject/political situation.

∙ All the norms will often push journalists to smooth out their stories and  coverage by combining personal political judgements and narratives, which  create more drama for the story, and therefore capture the audience’s  attention, rather than simply and awkwardly listing facts.

∙ Some argue that norms in journalism reduce costs, and increase viewership,  which is even more in favor of standardized reporting.

∙ News networks are constantly being demanded of to provide more  entertainment rather than real stories, as audiences quickly get bored with a  lack of action or “hype” about a subject. This is leading to blurred lines  between news and entertainment which makes news stories even more  difficult to report on.  

∙ Narratives (short personal stories) are often used in news to highlight a point  and combines with a story to make it more personable to an audience  member.

“Framing, agenda setting, and priming”

∙ Agenda setting basically says that the more the media covers an issue the  more likely media consumers will view that issue as important. The media  tells us what to think about but not how to think about it.

∙ Priming is sometimes seen as an extension of agenda setting, and specifically in this article where news suggests for people to use certain events and  people from the past as benchmarks for future issues and leaders in  government. There are two reasons it is considered an extension of agenda  setting, one being that both are based on memory-based models for  processing information, and the other being that because agenda setting  makes a topic more salient to the media consumer, mass media can then  also control the considerations people take into account when making  judgements, specifically about politics.  

∙ Goffman is the one responsible for the sociological foundation of framing. ∙ Framing is useful for relaying new and difficult topics to the public, as it puts  the new terms in a way which they can understand it with their current  knowledge. This applies to highly scientific and technological topics.  ∙ It is possible for joint frames to be built from public and news media. ∙ There are inconsistencies in framing because of the way they are measured  and conceptualized. The differences can arise from when studies offer new  optionalizations of media frames or when these operationalizations are  perplexed by content.  

∙ When framing is reduced in order to make it analogous to agenda setting, it  also reduces framing’s power considerably.  

∙ People may need to pay more attention to messages in the media for the  framing to take effect, whereas people will be affected by agenda setting  even if they do not pay close attention to the media message.  

∙ The primary different psychologically between agenda setting and priming is  a battle between whether (agenda setting) and how (priming). ∙ Framing is an applicability affect whereas agenda setting and priming are  accessibility effects.

∙ Accessibility effect means they are again based on memory based models  when it comes to processing information.

∙ Applicability effect means there is an implied connection between two  concepts which leads the audience to believe the two are connected after  they see the message with the implications.

∙ Accessibility and applicability effects are not totally separate from each other. ∙ Accessibility is heavily effected by time flow, whereas applicability is less  affected by the passing of time.

∙ There is a lot of inefficiency when it comes to framing, agenda setting, and  priming theory. Sometimes there is even gridlock because of all the different  definitions and understandings.

“Cultivation Theory”

∙ We tend to think that if there is a common message presented in television  over and over again in time, it should mean something.

∙ George Gerbner created the theory of cultivation, which states that people  who consume mass media more regularly are more likely to believe the world works the way it does on television. For example, they might believe every  crime is solved based on cop shows, where most crimes are solved by the  end of the episode or series. When in reality many many crimes go unsolved.

∙ Essentially, this theory suggests heavy television viewers will have an altered perception of reality, and a lot of misconceptions of how the world really  works.

∙ This theory has set a major arena in which to study the effects of television  on viewers.

∙ This has to do a lot with the patterns seen on television, such as the pattern  of all cases being solved by cop detectives, which engrains the notion that it  is reality.

∙ Cultivation is an “agro-aquatic” metaphor for the way in which society  generally works.

∙ Gebner identified three kinds of stories told on television, which are how  things work when we can’t see them (fiction), how things are (news), and  value and choice of what we do (sermons /instructions/law). These stories all  naturally relate, and are used often in many forms.

“Brown v. Entertainment”

∙ Brown v. Entertainment Merchants Association, basics of the case: The U.S  Supreme Court did not allow a Californian law to pass which would restrict  minors from purchasing violent video games. It did not pass because it was  deemed as an infringement on free speech.

∙ Some argue that video games are not the same as other types of media,  because they create a virtual reality, and they should not be treated as the  same as other types of media. Therefore, people think the ruling was unfair  because the effects of video games were unknown.

∙ There was an act, the California Civil Code 1746-1746.5 which did not allow  minors to purchase or rent violent video games without parental consent, and the VSDA (Video Software Dealers Association) and the ESA (Entertainment  Software Association) fought the act as unconstitutional. They claimed that  videogames were protected by the first amendment as free speech, the term  “violent videogame” was vague, and requiring videogames to be labeled also  violated free speech. Schwarzenegger signed the code and it went into effect  after it defined what was considered a violent video game.

∙ If the government wants to limit the first amendment there will be strict  scrutiny, and they must have a narrow interest in getting rid of only one  thing, as well as the extreme enthusiasm to do so.

∙ There are some restrictions to the first amendment when it comes to free  speech, especially in the media when using violent, sexual, and other foul  language.

∙ Talk of restricting video games is a fairly new topic in the U.S but frequent  after the mass shootings began happening more often in the 1990s. ∙ Miller vs. California was a case which began defining obscenity, and there is a test called the Miller test.

