History Exam 4 Study Guide
History Exam 4 Study Guide HIST 1020
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Meagan on Friday April 29, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Tiffany Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/29/16
History Exam 4 Study Guide Holocaust/Genocide Wladyslaw Szpilman (1911-2000) o Polish pianist who survived during the Holocaust finding hiding places in the Warsaw Ghetto Warsaw Ghetto (1940) o District run by the Nazi’s where they held the Jews; located in Poland Warsaw Uprising (April-May 1943) o Jews in Warsaw, Poland staged a revolt against the Nazis because they were against going to extermination camps “Final Solution” o Hitler’s policy which provided the creation of concentration camps for the extermination of Jews Heinrich Himmler (1900-1945) o Hitler’s right hand man; overseer of the entire concentration camp system Auschwitz-Birkenau o Concentration and extermination camp in Poland run by the German Nazi; considered the largest concentration camp Rudolf Höss (1900-1947) st o 1 commandant of Auschwitz; later writes an autobiography asking for forgiveness for his horrible acts during the Holocaust Zyklon B Kapos o Cyanide based pellet which had a bitter almond smell when mixed with oxygen to be activated into a colorless gas; causes death by asphyxiation “Arbeit Macht Frei” o Work gives freedom; the sign on the entrance to the camp, initially the Jews to it as a sign of hope but eventually realized there was no way out Dr. Josef Mengele (1911-1979) o The Angel of Death; experimented on Jews to understand the limits of pain to the human body Nuremberg Trials (1945-1949) o Trials after WWII which prosecuted the Nazis and those involved in the acts done by Germany during the Holocaust Primo Levi (1919-1987) o Italian chemist who survived during the Holocaust and wrote the novel Survival in Auschwitz to share his experience Survival in Auschwitz (1958) o Novel written by Primo Levi which told his account of how he survived in a concentration camp during the holocaust U.S. Foreign Policy and the Cold War Yalta Conference (1945) o Meeting of the Big Three discussing the Crimean Peninsula and Black sea region, German reparations and free election issues Potsdam Conference (1945) o Meeting of the Big Three (Truman replaces Roosevelt) where they divide Germany in to 4 occupation zones (in France, England, USSR, and US); US ignores USSR request for a loan and the domino theory in the East starts to concern US Truman Doctrine (1947) o Articulate the global message of every country has to choose the US or Soviet way of life Marshall Plan (1947) o $13 billion European economic recovery plan that states if a country chooses the US way of life there will be a financial payout Tri-Zone o Zone in Berlin where it is divided into 4 zones (France, England, US, and USSR) the French, English, and American zones start to combine and this is threat to USSR Berlin Air Lift (1949) o Response to the Soviet Blockade where they tried to prevent the tri- zone from having access to their zones; supplies are flown to Berlin daily by American airplanes and eventually the blockade lifts NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization (1949) o The West; those who believe in Democracy; US way Warsaw Pact (1955) o The East; those who believe in Communism; USSR Way Berlin Wall o Built by the soviets to help contain the tri-zone; restricted movement from West to East Domino Effect o If one country falls to communism other countries around may also fall to communism and it just keeps moving to each country Hasta la Victoria Siempre: The Cuban Revolution Fulgencio Batista (r. 1952-1959) o General and eventually President of Cuba, US government is a fan of him because their corporations are interested in investing in the Cuban economy Fidel Castro (b. 1926) o Young Cuban man who feels Batista is selling out and threatening Cuba’s self-determination Moncada Military Barracks o The eastern end of the Island and the location of the failed attack of Castro and his men on July 26 26th of July Movement o Failed attack on this military barrack that killed many people; Castro was arrested and eventually imprisoned “History Will Absolve Me” o Castro says this while standing on trial; while in prison he sends out his message through use of women to gain mass support for his cause “Revolution within the Revolution” o Batista let Castro out of prison and he doesn’t kill him because he doesn’t want him to be a martyr; used women to help silently mobilize Granma o Rundown yacht; make way back to Cuba to stage another attack on the East