SPAU 3304: FINAL Exam Review
SPAU 3304: FINAL Exam Review SPAU 3304
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kimberly Notetaker on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to SPAU 3304 at University of Texas at Dallas taught by Dr. Garst in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 139 views. For similar materials see Communication Sciences in Linguistics and Speech Pathology at University of Texas at Dallas.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
SECTION 1 Acoustics: the study of sound What is sound, how is sound produced, how sound travels, sound’s effects of objects Speech is continuously changing stream of sound Compression, rarefaction » Compression (including pressure during compression) o An area of greater/higher pressure (closer together; darker) » First step that happens during displacement » Rarefaction (including pressure during rarefaction) o Area of lower pressure (more spread apart) Pure tone, sine wave, complex wave » Pure tone o Some objects vibrate best at only a single frequency = pure tone Ex: tuning fork, pendulum o Simple Harmonic Motion = pure tone Pure tone vibrates at single frequency Plotted as a “simple wave” Easy to produce and control » Complex Waves Descriptions: Periodic (or Complex Periodic Waves) o Periodic = repetition of pattern, equal spacing and constant shape o Ex: bell, piano, horn and voice (almost) o Frequencies in the complex wave are mathematically related (i.e., Harmonic Series) Aperiodic (or Complex Aperiodic Waves) o Component sine waves are NOT related o NO fundamental frequency o NO harmonics o NO equal spacing or consistent shape Frequency » Frequency is a measurement (of a sine wave) » Property of the wave is perceived as pitch by the listener » Pitch is called the “perceptual correlate” of frequency » For example: a 100 Hz pure tone is perceived as lower in pitch than 1000 Hz » Frequency = c/wavelength Relationship of Period and Frequency: 1. Period (t) o Period = time required for each cycle (measure of time) o Usually in milliseconds (but could also be in seconds) 2. Frequency (Hz) = cycles per second o Number of cycles occurring in a given time frame o Usually 1 second o “cycles per second” or Hertz (Hz) **Inverse relationship between frequency and period** Wavelength » Distance traveled during one cycle of vibration (peak-to-peak) » ( = lambda) = distance traveled in meters/second » Wavelength is inversely related to frequency » Dependent upon frequency and speed of sound » Wavelength = c/freq Speed of Sound (in Different Mediums): Not dependent on frequency or wavelength Speed of Sound is determined by: o Density of the medium (the more dense, the faster) o Phase of the medium (solid has a speed of sound faster than a liquid) Elasticity Solids transmit sound energy faster than fluids o Temperature & Pressure Intensity Intensity as Amplitude of Vibration o What is meant by “directly proportional”? Intensity increases more rapidly than the amplitude Intensity increases as the square of the amplitude Amplitude vs. Intensity Doubles Quadruples (2^2) ↑ by factor of 6 ↑ by factor of 36 (6^2) o Do not measure the absolute value of intensity of a sound o Rather, measure intensity as the relative power of one sound to another. Units to describe intensity: (Pa, watts/m^2) Amplitude (spatial concept): » Maximal displacement of particles of a medium o Larger the amplitude, the greater the particle displacement Amplitude is the degree of change in pressure (compression and rarefaction of air molecules) Amplitude describes the amount of energy, or power, that is transferred from one particle to another. Can be measured in Pascal (Pa) or micropascals ( Pa) The magnitude of vibration (amplitude) determines the intensity or energy of the sound. Decibels (Intensity level, sound pressure level, hearing level, sensation level) Key Points: 1. Sound magnitude can be expressed in: a. Intensity b. Pressure 2. Both (intensity/pressure) can be converted to decibels which help quantify sound 3. dB is NOT an absolute unit a. Ratio of 2 quantities (Source/Threshold (ref. value)) 4. dB system is NOT linear 5. The reference value for the log ratio depends on the application (dB IL vs. dB SPL) 6. Human Auditory System can respond to range of 0 – 120 dB) 7. 