SCOm 121 study guide
SCOm 121 study guide SCOM 121 0003
Popular in Fundamental Human Communications: Presentations
Popular in Communication
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1SCOM Intro to Human Communication Final Exam Study Guide Communication Fundamentals Chapter 1: Competent Communication (how to communicate well with others) 1. What are the most common myths about communication? A myth is a belief that is contradicted by fact. Myth 1: Communication is a cureall (It cant always solve problems) Myth 2: Communicating is just common sense (hindsight biasI knew that already concept) Myth 3: Communication quantity equals quality (just cause you bring up subject a lot doesn’t mean the other person will finally say yes) Linear Sender > Channel(voice, phone) > Receiver Noise problems can occur like distractions, ppl speak diff languages (sematic) Interactional Sender > receiver > feedback Fields of experience add cultural background Transactional Sender/receiver receiver/sender Simultaneously s and r 2. Explain the differences between the three models of communication: linear, interactive, and transactional. Linear one way phenomenon. This involves a sender (initiator and encoder) who sends a message (stimulus that produces meaning) through a channel (medium through which a message travels, such as oral or written) to a receiver (decoder of a message) in an atmosphere of noise (interference with effect transmission and reception of a message). This like a president’s speech. Channel choice affects things. Channel rich is face to face communication. Channel lean is text only. Weakness of linear is that there is no feedback like the receiver doesn’t respond. Interactive ping pong view. Includes feedback. Fields of experience are our cultural background, ethnicity, geographic location, extent of travel, and general personal experiences accumulated over the course of a lifetime. Transactional assumes that people are connected through communication, they engage in a transaction. Both people are senders and receivers. 3. Define the basic communication elements contained in the communication models (channel, sender, receiver, message, encode, decode, context, fields of experience, noise, and feedback). Physical noise startling sounds, reappearance of bellbottom jeans all divert our attention from the message sent by a source. Physiological noise sweaty palms, butterflies in stomach by public speaking can produce dramatic interference on both sender and receivers of messages. Encode (putting an idea into something) an activity that a source goes through to translate thoughts and ideas into a form that may be perceived by the senses. Message actual physical product that the source encodes. Channelsthe ways the message travels to the receiver. Decoding (what you think they are putting into the idea) activities that translate or interpret physical messages into a form that has eventual meaning for a receiver. Receiver target of message/goal. Feedback the receiver’s responses. Noise anything that interferes with the delivery of the message. Semantic noise different ppl have different meaning for the word (soda/pop) Mechanical noise 1 problem with a machine that is being used to assist with communication. (static radio) Environmental noise talking to somebody who is drumming their fingers on the table. 4. Explain the two aspects of every message: Content and relationship. Content: refers to what is actually said and done. Relationship: refers to how that message defines or redefines the association between individuals. Dialogue they go back and forth think about the teacher n student and the test sucked. 5. How do constructive versus destructive communication climates influence relationships? Constructive communication climate: has 2 elements which are pattern of openness (willing ot communicate) and pattern of supportiveness (confirmation of the worth and value of others and a willingness to help other succeed. Destructive communication climate: has 2 elements which are pattern of closedness (unwillingness to communicate with others) and pattern of defensiveness (a protective reaction to a perceived attack on our selfesteem and selfconcept) 6. Define communication competence and describe the skills needed to be an effective and appropriate communicator. C.C Knowledge of the rules: not knowing rules in cultures is embarrassing. Skills showing not just knowing: successful behavior that is repeated is communication skill. Need practice and experience in front of an audience. Sensitivity developing receptive accuracy: is receptive accuracy whereby we can detect, decode and comprehend signals in our social environment. Commitment acquiring a passion for excellence: is a passion for excellence by accepting nothing less than the best that you can be and dedicating urself to achieving that excellence. Ethics determining the right and wrong of communication: it is a system for judging moral correctness by using an agreed upon set of standards to determine what constitutes right and wrong behavior. Treat other the way you want to be treated is a central guiding ethical standard. Also honesty, fairness, choice and responsibility. 7. Explain the role of rules in communication contexts. 8. List the characteristics of an ethical communicator. Chapter 2: Perception of Self and Others 9. Explain the three elements of the perceptual process (selecting, organizing, and interpreting). sensation – the process by which our sense organs that contain sense receptors change physical energy into neural impulses that are sent to our brain. Perception process of selecting, organizing and interpreting sensory data. Selecting intense, novel, repetitive, moving… eyes, ears, smell, touch, taste… determined by sensory limitations and selective attention. Sensory limitations are like our senses like the pitch (low or high a sound is), the amplitude (loudness), and our taste buds and sense of smell (perfume). All of these are lower than most animals so we humans have limits. Selectively attending to stimuli: 1) focusing on specific stimuli 2) screening out other data. (ex: texting n walking or listening to two conversations on a date). Intensity, movement, repetition and contrast draws attention but we focus on it instantly before thinking if we should or not like a scream. Organizing create schemas which are mental frameworks that create meaningful patterns from stimuli. (Prototype, stereotype, and script explained below) Interpreting attributions for behaviors as in the reasons why ppl act the way they do. 10. What is a perceptual schema (prototype, stereotype, and script)? Schema how to make sense of things. 