Final Exam Study Guide/Answer Key
Final Exam Study Guide/Answer Key NTRI 2000-002
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kaylen Taylor on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to NTRI 2000-002 at Auburn University taught by Michael Winand Greene in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 129 views. For similar materials see Nutrition and Health in Nutrition and Food Sciences at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
Nutrition 2000 Final Exam Study Guide Tips: Review all notes and study guides. Eat properly. Small meals and snacks really go a long way when studying. Get some sleep. It’s tempting to pull an all-nighter but your body will hate you for it. STUDY, STUDY, STUDY! Note: This study guide isn’t going to be super long like the ones for the previous exams. I made this based off of the number of questions he said we would have on each section. Therefore, it is crucial that you take the time to go over any and all notes and study guides you may have. Good luck! 1. What are the macronutrients and micronutrients? 2. How many grams of energy are given off for carbs, fats, and proteins? 3. What is alcohol? Does it yield any energy? If so, how much? 4. How do we measure nutrients? 5. What are the top three causes of death? 6. What are the five major food groups? 7. What do nutrients help the body do? 8. List the four steps to avoid weight gain. 9. What are the states of nutritional health? 10. List the five assessments of nutritional health. 11. How does blood flow? 12. What are carbohydrates the main fuel source for? 13. Where is the adrenal gland located and what does it do? 14. What are the health benefits of adequate fiber? 15. What are the types of lipids? 16. What do all lipids have in common? 17. What is the main storage form of lipids in the body? 18. What are the essential fatty acids? What are their functions? 19. What are the fatty acid forms? 20. What is the functions of phospholipids? 21. What are sterols? 22. What are the transport vehicles for lipids? 23. List the four classes of lipoproteins and their functions. 24. Where are lipids stored? 25. What are the desirable levels for lipids? 26. How many amino acids do we have in our bodies? How many are essential and how many are nonessential? 27. List all the vitamins. Distinguish the fat soluble from the water soluble. 28. What are the general functions of proteins? 29. What is the amino acid structure? What makes an amino acid unique? 30. How can a protein be denatured? 31. What does the hormone CCK do? 32. How are amino acids absorbed? 33. How are amino acids used in the liver? 34. What are the functions of proteins in the body? 35. What is the RDA for proteins? 36. What are vitamins? Do they produce energy? 37. What are the functions of vitamins? 38. List the functions of each vitamin. 39. What are the functions of water? 40. What are the major minerals? List them and their functions. 41. What are the trace minerals? List their functions. 42. What are physical activity and exercise? 43. What are the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines? 44. What are the types of activities? 45. What type of energy is required for muscle work? How is it generated? 46. What are the differences between aerobic and anaerobic glycolysis? 47. What are the five weight classifications? What methods do we use to assess them? 48. What are the factors that increase a person’s BMR? 49. What is the energy balance? 50. What are the methods for measuring body fat? 51. What is Nature vs. Nurture? 52. What are the popular diet approaches and their concerns? 53. Why is there so much interest in the Mediterranean diet? 54. What are the different types of olive oils? How are they classified? 55. What were the two landmark Mediterranean diet studies? 56. What are the Blue Zones? 57. What is common to all of those blue zones? Final Exam Study Guide ANSWER KEY 1. Macronutrients: Water, Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins. Micronutrients: Vitamins and Minerals. 2. Carbs: 4 grams Fats: 9 grams Proteins: 4 grams 3. Alcohol is a toxin but it yields 7 grams of energy. 4. We measure nutrients in kilograms. 5. Cardiovascular disease, Cancer, and Lung disease. 6. Dairy, Protein, Grains, Fruits and Veggies 7. Provide energy, act as building blocks to support growth, and help maintain and repair the body. 8. Eating breakfast, planning ahead, limiting liquid calories, and stocking healthier food choices. 9. Over nutrition, undernutrition and desirable nutrition. 10. Anthrometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary and environmental. 11. Artery Capillary Vein 12. Brain, nerve cells, red blood cells, and muscles. 13. On top of the kidneys; Releases epinephrine to cause quick conversion of glycogen to glucose. 