0 dB does not represent absence of sound, just < human auditory system can detect. Fundamental frequency » Also known as the 1 “harmonic” (loudest intensity) Harmonics Series o Fundamental Frequency = Frequency of lowest component of the wave o Also, known as the First Harmonic o The frequency relationship of components making up a complex periodic wave o Each sinusoid in the series is an integer multiple of the lowest frequency Ex: What is the harmonic series of a complex wave with T = 8ms; and a o = 125 Hz What are the frequencies of the first 5 harmonics? Spectrum vs. waveform Waveform: o Time domain (height of wave) Spectrum: o Frequency domain (amplitude by length of line) o Intensity level drops by length of line Noise: White Noise: o Dsds o Dsdsds Pink Noise: o Less high frequency energy o 3 dB loss per octave Sound propagation o Compression = peak/crest; max displacement/high pressure o Rarefaction = valley/trough At one moment in time (imagine 3D) During sound, motion is propagated away from source. Sound travels as a longitudinal wave. Physical vs Perceptual (Descriptions of Sound) Frequency “Pitch” Intensity/Amplitude “Loudness” Duration “Length” Constructive/destructive interference Constructive Interference o Compression meet compressions o Overlapping waves are in-phase o Larger amplitude/intensity that either wave individually Destructive Interference o Compression meets rarefactions o Out-of-phase o Reduction in amplitude/intensity SECTION 2 Location of energy changes: (OUTER) (MIDDLE) (INNER) Acoustic Energy Mechanical Energy Electrochemical Energy Sounds (physical) Conducted “Sensed” Interpreted Outer ear o Pinna (acts as a resonator) » “Funneling” effect of pinna » Resonance 5000 – 6000 Hz range » If no pinna, would drop ~10dB o External auditory meatus » Portions: o Outer 1/3 cartilaginous with cilia and glands o Inner 2/3 bony, thin skin » 25 – 35mm long, 7mm diameter » “S”-shaped (develops with age) **The top of the TM does not line-up with bottom (Therefore, EAM longer on the bottom) o Embryology » Develop of Pinna begins about 6wks gestation » Adult-like shape at 20wks o Auditory and non-auditory roles » Non-Auditory Functions: o Keep ear canal clean (cilia clean dust, insects, etc.) o Skin lining, growth outward o Glands in skin secrete cerumen: 1) Water repellent 2) Protect from insects » Auditory Functions: o Acoustics and Resonance Resonance in a Tube: Sound quality changes with length of tube EAM 1 – 1.5 inches Resonance of closed tube = 4x length Result of resonance equals a gain in 2500 – 4000 Hz Enhances mid-frequencies (acts as a band-pass filter) o Resonances of the outer ear » Concha resonant frequency about 5,000 Hz » EAM resonant frequency about 2,500 – 4,000 Hz » Together produce a gain in acoustic pressure at around 2,500 to 5,000 Hz » Amplifying most important sounds for speech recognition o Functions of the Outer Ear: 1. Acts as a resonator 2. Protects the TM 3. Sound localization Middle ear anatomy – tympanic membrane, ossicles, EU tube o Auditory and non-auditory roles (including impedance mismatch definition and methods of regaining; surface area ratio and ossicular lever) o Non-auditory: (Eustachian Tube) Provides ventilation Pressure changes Drainage o Auditory: 1. SOUND TRANSMISSION » Acoustic to Mechanical Energy o Sound travels via the ossicles across the middle ear cavity 2. IMPEDANCE MISMATCH (how sound travels when there’s a change in mediums; change in impedance) » Impedance = resistance to sound transmission » Occurs with change in the medium (air, liquid) » Change in medium in auditory system: o Middle ear = air o Inner ear = fluid » Fluid (of the inner ear) is denser than air o Said to have “more impedance” or greater resistance » Ossicular chain serves to overcome impedance mismatch between air and fluid (in cochlea) Regains Intensity Lost in IM (via 2 methods) a. Surface Area Ratio Surface area of tympanic membrane compared to the oval window (higher pressure at the oval window) Tympanic membrane 17.3** (21 – 15x depending on source) times larger than the oval window P (pressure) = F (force) / A (area) Force from the TM is transferred to the stapes footplate, Increase in energy per unit of area Take home: greater sound pressure concentrated at the oval window due to the area ratio. b. Ossicular Lever (ossicles act as a lever) This lever action increases force of the system. Mechanical advantage o Malleus (1.3x longer than incus) and incus move as a unit o Force applied to the malleus is 1.3 times at the incus o Lever action even if bent 3. ACOUSTIC REFLEX » Muscles of middle ear in constant tension » With acoustic reflex they exert an increased pull » Sounds above 80 dB SL » Reduces about 10 – 30 dB » Greatest for low frequency sounds (below 1000 Hz) o Not helpful for high intensity, high freq. sounds » Reflex occurs within 10 – 150 msec for high intensity sounds. o Not true for one time sound (like a gun shot) Inner ear anatomy – cochlea, organ of Corti (OHC, IHC) Basilar membrane – tonotopic organization TONAL TOPIC ORGANIZATION (where along the cochlea we’re going to have vibrations) » High frequency and low frequency sounds vibrate at different places along the basilar membrane Mass and Stiffness Gradient of Basilar Membrane Apex vs. Base Wider (5x as wide) Narrow Flaccid Stiffer Vibrates w/ lower frequencies Higher frequencies Greater mass Spiral lamina & Spiral ligament span larger at base Outer hair cell motility ACTIVE RESPONSE // Active Mechanism of the Outer Hair Cells (How OHC affect Inner Hair Cells) Called an “Active” mechanism because of OHC expansion/contraction AKA Outer Hair Cell Motility (active mechanism) o When cilia shear toward the stria vascularis o The OHC shrink and become fatter as K + Ca enter the cell (very little space in between) o When cilia move toward modiolus OHC become taller and thinner As potassium and calcium leave the cell o OHC movement accentuates tectorial membrane movement OHC Motility Affects the IHC o Increased fluid movement may help deflect the IHC cilia. o Tectorial membrane can also be pulled downward enough to deflect IHC cilia. o Even with low intensity sounds ((gain from the active mechanism)) Primary auditory cortex Binaural hearing » Two ears: (binaural hearing); needed to locate hearing OAE and ABR o Otoacoustic Emissions (OAE): measures an “echo” response from the OHC to the cochlea Elicited by a click stimuli Middle frequencies (can’t adjust intensity) o Auditory Brainstem Response: electrodes measure a neural response from brainstem and CN VIII Evoked potential of the auditory system (afferent) Role of resonance in hearing o Resonances of the outer ear » Concha resonant frequency about 5,000 Hz » EAM resonant frequency about 2,500 – 4,000 Hz » Together produce a gain in acoustic pressure at around 2,500 to 5,000 Hz » Amplifying most important sounds for speech recognition SECTION 3 Pleural linkage – structure slide, but are bound together, (expanding the lungs) Rib cage movement » Upper ribs move in “pump-handle” motion o Primarily front and upward displacement o Small lateral displacement » Lower ribs move in “bucket-handle” motion o Front and upward displacement and lateral displacement Muscles of inhalation, accessory muscles of inhalation (as a category, not individual muscles) Muscles of Tidal Inhalation: 1) Diaphragm – primary muscle! » Contraction (of the diaphragm) pulls ribcage down and forward Take home: changing the thoracic cavity size 2) External Intercostals (start closer to the vertebrae) » Thin muscle sheet between adjacent ribs » Connects bony portion of ribs, but NOT cartilaginous section near sternum » Contraction moves ribs upward 3) Some portion of Internal Intercostals » Interchondral internal intercostals **Primary function of internal intercostals is for exhalation Expiration: tidal/passive vs. forced TIDAL EXHALATION (no muscles involved!) o PASSIVE: Requires no muscle forces Energy in stretched elastic tissue of lungs is released Elastic recoil forces: I. Pull of gravity II. Muscle relaxation (including diaphragm) III. Tissue elasticity o Diaphragm and external intercostals relax + elastic recoil = o Lungs and thoracic cavity decrease in volume o Air rushes out **Note: Exhalation is passive in tidal breathing. FORCED EXHALATION o Grouping of muscles referred to as accessory muscles of exhalation Back Neck Shoulders Abdomen Pressure changes involved in respiration Obstructive and restrictive lung diseases Obstructive Respiratory Diseases o Inspired air is obstructed from the respiratory membrane (not getting to the alveoli) Obstructed gas exchange (reduced oxygen supply) Respiratory pump works harder (because it’s not as efficient as getting air to the RM) Breathe faster and work harder o Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD): group of lung diseases Chronic bronchitis: Inflammation of lining of bronchial tubes Emphysema: alveoli and capillary destruction (tend to be very thin people since working so hard) Restrictive Respiratory Diseases o Airflow or volume is mechanically restricted Gas-exchange is intact Patient cannot inhale sufficient volume Restricts lung inflation o Pneumothorax: destruction of intrapleural vacuum holding