2 Prototype best example of something. (Best boss, ideal relationship) PPl can have two diff type of prototypes for one thing like a date. Stereotype generalization about a group of ppl. Scripts predictable sequence of events that indicates what we are expected to do in a given situation. Like when you get a menu at a restaurant uk what it is and don’t ask what is that? (Restaurant script) 11. Define selfconcept and describe how it is formed (reflected appraisal, significant others, and society). Selfconcept sum total of everything that encompasses the selfreferential term “me”. In other words what leads up to you being the way you are. They can change over time. They can be formed from past experiences like what teachers or relatives used to say you were when you were younger like shy. Body image is an extreme issue for women and men. Selfappraisal is selfesteem. Reflected appraisal messages you receive from others that assess your selfconcept. Significant other self disclosure is more prominent in a relationship because you guys want to know each other more. 12. What are some of the influences on perception (gender, culture, past experiences, mood, and context)? 13. What is selfdisclosure? Selfdisclosure – process of purposely revealing to others personal information about yourself that is significant and other would not know unless you told them. 14. How do depth and breadth of selfdisclosure influence the building of relationships? Depth is how personal you become when discussing a particular subject. Breadth is the range of subjects discussed. This is important because a bf cant be a stranger. 15. What are the rules for constructively and appropriately selfdisclosing and responding to selfdisclosure? Inappropriate when you just want to get it off your chest, when you want to deceive others like use their selfdisclosure against them. Also diff cultures disclosure about certain things. Appropriate if you trust the person its okay but not always. They might hurt you so you have to be willing to be open. Or when both of you share stuff about yourself. You have to think about the setting of the place 16. Why is reciprocal sharing important? Its important because then you feel closer and more comfortable to open up and also if they don’t reciprocate then you have something to worry about. 17. Explain what a selfserving bias is and how it influences our interactions (personal traits, situations). Selfserving bias tendency to attribute our successful behavior to ourselves (personal traits) but to assign external circumstances (situations) to our unsuccessful behavior. Like ppl blame others for like a divorce or the other team when they lose. 18. Explain how our perceptions of others can influence our communication with them (first impressions, primacy effect, negativity bias, attribution error, stereotyping, and self fulfilling prophecy). First impressions you don’t get a second chance. Primary effect tendency to be more influenced by initial information about a person than by information later gathered. it is sometimes accurate like clothes and speaking ability but not accurate when you judge on gut feelings and quick glances. Negative bias influenced more heavily on negative than positive information in the primary effect. when you do a short job interview this is not good because its not accurate. Attribution error overemphasizing situations as causes of other peoples behavior. Like a hobo is a hobo because of his laziness or just bad luck? Id in a relationship one complains 3 about the partner a lot then that partner gets angry and takes it out on ppl at work. This is not a good thing. Stereotyping can be prejudice but a negative kind or positive kind. Benevolent sexism good to embrace women and protect them and show them love. But ppl who believe this think they should pursue a career. Selffulfilling prophecy acting on an erroneous expectation that produces the expected behavior and confirms the original impression. If you think ull get rejected so you don’t smile then you will be rejected. If you think Asians are quiet you will ignore them then they will give up trying to be heard then you will be right but its your fault. 19. Describe the three dimensions related to communicating “empathy.” NOTES from class: YOU ARE A PRODUCT OF INTERACTIONS WITH OTHERS. Selfconcept sense of what thing do I do, and what makes me me. Reflected appraisals We define ourselves by what people think of us. Social comparison through media, social media and “selfie” Self esteem whether or not I feel worried. (Contingency may feel valued for who you but sometimes not valued in other contexts.) (Quick on your feet is good for sports but not in office) Chapter 3: Culture and Gender 20. Define what culture is. 21. Explain how culture influences communication. 22. Define ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism. 23. Explain the major differences between lowcontext and highcontext communication styles. 24. Explain the major differences between individualistic and collectivistic cultures. 25. Explain the major differences between lowpower distance and high powerdistance cultures. 26. Explain the major differences between feminine and masculine cultures. 27. How does culture influence nonverbal communication? Chapter 4: Language (Symbolic means to know and share experience of our external and inner words.) 