14. Adds mass to feces, aid in weight control, and reduce cancer risks. 15. Triglycerides, phospholipids, and sterols. 16. Made of organic molecules and they are not miscible in water. 17. Triglycerides 18. Omega-3: Decrease blood clotting, reduced heart attack risk, and decrease chronic inflammation Omega-6: Helps with immune system function, helps with vision, helps form cell membranes, and helps produce eicosanoids. 19. Saturated Fatty Acids: Usually solid Unsaturated Fatty Acids: Usually in a liquid form, comes in cis and trans forms also. 20. Phospholipids form part of the cell membrane, is a component of bile, and an important emulsifier of fats in cooking. 21. Sterols (Also known as cholesterol) are a lipid that’s only found in animal products. They function in bile, bile acids, the cell membrane, and are necessary in the production of steroid hormones. 22. Lipoproteins 23. Chylomicrons: A large particle that carries dietary lipid; Carries triglycerides straight from the liver. VLDL: Carries lipids from the liver to the tissues. LDL: Transports cholesterol to tissues. HDL: Picks up cholesterol from dying and other cells and transfers it to other lipoproteins; delivers the cholesterol to the liver. 24. In the adipose tissue; White fat has a large storage capacity for triglycerides, brown fat has a lot of mitochondria to produce energy. 25. Optimal /Desirable Levels: Low LDL-C: < 100 mg/dL High HDL-C: > 60 mg/dL Low total cholesterol: < 200 mg/dL Low TG's: <150 mg/dL 26. 20 amino acids in the body; Nine are essential and eleven are nonessential. 27. Fat Soluble: A, D, E, K Water Soluble: B, C 28. Proteins regulates and maintains body functions and provides an essential form of nitrogen. 29. An amino acid is one central carbon surrounded by an acid group, an amino group, some sort of side group, and hydrogen. The side group in the amino acid is what makes it unique. 30. Proteins can be denatured by heat, strong acid, bases, heavy metals. 31. CCK is a hormone that stimulates the release of pancreatic lipase. It also causes the release of proteolytic enzymes that cleave proteins. 32. Amino acids are taken up by the capillaries and taken by the liver by the portal vein. 33. In the liver, amino acids are used as building blocks for liver proteins, broken down for energy, and can be released into the blood and converted to nonessential amino acids, glucose, or fat. 34. Producing vital body structures, maintaining fluid balance, contributing to acid-base balance, forming enzymes and hormones, transport and signaling receptors, immune functions, provides energy, forming glucose, and contributing to satiety. 35. 0.8 grams per kg of body weight. 36. Vitamins are essential organic substances needed in small amounts in the body for normal functions, growth, and maintenance of the body. They yield no energy. 37. Vitamins facilitate energy yielding chemical reactions and function as coenzymes. 38. Vitamin A: Promotes visions, maintains epithelial cells, promotes growth by binding receptors on DNA and increases protein synthesis. Vitamin D: Helps regulate calcium and phosphorus absorption from the intestine, and helps regulates blood calcium levels and bone metabolism. Vitamin E: Acts as a fat-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin K: Vital for blood clotting, activates proteins present in bone, muscle and kidneys to give calcium binding ability to the organs. Vitamin C: Used in the formation of collagen, carnitine, serotonin and norepinephrine, and also used as an antioxidant. Folate: Used as a single carbon supplier/donor, and adds a coenzyme to help form DNA and metabolize various amino acids. Vitamin B6: Needed for the activity on many enzymes, important in amino acid metabolism, necessary in the synthesis of neurotransmitters and hemoglobin synthesis, and is necessary for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin. Vitamin B12: Required to convert folate into its active form and maintains the myelin sheaths that protect neurons. Thiamin (B1): Helps release energy from carbs. Riboflavin and Niacin (B2, B3): Both aid in energy metabolism and both are coenzymes. 39. Water is a solvent for chemical reactions in the body, regulates body temperature, helps remove wastes, and cushions and lubricates the body. 40. Calcium: Regulates transport of ions, maintains blood pressure, essential for muscle contractions, secretion of hormones, enzymes and neurotransmitters and is essential for blood clotting. Sodium: A major positive ion in the extracellular fluid, controls fluid balance between compartments, nerve impulse conduction, and the absorption of glucose. Chloride: An ion of chlorine, a major negative ion for extracellular fluid, and used in producing stomach acid, and during immune response of white blood cells. 