∙ The Court ruled against the California law in Brown vs. Entertainment  because the court determined that videogames were protected under the  first amendment, new categories of unprotected speech could not be added  and California did not show that the law was in favor of government interest,  nor was it narrowly tailored to serve that interest.  

“Users of the World Unite”

∙ In the past companies were able to control information that was released  about them, but with the rise of the internet people, both clients or  employees can post anything. This poses a risk for a company because  confidential information could be released.

∙ The original intention of the internet was to help people communicate with  each other and exchange information, so Social Media is actually reverting  into the original intent for the internet.

∙ 1979 Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis created Usenet, which was a way for internet  user to send public messages across the internet.

∙ “Open Diary” was an early social networking site created by Bruce and Susan Abelson, which was created to bring online diary writers together. ∙ Web 2.0 became relevant in 2004, when software developers and end users  changed the way they used the internet. It changed in the way that content is constantly and continuously by many users in collaboration, instead of being  created and published by one person. It is not an actual update, but there are some functions which are more common such as Adobe Flash, Really Simple  Syndication (RSS), and AJAX (Asynchronous Java Script).  

∙ Social Presence: media differ in the degree of “social presence” they allow to  have between two communicators. Social Presence itself can be defined as  acoustic, visual, and physical contact that can be achieved. Depends on the  intimacy and immediacy of the media which is being used to communicate. It can be expected that it be lower for mediated than interpersonal, and for  asynchronous than synchronous communications.  

∙ Media Richness Theory: the theory that all communication is to reduce  confusion, and to get ideas and information across to clarifying things. It says that media differ based on the amount of information that is transmitted, and some media is better at resolving ambiguity and uncertainty.  

∙ Self-Presentation: states that people desire to control other’s opinions of  them and how they present themselves. This is done with the object of  influencing others to gain rewards, but also to make an image consistent with one’s identity.

∙ Self-Disclosure: reveling personal information either conscious or  unconscious.

∙ Collaborative projects (such as Wikipedia): they allow for joint and  simultaneous creation of content by many users. The idea is that more users  collaborating will result in purer information as they are able to correct each  other.

∙ Blogs: were the earliest form of social media. They are usually only managed  by one person but there is possibility for interaction because of the comment

section. Text based blogs are by far the most popular. Many companies use  blogs to update their employees and shareholders.  

∙ Content Communities: the main object is for users to share information  between each other. Users are not required to make a profile to share  content. It is a problem for copyrighted materials, popping up for free all over the web.

∙ Social Networking Sites: they are applications which allow users to connect  with each other by creating personal profiles with information. ∙ Virtual Game Worlds: users can be in the form of avatars in a three  dimensional worlds. Virtual game worlds require the user to follow  instructions and be a character usually in a magical kingdom with all of the  other users on the game. It does not allow for much personalization. Virtual  Social Words allow the person to make an avatar and personalize it and there  are no rules restricting the social interactions, people are able to be more  personal.

∙ User Generated Content (UGC) needs to fulfill three requirements to be  content generated by end-users on a public website:

o First, the content needs to be on a public site or social networking site  where a select group of people can see it. Excludes texts and private  messages

o Second, it needs to be creative and original. Excludes replications of  previously made work.

o Third, it cannot be made in the professional routines/ practices.  Excludes all content created with the commercial mindset.

“Facebook Emotional Contagion”

∙ It is possible for emotions can transferred to others through “emotional  contagion”.

∙ Emotional contagion can be transferred via text based computer mediated  communication, meaning people can feel emotions from reading people’s  updates.

∙ News feeds are often filtered because too many people post too much. ∙ If there are questions about specific data from this article there is a lot on  page 2 of this reading, however I do not believe it will be very important. The  experiment and numbers mean that there is proof of the Facebook Emotional  Contagion.  

∙ The basic results were that when there is less positivity in someone’s  newsfeed their status had more negative words, but when there are less  negatives in their newsfeed then they make posts with more positive words. ∙ Contagion is not made to influence someone on purpose.

∙ People who did not see many emotional posts neither negative nor positive  did not post emotional updates either.

∙ This can also effect people offline in the same way.

“Is social media a tool of expression or trouble for business”

∙ Yes (by Christopher E. Parker): There is a problem with people, especially  employees, can feel a false sense of security online. The Stored  Communication Act protects people’s privacy of stored Internet  communications. The Fair Credit Reporting Act says that an employer must  have the consent of an applicant or employee before they can as for a  “consumer reporting agency” or before a third part can conduct a  background check, but it does not protect employees from employers looking  at social networking sites. The risks of an employer looking at social  networking is that they might find out things which they are not allowed to  ask an applicant or employee about. Employers must be careful because  employees can post about confidential information from the company, and if  the employee says something that is false the company can be at risk of  being sued. It can be tricky for employers to deal with an employee who is  posting dissatisfying things because of the first amendment and other laws.

∙ No (by David L. Barron): Employers need to be very careful when there are  problems in the office, and take accounts of online harassment just as  seriously as in person. Some posts are protected activity according to the  National Labor Relations Board.

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