28. Explain the four elements common to all languages (structure, productivity, displacement, and selfreflexiveness). Structure: a. Need grammar which is the set of rules that specify how the units of language can be meaningfully combined. b. Phonemes individual units of sound that compose a specific spoken language. Ex: vowels, consonant combinations. Some people say “hair” and others say “air” instead. Phonology part of grammar that describes the patterns of sound in a language. c. Morphology part of grammar that describes how morphemes are constructed meaningfully from phonemes. Morpheme smallest unit of meaning in language. Morphemes can be a stand alone word (free morpheme) (EX: walk, for, next, go) or be a unit of meaning that has no meaning until it is attached to the standalone word (bound morpheme). EX: ing, s, ion, unfriend or Facebooking. Example: bat is a free morpheme. When you add –s to the end it is 2 morphemes (one free and one bound). 4 d. Syntax govern combining words into phrases and phrases into sentences. Subjectverbobject is a syntax in English language. e. Semantics the meaning of words and sentences. Basically makes sure the meaning of the sentence makes sense! Symbols are arbitrary representations of objects, events, ideas or relationships. (EX: nyc map) Word origin is arbitrary but word usage is conventional. Why is a table called a table? Referents are the objects, events, ideas or relationships referred to by the words. Problems!!: one word can have multiple meanings like “set.” Productivity: the capacity of language to transform a small number of phonemes into whatever words, phrases, and sentences that you require to communicate your abundance of thoughts and feelings. Basically the idea of combining a bunch of words to makes sentence sot get your point across or express reality! EX: “shoulder” – cold shoulder, shoulder to cry on, chip on shoulder Displacement talk about ideas and events that isn’t real or abstract. Ex: unicorns, fairies, if I were 10 ft tall and 500 lbs would I be considered fat? Selfreflexiveness use language to talk about language. Like this chapter or sing language. 29. Explain the abstracting process (sense experience, description, inference, and judgment). Abstracting process where we formulate increasingly vague conceptions of our world by leaving out details associated with objects events and ideas. 4 levels of abstraction 1. Sense experience you sense experience with the physical world is inherently selective and limited. 2. Description verbal reports that sketch what we perceive from our sense. (ex: description of the world is how you see it not an exact duplicate of it) 3. Inference conclusions about the unknown based on the known. (Educated guess Ex: Neighbor not home because the car is gone) 4. Judgement subjective evaluations of objects, event and ideas. (Ex: your opinion about someone that isn’t a fact.) 30. Explain the two versions of the SapirWhorf hypothesis and their relationship to culture. One that claims we are the prisoners of our native language, unable to think certain thoughts or perceive in certain ways because of the grammatical structure and lexicon (total vocabulary) of our language (linguistic determinism) If you don’t have a word for something you cant use it. Problem: it assumes thought I dependent on language yet we can think without language. Everyone had a time when they couldn’t express something in words. Other claims that the grammar and lexicon of our native language powerfully influence what we see but do not imprison our thinking and perception (linguistic relativity). SO we can think beyond those limitations Masculine generic is using his, he, man in a sentence that could be for both genders. Genderbias language make women invisible and brands them as less powerful and important than men. 31. Explain how connotative meaning differs from denotative meaning. 5 Single reaction immediate response to a term, automatic, emotional response. Semantic response maybe the person didn’t mean what they said. Connotation suggested/personal meaning based on past experiences. There are 3 dimensions: evaluation (good/bad), potency (strong/weak) and activity (active/passive). Denotative Dictionary/shared meaning. Objective meaning of words commonly agreed to by members of a speech community. Example: Rottweiler (Denotative is dictionary definition) but aggressive is the connotation of Rottweiler 32. What is the difference between a fact and an inference? False dichotomy using either or language to frame a choice as though only two opposing possibilities exist when at least a 3 option is clearly available. (black ro white, gay or straight… there is more than just two choices) Inferential error mistaken conclusion that results from the assumption that inferences are factual descriptions of reality instead of interpretations of varying accuracy made by individuals. 33. How might the use of slang, jargon, and euphemisms influence the understanding of a communication message? Jargon vocabulary used for a profession, trade or group. This can help when doctors use proper language to communicate about a patient but this can also cause problem for those who don’t understand the verbal shorthand. Euphemisms form of linguistic Novocain whereby word choices numb us to or camouflage unpleasant or offensive realities. (Basically say things in a nicer way) Like use “pass away” instead of “died” Slang informal words employed by a group with a common interest. NOTES FROM CLASS: Language can shape our experiences and vice versa. Connection between language and thought: What’s the relationship? SapirWhorf hypothesis The Power of Language: Labels (People watch same interview but some were told it was a job applicant interview and the other was a psychiatric patient Language can constrain expectations of ourselves and others. (Hurtful words Condescension and criticism like in a relationship) (Ritual deference safer in plane when the second pilot is in command not first) (Ritual Apologies Framing: Whoever controls language controls how we think about things (people, idea and issues) Frames determine whether people notice, understand and remember problems. Binaries (with us or against us)…. End of life (Death with dignity) (recidivism2 crime) Chapter 5: Nonverbal Communication 34. Explain how nonverbal channels of communication differ from verbal channels. Nonverbal communication Sharing meaning with others nonlingusitically. Nonverbal Verbal 1. Multichannel (shake fist, extend 1. Single channeled (Using different middle finger, and scream) This phrases but getting the same point 6 causes inconsistent messages. across) Channel stays the same 2. Children rely on nonverbal until 2. When children begin to speak they they start speaking rely on verbal like sarcasm. 