41. Iron: Associated with hemoglobin and myoglobin Zinc: Functions in growth, wound healing, sexual maturity, taste perception, and the immune system. Selenium: An indirect antioxidant that works with vitamin E to help protect cell membranes from oxidizing agents. Iodide: Used in the production of the thyroid hormone. Copper: Involved in the metabolism of iron by functioning in the formation of hemoglobin and transport iron. 42. Not synonymous; Physical Activity: Any movement of skeletal muscles that requires energy. Exercise: Physical Activities that are planned, repetitive, and intended to improve physical fitness. 43. At least 150 minutes per week of moderate intensity. Or 75 minutes per week of vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity Or an equivalent combination of moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic activity Episodes of at least 10 minutes, spread throughout the week. For additional and more extensive health benefits, more is better. Adults should also include muscle-strengthening activities that involve all major muscle groups on 2 or more days a week. 44. Moderate Intensity : a. Aerobic activity that increase's heart rate and breathing. (5-6 on RPE scale) b. Brisk walking, dancing, swimming, bicycling (level terrains) Vigorous Intensity : c. Aerobic activity that greatly increases heart's rate and breathing (7-8 on RPE scale) d. Jogging, tennis, swimming, bicycling. Muscle Strengthening e. Activity that increases skeletal muscle strength, power, endurance, and mass. f. Strength training, resistance training, muscle strength and endurance exercises. 45. ATP, and is generated from carbs, fat and proteins. 46. Anaerobic Glycolysis o Limited oxygen -- Intense physical activity o Produces 2 ATP per glucose About 5% of the potential energy from glucose o Replenishes ATP quickly o Not sustainable ATP production 30 seconds to 2 minutes of work o Generates lactate build-up Changes acidity that inhibits glycolytic enzymes Aerobic Glycolysis o Abundant amount of oxygen available o Produces 28 to 30 molecules of ATP o About 95% of the energy potential o Involves a complete breakdown of glucose o Sustainable ATP production 2 to 30 minutes of work o Resists lactate buildup by changing the acidity that inhibits glycolytic enzymes o The type of glycolysis used depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise. 47. Underweight, normal, overweight, obesity, extreme obesity; Assessed by BMI and waist circumference. 48. More lean body mass, larger body surface area, being male -- more lean body mass, body temperature, thyroid hormones, pregnancy, and caffeine and tobacco use. 49. Energy in = Energy Out 50. Underwater weighing, air displacement, bioelectrical impedance, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and skin fold measurement. 51. Genetics vs. Environment when thinking about body weight. 52. Type of diet: Moderate calorie restriction Concern: Getting the appropriate amount of vitamins and minerals. a. Type of diet: Carbohydrate focused i. Concern: Lack of fiber, can lead to ketosis, reduced exercise capacity; excessive fat intake can lead to GI problems and health concerns over saturated fat. b. Type of diet: Low fat i. Concern: Too much fiber intake; poor mineral absorption, increased sugar and salt c. Type of Diet: Novelty Diet (Media) i. Concern: Not nutritionally balanced; difficult to follow long term; unrealistic food choices can lead to binging 53. The health benefits, the healthy aging, and the food taste and freshness. 54. Olive Oil a. Classified based on the breakdown of triglyceride b. Extra Virgin Olive Oil i. Free (<0.8%) acidity, measured as Oleic Acid ii. Produced entirely by mechanical means without the use of solvents and under temperatures that will not degrade the oil. (Less than 86 F) c. Virgin Olive Oil i. Free acidity of not more than 2-3 grams per 100 grams d. Refined Olive Oil i. Is flavorless and odorless ii. Fatty acid content is unchanged Extra Virgin Olive Oil: e. Is it the types of oils or other factors? f. Olives are fruits g. Tocopherols (Vitamin E) h. Phenolic compounds i. Function: i. Powerful antioxidants 55. Seven Countries study and the Preimed study. 56. Areas where people live a really long time. a. Okinawa, Japan: Females are the world's longest lived population (70+) b. Ikaria, Greece: Lowest rates of dementia c. Sardinia, Italy: Highest concentrations of male centenarians d. Nicoya, Costa Rica: Lowest rates of middle age mortality e. Loma Lina, California: Mostly vegetarian, religious community. 57. What's common? a. Moving naturally b. Purpose, Contentment c. Down shift; Managing stress d. 80% rule: Leaving 1/3 of your stomach empty e. Plant Slant: Lots of plants and legumes f. Wine at 5 g. Belong: Attending faith based services h. Loved ones come first i. Living in the right tribe
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