end of the Island Cuban Revolution (1959-present) o Batista attacks civilian population to stop them from supplying the rebels; these massacres cause the US to withdraw military support; Batista goes into exile and the rebels are victorious Cuban Agrarian Reform Law (1959) o Laws dealing with land ownership/holding; it targets US corporations by taking the land back an compensating them with 25 year bond Expropriation o Seizure of land with compensation Bay of Pigs (1961) o The plan to bring down the Castro government; troops are trained in Nicaragua and invade at Giron beach (southern coast Cuba) to infiltrate and gain mass support; push towards Havana Nikita Khrushchev (1894-1971) o Leader of the Soviet Union who Castro formalized the USSR and Cuban relationship with Cuban Missile Crisis (1962) o Confrontation between the soviet union and the US over the presence of missiles in Cuba Alliance for Progress o Marshal plan for the Americas; use money as a way to stop the spread of communism National Literacy Campaign (1961) o Cuban campaign to teach people to read and write and then have those people to teach others to read and write; it is the model in other Latin American countries and Africa Cuban Family Code (1975) o Reshape the Cuban family by making men and women share household duties (or can get a divorce) and provide day care centers for working mothers Ernesto “Che” Guevara (1928-1967) o Man close to Castro; eventually becomes an abstract rebel for his desire to be a domino pusher for the spread of communism Revolutionary Subjects Awaken the World Somoza Dynasty (r. 1936-1979) o Powerful family who ruled Nicaragua with a corporate and military relationship with the US (Like Batista) Sandinista Front of National Liberation (FSLN) o Young leaders who form this movement in an attempt to topple the Somoza Dynasty Managua Earthquake (1972) o Massive natural disaster that the Sandinistas capitalize off of to show the corruptness of the Somoza dynasty government Daniel Ortega (r. 1985-1990, 2006-present) o One of the students at the University of Nicaragua who participated in the revolution Nicaraguan Agrarian Reform Law (1981) o ½ million acres of land expropriated and nationalize industry (mining) Nicaraguan New Family Laws (1981) o Day care centers for working mothers; men and women share household duties; prohibited use of women’s bodies in commercial advertising; abortion legislation Ronald Reagan (1981-1989) o President of US who deplored Communist Sandinista takeover of Nicaragua Contras (counter-revolutionaries) (1981-1990) o Used to create fear and distrust in the Sandinistas government Iran-Contra Scandal (1986-1987) o US Congress calls for cancellation of US aid to Contras due to horrific human rights abuses; Reagan white house illegally sells arms to Iranian government in exchange for release of American hostages Violeta Chamorro (r. 1990-1997) o US agrees to demobilize Contras and lift economic sanction only if this candidate is elected Globalization and Its Discontents: “We are the Product of 500 Years of Struggle” Zapatista Army of National Liberation (EZLN) o Revolutionary group of indigenous people started in Chiapas because of the removal of article 27 Chiapas, Mexico o Southern-most state in Mexico; indigenous population North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) o Agreement between Canada, US, and Mexico that remove obstacles to free market, encourage foreign investment, and encourage privatization of industry and landholding Article 27 (Mexican Constitution of 1917) o States that lands in Mexico set aside (not available for private purchase) for communally operated land Ejidos (communal lands) o Lands the indigenous population uses Subcomandante Marcos o Leader of the Zapatista military uprising Land or Death! o Zapatistas seize ranches for communal projects since they have no other lands to use; want the re-insertion of article 27 First Declaration from the Lacandon Jungle (1994) o They talk about how they have been the product of 500 years of struggle starting around 1492 Peace and Justice Paramilitary Forces o Mexican ranchers start funding private armies Zapatista Women’s Revolutionary Law (1994) o Main focus is that women have the right to participate in politics in community and hold office if elected democratically and also they have right to choose mate and not forced into contract marriage Postmodern Revolution o Update information on the internet (global audience, creates peace around movements) “Net War” o Internet is a weapon of war and a new battleground
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