3. Ambiguous (Unclear) 3) Usually clear but detect lies 4. Has no discrete beginning or end. 4) This has discrete beginning and Continually send messages for endings. We end when we stop talking. others to perceive 5. Can add impact and believability. 5) This can be unintentional like blushing or blinking rapidly Truth bias believing most messages are truthful Lie bias Expect most messages to be deceptive/a lie. 35. Explain how nonverbal communication functions in relationship with verbal communication. Repetition most of the time we verbalize what we want to say then we use nonverbal cues. Ex: Say yes and nod or give directions then point. This increases the clarity and credibility of the message. Accentuation Emphasizes your message. Ex: “Don’t ever say that again. Or pound your fist on the table Substitution Sometime nonverbal cues substitute for verbal messages. EX: a yawn can mean “Im bored.” Or shaking your head means no. Regulation Taking turn speaking by looking at the next person expected to speak. Contradiction this also is mixed messages like sometimes we contradict verbal message with nonverbal cues. 36. Explain the major types of nonverbal communication Haptics: also known as the study of touch. Touch of premature babies proves that they go home 6 says earlier than those who don’t get touched/massaged touch has an impact on emotional health and wellbeing. Functionalprofessional touch least intense and takes place between doctors and patients, coaches and athletes. Social polite touch initial introductions like business relationships or formal occasions like a handshake. Friendship warmth touch most ambiguous type of touch and least to misunderstandings between people. Too much touch is being too friendly but too little touch might makes you seem cold. Love and intimacy touch only for a very few special individuals like close friends family spouses. Sexual touch intimate and most restricted. There are 6 forms of taboo touching: 1. Strangers are the “untouchables” like when you bump someone you say sorry 2. Harmful touches should be avoided children know don’t hit or bite 3. Avoid startling touches a tap on shoulder is something startling. 4. Avoid the interruption touch kiss your partner during an intense movie scene (rejection usually occurs) 5. Don’t move others don’t just move people quickly say “sorry I need to get through” 6. Avoid rub it in wife says “go walk them to the door” then slaps his arm to do it 7 To deal with touch violation: assume the violation is accidental, use descriptive statements to state that you don’t want to be touched that way, uses intense nonverbal cues and a direct firm demand and an apology if it was a mistake. Paralanguage: vocal cues Vocal characterizers laughing, yelling, crying, yawning Vocal qualifiers volume, tone, rhythm, rate Vocal segregates uh, uhhum, shh, ohh Proxemics: influence that distance and territoriality have on our communication. Types of spatial relationships and their characteristics in U.S Culture 1. Intimate close, loving, limited eye contact, touch smell 2. Personal within 4 feet from you, converse with friends, eye contact, gestures 3. Social 412 feet away, business talk, formal tones, eye contact 4. Public 12 feet or more, lectures, speeches, eye contact Territoriality: basically how we use space like status and belonging… predisposition to defend a fixed geographic area or territory as ones exclusive domain. We use markers (fences, keep out signs), barriers to entry (walls, locked doors) and occupancy (same seat in class everyday) to stake out our territory. Environment: environments we are in greatly affect us. Notes: We are never not communicating. NV codes (codetype of NV) A channel through which meaning is communicated There are two sets of NV signals that are especially important for candidates to project: warmth and authority Physical appearance maybe not be intentional… we can control body shape and size, adornment, clothing, hair Kinesics facial expressions… eyes (communicates involvement/interest and pupil dilation or blink rate), facial expressions (display rules, universals like a smile) Gestures use hands. Manipulators (habits like touch hair when you speak), illustrators (help to explain like turn left at the light), emblems (standalone meanings like waving or thumbs up) What we communicated through touch? Or Haptics!! : establishes relationships and can communicate power Paralanguage: vocal/voices, tone, pitch, volume, fillers or segregates (um, like) we communicate when we are silent like as though we are angry. Proxemics use of space… Why important to know about NV? It is multichanneled which causes complexity, it is continuous as opposed to discrete… NV have the ability to glean meaning as we mature and we may communicate things we don’t mean to. LOOK AT NUMBER 34 Connection to verbal… 1. Repetition… verbal and physical when you “sh” and use finger 2. Accentuation… going beyond what we are trying to explain like excitement about going on vacation 3. Substitution… emblem like gesture or wave across room 8 4. Regulation… we lower our pitch so others know we are done speaking 5. Contradiction… like how dress looks on me n he hesitated so you change How do we gain competence in interpreting nonverbal? Universals (same in all cultures) are joy, surprise, contempt, sadness, anger, disgust and fear. Macroexpression anger, sad, happy Microexpression they are so quick (try to hide something from you with slight faciall expression) Emotions and digital devices… technology that can respond to your moods which a woman named it Affectiva. Beauty bias perceived advantage accorded those who are viewed as attractive. Beautiful people are viewed to be sociable, happy, sexy etc. These people also tend to get paid more. Bilateral Symmetry the right and left sides match each other. Waisttohip