lung open o Pulmonary fibrosis: Results in tough, leathery segments Reduced Total Lung Capacity Preserved airflow and resistance **Parkinson’s and Cerebral Palsy can also apply Phonation definition » Phonation: (focusing on the Source) o Phonation = process of producing voicing o A key source of sound o Small puffs of air that result in sound wave traveling up vocal tract Larynx anatomy – cartilages and bone Glottal vs. supraglottal and periodic vs. aperiodic » Periodic (quasi-periodic), complex o Glottal Sound Sound at the level of the larynx Complex (quasi) periodic signal from vocal fold vibration Bernoulli effect o Gas or liquid flowing through a constricted passage, has increased velocity. o Causes a decrease in the pressure of the inner sides of the constriction. What does this mean? o Recall: VF tissue is pliable o Air streaming up from lungs passes between VF o Lowers air pressure flowing through the glottis. o Brings VF toward each other **Aerodynamics allows for the vibration of the VF Vertical phasing of vocal folds **Ps forces vocal folds apart in “wave-like” motion Vertical phasing » In addition to vertical phasing… » Also, anterior-posterior phasing Myoelastic Aerodynamic Theory of Phonation Myo-: muscles adduct vocal folds, establish levels of tension and elasticity Elasticity: allows vocal folds to stretch and return in each cycle (recoil) Aerodynamic: subglottal pressure from the lungs which drives vibration Physical (especially aerodynamic): forces set the vocal folds into motion in each cycle » Johaness Mueller (1858), » Janwillem van den Berg (1958) » Pulmonic air = Active force » Vocal Folds = Passive actors o Do not have nerve impulses for each vibration Cover-body model of the vocal folds Cover: o Mucous membrane o Least stiff Body: o Mostly muscle o More stiff Cover and Body have different vibratory properties. Intrinsic laryngeal muscles determine how tightly the body and cover are connected. (correlates to pitch changes) SECTION 4 Waveform vs. spectrum vs. spectrogram What do they display, uses, etc. Source-Filter Theory of Speech Production Including independence of source/filter, source periodicity 1. Nearly Periodic Complex Waves (fundamental frequency w/ harmonics on top of it) » Source = vocal fold vibration » All vowels, many consonants **a /v/ sound would use both 1 & 2 2. Continuous Aperiodic Waves » Source = turbulent flow through a supraglottal constriction (noise) » Many consonants, such as /s/, /f/ 3. Transient Aperiodic Waves » Source = rapid pressure change » Some consonants such as /p/, /b/ Laryngeal source: Vibration rate determines fundamental frequency and harmonics Supraglottic source: Supraglottal cavities are shaped by articulators Resonance of the vocal tract: specifies the vowel How resonances appear in graphic form - Each resonant pattern is a standing wave = FORMANT Vowels vs. consonants Vowels: o Produced by relatively free air passage o Through the larynx and oral cavity o Nucleus of a syllable Consonants: o One (or more) areas of vocal tract narrowed by some degree of constriction (partial or complete) Vowel variations across speakers » Relative patterns of formant values are consistent across speakers » Absolute formant values vary across speakers: o Overall vocal-tract length differences o Parts of the vocal tract may differ in size (ex: pharynx) o Dialect and idiolect differences Relationships of resonating cavities & volume(s) of air - First formant (F1) related to: o Volume of pharyngeal cavity o Influenced by tongue height - Second formant (F2) related to: o Length of oral cavity o Influenced by tongue backing F1 Rule – inversely related to jaw height. » As the jaw goes down, F1 goes up. F2 Rule – Directly related to tongue fronting. » As the tongue moves forward, F2 increases. Lip Rounding Rule – ALL formants are lowered by lip rounding (because lip protrusion lengthens the vocal tract “tube”) Vocal tract function as a resonator Ways to think about Resonating Cavities o Modeled as two tubes: Pharyngeal Cavity Oral Cavity Larger Resonating Spaces = lower formant frequency Longer Vocal Tract “tube” = lower formant frequency Potential sources of sound in consonants Consonants (Stops and Fricatives) o One or more areas of relative constriction of the vocal tract Source of Sound: o Voiced o Turbulent airflow Coarticulation: anticipatory & retentive - Any sound is influenced by the phoneme immediately preceding and following it (or coming up) - Coarticulation = Simultaneously articulating