ratio the smaller the waist is compared to the hip (hourglass shape) the greater the perception of attractiveness. Wedge shape broad shoulders and narrow waist and hips Oculesics eye contact and how it regulates conversational turn taking, communicates involvement and establishes connection with others. Facial feedback hypothesis facial expressions can influence emotions and vice versa. Display rules cultural specific prescriptions that dictate the appropriateness of behaviors Manipulators gestures made by one part of the body usually the hands that rub, pick, squeeze, clean or groom another body part. (People observing manipulators feel nervous and discomfort but at times one might feel relaxed or energized) Illustrators gestures that help explain what a person says to another person. Usually occurs simultaneously with the verbal message but sometimes begin while the speaker is still saying things. EX: Telling a person to turn right then point right Emblems gestures that have precise meanings separate form verbal communication. Ex: hand wave means goodbye. Chapter 6: Listening to Others 37. Define listening by its basic elements (comprehending, retaining, and responding). 38. Define the three types of listening (informational, critical and empathic). 39. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent informational listening (conversational narcissism, competitive interrupting, glazing over, pseudolistening, and ambushing). 40. Explain the problems that can interfere with competent critical listening (skepticism, true belief, and cynicism). 41. Describe the listening response styles associated with empathic listening and non empathic listening. THE ANATOMY OF Small groups: CHAPTER 10: 9 1. Small group 3 or more people interacting for the achievement of some common purpose who influence and are influences by one another. This means it gets complex and something has to unite us. Have to be able to have the ability to influence each other or try to. Objective Right or wrong… (50 state capitals) only one right answer Subjective not a single right answer, choosing best approach 2. BENEFITS OF GROUPS: Synergy (better together), share labor or research, pool knowledge, correct errors, point out flaws in thinking. Creativity tap into ideas, build off one another, push to think outside the box. 3. Challenges of groups: Need reliable knowledge, groups are not islands. Too large of a group can cause conflict and fractions like 3 against 2 ppl Smallest size capable of fulfilling the purposes of the group. 4. NEW RESEARCH: some teams of groups are smarter than others. 5. Factors of the smarter teams: Equal contributions by members. More women not just equal men n women. Women use EQ more Higher EQ emotional intelligence 6. Common group conflicts: Don’t agree on the task Might disagree with the process to go about it Personality conflicts Social loafing 7. Conformity: ppl just agree with the topic This is because people don’t care. Contagion of conforming The Watermans rattle (book) we are face with complex problem so u just fall into the first idea that seems okay. 8. Groups operate at 2 levels simultaneously: Task what we are doing and how we are doing it Relations how we feel about what we are doing 9. Group norms Rules about how group members should interact, behave and perform. These norms or not written down but we don’t know until we do the mistake. (late to class = glare) Explicit stated Implicit implied 10. Group roles specific behaviors expectations of individual members. (formal note taker) (informal task, maintenance roles… like I take notes at first meeting so the group thinks tht I do it for every meeting) 11. Task role help group function most productively 12. Maintenance roles gain and maintain group cohesiveness (comfortable contribute) 13. Need a balance think about what you don’t have and make sure you fill the gap. 14. Class project group but don’t mean a team only a team if we have certain skills like all cooks. Team members: skills, chose for expertise/talents, must work together Best group model teams clear, challenging, cooperative goals… interdependent effort, 3 C’s of motivation (collaboration, content, choice) Identity we (strong group identity like all same colors) 10 Be explicit with one another Clear team roles (no gaps, Clears expectations of Norms, Bring it up the conflict 15. Structure: a form or shape characterized by an interrelationship among its parts. Dyad: two people not a group. Group: to be a group they have to be successful or fail as a whole. Hierarchical meaning that members of the organization will be rank ordered. Upward communication or vertical: messages that flow from subordinates to superordinate’s in an organization. Workers talk to high up bosses (problem) Downward communication: messages that flow from superordinate’s to subordinates in an organization. Higher up bosses talk to workers (problem too) Horizontal communication: messages between individuals with equal power such as office workers in the same department. 16. Task dimension work performed by the group and its impact on the group. Social dimension relationships between group members and the impact these relationships have on the group. 17. Productivity the goal of the task dimension. (how much you accomplish) Cohesiveness goal of the social dimension. (how you accomplish it) 18. Norms rules that indicate what group members have to do (obligation, should do (preference) and may not do (prohibition) if they want to accomplish specific goals. Explicit norms acceptable and unacceptable behavior. (Tell what to do like don’t smoker or when a teachers says dont chew gum or stop interrupting) Implicit norms acceptable or unacceptable behavior that you know what to do. (dress nice to meetings or don’t talk loud in middle of class) these are known. 19. Conformity inclination of group members to think and behave in ways that are consistent with group norms. (Take turns speaking) Negative side of conformity binge drinking like friends influence you or you do it just to fit in. (Diff cultures have diff norms) 20. ROLES patterns of expected behavior associated with parts you play in the group. Formal roles assign a position. (President or secretary) Informal roles identify functions not positions. (the person who always initiates conversation) 3 types of informal roles: a. Task role advance the attainment of group goals. b. Maintenance roleaddress the social dimension of small groups.(want cohesiveness) c. Disruptive roles meoriented. (difficult group member) 21. Role fixation when a members plays a role rigidly with little or no inclination to try other roles, will decrease group effectiveness. 22. Transformational leadership involves change like a leader. (goal to produce positive change that reflect mutual purposes of group members and is largely accomplished through competent communication. Transactional leadership doesn’t involve change so like a manger. Managers have a title, implement policies but don’t change them and just want the job done (efficiency). 23. Elimination so leaders eliminate those who r quiet or don’t seem intelligent. Lieutenant person who promotes him or her for the leader role. NOTES: Popsci.com anything new ***** talk bout how this new invention and how it shapes our lives. SMALL GROUPS not how smart but how well you can work with other people Creating Effective Groups 11 Chapter 11 1. A bad apple is someone who is disruptive and isn’t helpful to the group. 2. Steps to deal with a difficult group member: a. Make certain a cooperative climate has been created in the group. Like everyone respected b. Don’t encourage disruptive behavior. c. Confront the difficult person directly. d. If all else fail remove the disrupter from the group. e. Always be unconditionally constructive. Just because bad apple insults doesn’t mean you do it back. 3. Social Loafing individuals reduce their work effort when they join groups. Miss meetings and show up late or goof off. 4. Social loafing occurs because: a. with a big group size there is S.L. b. individual group members often do not see the connection between their personal effort and the outcomes desired by the group. c. S.L happens in individualist cultures. 5. The three C’s : a. Collaboration the cooperative style of conflict management. (teamwork) b. Content the group task. The task has to be interesting to them to put good work into it. c. Choice A nice complement to content. Let group members choose which part they want. 6. Groups with a lot of diversity in gender and culture tend to perform better. 7. Synergy (together work) this is when the work of group members is far greater and effective than that of an individual’s work. 8. Deep diversity variations among members in skills, knowledge, abilities and beliefs… these groups have greater potential of synergy than groups with little diversity. 9. Negative synergy group member’s produce a result worse than expected. (So really really bad!) 10. Public Speaking Chapter 12: Preparing Speeches NOTES: Rules of public speaking: Know you audience, consider your audience, anticipate the work you will need to do, design for adapt to your audience. To know you audience: Captive, committed, contrary, concerned, casual 42. What are the components of doing an audience analysis, and how is a speech adapted based on those components (demographics, values, beliefs, & attitudes)? Attitude a learned predisposition (tendency) to respond favorably or unfavorably toward some attitude object. Belief what a person thinks is true or probable. Value most deeply felt, generally shared view of what is deemed good, right, worthwhile thinking or behavior. Demographics characteristics like age, gender, culture, ethnicity and group affiliations. FIVE C’S 12 Captive audience (cynical, thinking you are wasting their time) audience listen to you because they have to (compelled) not to expect entertainment. Committed audience (already know their topic and primed for a push to take action) members want to hear you speak Contrary audience (reason for you to slip up in your reasoning or catching your flaws) when you don’t get to choose your audience sometimes you get people who are hostile to you Concerned audience (seeking information) want to learn and are eager to listen Casual audience (willing to give you a few seconds to hook them up) stop out of curiosity to listen to you. 43. How are the preparation and presentation of a speech influenced by audience analysis? Need to know some demographic characteristics: A. shared characteristics b. range of characteristics (age, gender, ethnicity, group affiliations) c. consider you audience Think about the age of your audience, gender, avoid stereotyping, ethnicity/cultures, group affiliations (the speakers). Consider you audience: Making inferences, knowledge, what is important to them, attitudes, values, beliefs Anticipate (the work you need to do as a speaker): a. Offer background/history/context b. Explain unfamiliar concept or concepts c. Establish relevance (why should we care) d. Acknowledge hesitations and concerns e. Use comparisons to things they already know Topic choice important selective from a few of your favorites. 44. Define the general purpose, specific purpose, and central idea in public speaking. FIRST YOU NEED OTHER STUFF BEFORE YOU START: General topic (research on popsi), deiced on a topic General purpose identifies the overall goal of your speech, tells the audience why you’re giving the speech (inform, describe, explain, persuade) Central idea the main concept, point, issue or conclusion that you want your audience to understand. (Begin with the end in mind) Specific purpose concise, precise infinitive phrase composed of simple, clear language that encompasses both the general purpose and central idea and indicated what the speaker hopes to accomplish with the speech. 45. What should be considered when choosing a topic (speaker, subject, occasion, and audience)? Brainstorm ideas, scan for quick topics, make sure the topic is appropriate and suitable for the audience, narrow the topic, and make sure you know the time constraints and the intent of your topic. 46. How does one avoid plagiarism? You need to cite or say where it’s coming from not just one author because that’s still plagiarism if it’s two or more authors. 