more one phoneme. o Anticipatory (forward) Coarticulation Ex: “Sue”; already rounding lips for the “oo” during the “s” o Retentive (backward) Coarticulation Ex: “Toots”; /s/ produced with lip rounding left over from the “oo” Phonetic descriptions of consonants (place, manner, voicing) Place of articulation where the constriction happens o Bilabial (lips come together) o Tongue + fixed point of articulation o Pharynx/glottis (“h”); that turbulence sound Manner of articulation // Manner of airflow describes the flow of air o Complete vs. Transient Cessation of airflow o Constriction with continuous airflow Voicing o Voiced or unvoiced Acoustic descriptions of consonant manners I. Silence (Stop Gap) **be able to ID in spectrogram » Occlusion to release (pretty close to a straight line) » Voiceless stops: Complete silence » Voiced stops: Varying amount of silence » Low amplitude voicing (close to bottom of spectrogram) o Voiced bar on spectrogram II. Release Burst **be able to ID in spectrogram » Burst noise as blocked air is released » 10 – 30ms for voiced stops slightly longer for voiceless cognates » Sudden change in amplitude » Release of voiceless stops noted with aspiration III. Aspiration (Coarticulation effect) » Brief hiss of air (shaded area after a burst) » Sometimes after voiceless stops (not after voiced) » Won’t see after s-clusters IV. Voice Onset Time = time from release of the stop closure to onset of voicing. How do we hear voiced vs. unvoiced stops at the beginning of words? (bat vs. pat) » Depends upon the VOT Can be variable. o Pre-voicing: voicing begins just before release o Simultaneous: voicing begins on release o Voicing begins AFTER air is released Short-Lag vs. Long-Lag time <20ms = voiced >25ms = voiceless Syllable initial stops are perceived as voiced for » Pre-voiced » Simultaneous » Short-Lag VOT Syllable initial stops are perceived as voiceless for » Long-Lag VOT Suprasementals – definition - Features of the utterance that are not defined by the individual speech sounds (beyond the phoneme) - BUT can carry meaning **They don’t change the distinctive phonological quality, but can change utterance meaning. Pitch contour, Duration, Stress // Suprasegmentals (Prosody): 3 Components 1) Pitch Contour (tone/intonation contour) Multiple levels of 0 contours within an utterance Reflects changes in f0over an utterance Provides information on speaker affect Can differentiate questions versus statements Pitch Contour for Statement vs, Question o Statement: Falling intonation (but can also stay stable) o Question: Rising intonation Questions may have different pitch contours o Yes/No questions: Rising intonation o Wh- questions: Dropping intonation pattern Statements may have different pitch contours depending on their meaning… o Angry: Falling intonation o Disbelief: Both falling/rising o Uncertain: Rising intonation F 0Declination: Tendency for F 0 to decrease over the course of an utterance Individual syllables may receive a slight upward inflection 2) Duration Length of phonemes o Used to distinguish between syllables Examples: » Flap-tap duration (pretty, patio, saddle) » Diphthongs longer » Lax vowels shorter » Phase – Final Position 2 syllable “tomorrow” lengthened “Tomorrow I’ll go” vs. “I’ll go tomorrow” Juncture (duration between syllables) o Used to distinguish between the words in an utterance; your pauses 3) Stress The amount of emphasis placed on a segment for purposes of conveying meaning Relative depends how syllables relate to nearby syllables o F0 (pitch) – usually higher o Intensity (loudness) – usually greater o Duration – usually longer Lexical Stress: o Stress patterns in words: » Ex: unicorn, immediate » Varies between nouns and verbs in English For example, digest (noun) vs. digest (verb) Compound Noun vs. Adj + Noun Stress Contrast “black board” vs. “blackboard” (less of a juncture + initial stress) Sentential Stress: o Emphasizes words in sentences: Is that your red book? (not the green one) Contrastive Stress: o Emphasizes normally weak syllable to clarify a contrast: Receive, not deceive; abduct, not adduct Physiology Measures of Articulation Used to Measure Articulation - Acoustic vs. Physiological Measures o Acoustic analysis evaluates speech signal o Other methods can describe articulator movement Examples of Physiology Measures: o X-ray microbeam o Electromagnetic midsagittal articulograph o Optoelectric Tracking o Strain gauge o EPG
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