47. What are the main types of supporting materials used in speeches? a. b. Hypothetical examples (it could happen) describes an imaginary situation, one that is concocted to make a point, illustrate an idea or identify a general principal. 13 Real examples (it did happen) actual occurrences can profoundly move an audience. Brief & extended examples (timing and impact) – detailed story or explanation. c. Statistics (figures for facts) – measures of what is true or factual expressed in numbers. 48. What are the criteria for evaluating supporting material? Supporting materials are Goals that: Clarify points (what do you mean), amplify ideas (attention grabbers) , support claims (how do you know) and gain interest (why should you care deeply) 49. What are the components of a competent presentation body? Topic choice not just choosing an article 50. Identify the organizational pattern used in speeches (topical, spatial, causal, chronological, problemsolution, and Monroe’s Motivated Sequence). GROUP DECISION MAKING (STANDARD AGENDA) Goal “new” Criteria think of ideas Brainstorm Evaluate Decide WAYS GROUPS MAKE DECISION Majority rule Minority rule Consensus Chapter 13: Presenting Speeches 51. What are some guidelines for managing speech anxiety? a. Prepare and practice practice makes you less nervous and never do things last minute b. Gain perspective (rational thinking) 4 phases of speech anxiety: 1) anticipation phase when your symptoms elevate just prior to giving your speech. 2)confrontation phase face the audience and being to speak. Heart beat is fast 3) adaptation phase kicks in a minute into speech. Comfortable with speech in seconds. 4) release stage 60 seconds following speech. c. Communication orientation making your message clear and interesting to your listeners. Don’t try to compete with others. d. Copying statements (rational reappraisal) say “im past the hard part” instead of thinking negative thoughts about yourself e. Positive imagining (visualizing success) imagine yourself giving a clear and fluent speech as you give your speech. f. Relaxation techniques (reducing fight or flight) f or f is physiological symptoms changes activated by a threat where we decide to fight the foe or flee the threat. Deep breathing, smile or move shoulders around can help relax you. g. Systematic desensitization technique used to control anxiety even phobias triggered by stimuli. Anxiety and relaxing cant happen at the same time. Tense your body up and breathe and then read list. 52. What are the critical elements of a competent speech introduction? a. Novelty new/attracts attention. Audiences drawn to new and different things. Tease them in like examples, stories, phrasing or word choice. Choose a creative 14 topic, give unusual examples through speech (antisedative), speak about an unusual story, word phrases in a colorful manor b. Startling appeal (shake up the audience) a startling fact is good cause it shocks audience. c. The vital appeal (meaningfulness) make listeners relate to it or the seriousness of your topic. d. Humorous appeal 9keep them laughing) don’t force humor, use only relevant humor, be sensitive to context, use selfdeprecating humor (gentle fun of ones own failings and limitations) reinforce our shared quirkiness (drink form stress), don’t use offensive humor, be prepared with joke e. Intensity (concentrated stimuli) extreme degree of emotion, though or activity. Intensity is risky because its so alarming but at the same time its good at times. 53. How does a speaker create credibility and identification in an introduction? 4 requirements: a. Gain attention (focusing on your audience) – begin with a clever quotation, use questions like a rhetorical question, begin with a simple visual aid, tell a relevant story or an anecdote (short entertaining story), refer to remarks of introduction (acknowledge your audience) b. Make a clear purpose statement (provide intent) – intense beginning the gay example of him getting beaten c. Establish topic significance (making you audience care) why is this topic important to audience? Relate to them d. Preview the main points (coming attractions) state main point. Establish the credibility of the speaker. Like if I’m talking about dance I should mention I danced my whole life. Credibility is determined by developing your purpose with logic and supporting material throughout the body of your speech. 54. What are the critical elements of a competent speech conclusion? a. Summarize main points b. Refer to the introduction (bookending the speech) if you used a story in your speech reiterate it quick. c. Make a memorable finish (sizzle don’t fizzle) attention grabber like strong quote, rhetorical question, intense statement, moving example/story or humor is good for introduction but also conclusion. 55. How does the oral style of communication differ from a written style? 56. What impact do various delivery considerations have on an audience (eye contact, vocal variety, verbal fluency, poise, dynamism)? a. eye contact be familiar with presentation don’t look at slides either b. Monotone voice tone of voice effects audiences mood. Emotional Contagion they felt happy or sad depending if the speaker was happy or sad. c. Vocal fillers um, hmm, you know what I mean, like. d. Rapid pace (speed speaking) know how fast or low you should be speaking at certain parts of your speech. e. Awkward body movements like hand gestures. Don’t just stand there. f. Distracting behaviors stop clicking the pen. Distractions 57. Explain the differences between the major delivery styles (manuscript, memorized, extemporaneous, and impromptu). Manuscript critical you say every word the way your supposed to say It Memorized 15 Extemporaneous memorize structure of outline and say it diff ways but the meaning is all the same. 24 notecards Impromptu delivered without preparation or so it seems. Respond to previous speaker without warning or say a few words on the spot. Chapter 14: Informative Speaking 58. What distinguishes informative speaking from persuasive speaking? Informative usually no disagreements because the audience is just listening to facts or tips about a subject. Informative speeches have potential to ignite disagreements without prompting. This speech may arouse concern on a subject. If you talk about cars one might go buy it. Informative reports (facts are mentioned, provides recent findings, science reports), explanation (deep understanding of complex concepts, events, objects and issues), demonstrations (shows how to use an object or perform an activity), narratives (storytelling. Great story), comparisons (pros and cons. 59. What are signposts and transitions, and how are they used in constructing a presentation? Signpost guide the listener during a speech. Organizational markers that indicate the structure of the speech and notify listeners that a particular point is about to be addressed. EX: my first point is….. there are two ways…. Transitions connect what was said with what will be said. EX: for example… however… along the same lines… but… 60. Describe the characteristics of an appropriate or effective oral citation. Thinks about the credibility of the article you cite and make it interesting but not pointless to the topic, abbreviate source citations when needed but not when its two articles from the same magazine. Avoid information overload like don’t drown in data and time your speech if its too long cut out information. Tell a good story that’s relatable or funny. 61. What are the types of visual aids that can be used during a speech? Choose an aid that is relatable to your speech and enhances it. They clarify difficult points or descriptions of complex objects. They gain and maintain the audiences attention They enhance the speakers credibility. They improve the delivery. 62. What are guidelines for the competent usage of visual aids? Objects dont be unrealistic like bringing something that’s not for a classroom. Inanimate object that squirm like puppies are hard to control. Models don’t ask an audience member ot help. Chapter 15: Persuasive Speaking 63. Define persuasion. 64. What are the primary dimensions of credibility (competence trustworthiness, dynamism, and composure)? 65. Identify and discuss how the three Aristotelian modes of proof (ethos, logos, and pathos) are used in persuasive speeches. 66. Identify and discuss how propositions of fact, value, and policy are used in persuasive speeches. February 7 2016 Designing speeches 16 Whats an outline? A structure. Compare to a sandwich. Signposts (mayo) Why we outline? 1) outline makes sure what our message is and how to develop it ot the audience. 2)looking at outline can give clues on possible problems or gaps. 6 principals of outlines: Symbols standard formatting Pattern: Roman, Arabic numerals, letter, caps, lowercase Helps you recognize the relative importance. Coherence logical flow the outline should help you audience get the big picture Completeness using full sentences in: Speech purpose Main points Transitions Clarity of ideas Balance sections are equally developed Division if you have an A. you need a one and two under it Relates to symbols Helps you consider density, delivery Organizational Patterns choices? Topically – how student vote with social media Spatial space like you live in bluestone, village or skyline. (Spaceeee) Chronological in order Casual persuasive/ informative (causes of things) Problemsolution – tiny houses for homeless ppl so you begin with wat homeless is, talk about shelter and so on Monroes motivated sequence Ask them at end to do something Types of delivery: You can tell a story to connect things and show meaning Have a conversation anticipated your audience Delivery Gaining attention tone, movement, new, shocking, don’t belong/unusual Which principal would make all sections of outline sufficiently developed… balance (for each main section you equally develop them) Division – if you break something up into parts Symbols a,b,c numbers February 9, 2016 DELIVERYING SPEEECHES: Presenter goals 1. Gain interest 17 2. Be credible show your expertise (from research), show your connections (do you relate to your topic) , have and share credible sources (oral citations, reference list) 3. Support retention organizational patter, structural tools and devices, visual aids 4. Be memorable We try to avoid plagiarism (using words or ideas of other without acknowledgement) Go for balance (cite others. Form your own ideas and express these) What should be included in citations? Author (can be an organization) Date (how recent is this?) Source (location published in journal or article) Oral citation a study by…. Published in 2016 in the journal of, ______fact Author first, yr, title, italics, INDENT AFTER FIRST LINE!!!! REFERNECE LIST: APA FORMAT Signposts/transitions: move from this information to a new idea…. Should be CLEAR “Next I will tell you…”, “the second stage… “ Previews: introduce idea from induction again Review: Conclusion and section why important Visual aids Designed for a particular audience Provide quick visual “data” (graphs, maps, photos Support not repeat message (don’t serve as a speaking notes) Offer a visual hook, cue for memory Guidelines for visuals: Simplicity, consistency Duration visibility (sit in the back of the room and check It out yourself) Be memorable: vocal delivery word choice (parallelism, alliteration, evocative, precise words) nonverbal behaviors personification Dealing with anxiety: identity what you are truly concerned about practice know yourself positive self talk FOCUS ON THE AUDIENCE! 18 Britt Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 3, 6, and 15 will also be tested on the final and the study guide questions below are taken directly from the Final Study Guide.) Chapter 3: Culture and Gender 67. Define what culture is. • Cultural values impact our communication with others • Culture- learned set of enduring values, beliefs, and practices that are shared by an identifiable, large group of people with a common history. 68. Explain how culture influences communication. 69. Define ethnocentrism, cultural relativism, and multiculturalism. Ethnocentrism- The notion that ones own cultures is superior to any other. The way we do things is good and the different way
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