EXAMS GUIDE FOR ENGLISH
EXAMS GUIDE FOR ENGLISH ENG 307
CSU - Dominguez hills
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This 51 page Study Guide was uploaded by Akwasi johon on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ENG 307 at California State University - Dominguez Hills taught by R. Hernandez in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 285 views. For similar materials see Practice in Literature Criticism in ENGLISH (ENG) at California State University - Dominguez Hills.
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® The Praxis Study Companion English Language Arts: Content Knowledge 5038 www.ets.org/praxis Welcome to the Praxis®StudyCompanion Welcome to ThePraxis®StudyCompanion Prepare to ShowWhatYou Know You have been working to acquire the knowledge and skills you need for your teaching career. Now you are ready to demonstrate your abilities by taking a Praxis® test. Using ThePraxisSeries®StudyCompanion is a smart way to prepare for the test so you can do your best on test day.This guide can help keep you on track and make the most efficient use of your study time. The Study Companion contains practical information and helpful tools, including: • An overview of the Praxis tests • Specific information on the Praxis test you are taking • A template study plan • Study topics • Practice questions and explanations of correct answers • Test-taking tips and strategies • Frequently asked questions • Links to more detailed information So where should you start? Begin by reviewing this guide in its entirety and note those sections that you need to revisit.Then you can create your own personalized study plan and schedule based on your individual needs and how much time you have before test day. Keep in mind that study habits are individual.There are many different ways to successfully prepare for your test. Some people study better on their own, while others prefer a group dynamic.You may have more energy early in the day, but another test taker may concentrate better in the evening. So use this guide to develop the approach that works best for you. Your teaching career begins with preparation. Good luck! KnowWhat to Expect Which tests should I take? Each state or agency that uses the Praxis tests sets its own requirements for which test or tests you must take for the teaching area you wish to pursue. Before you register for a test, confirm your state or agency’s testing requirwww.ets.org/praxis/states . How are the Praxis tests given? Praxistests are given on computer. Other formats are available for test takers approved for accommodations (see page 44). The Praxis® Study Companion 2 Welcome to the Praxis®StudyCompanion What should I expect when taking the test on computer? When taking the test on computer, you can expect to be asked to provide proper identification at the test center. Once admitted, you will be given the opportunity to learn how the computer interface works (how to answer questions, how to skip questions, how to go back to questions you skipped, etc.) before the testing time begins. Watch theWhat to Expect onTest Day video to see what the experience is like. Where and when are the Praxis tests offered? You can select the test center that is most convenient for you.The Praxis tests are administered through an international network of test centers, which includes Prometric®Testing Centers, some universities, and other locations throughout the world. Testing schedules may differ, so see the PraxisWeb site for more detailed test registration informatwww.at ets.org/praxis/register. The Praxis® Study Companion 3 Table of Contents Table of Contents ThePraxis StudyCompanionguidesyouthroughthestepstosuccess 1. Learn AboutYourTest ........................................................................▯............................5 Learnaboutthespecifictestyouwillbetaking 2. FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions ................................................................... 10 Becomecomfortablewiththetypesofquestionsyou’llfindonthePraxistests 3. Practice with SampleTest Questions ........................................................................▯. 14 Answerpracticequestionsandfindexplanationsforcorrectanswers 4. DetermineYour Strategy for Success........................................................................▯.25 Setcleargoalsanddeadlinessoyourtestpreparationisfocusedandefficient 5. DevelopYour Study Plan........................................................................▯.....................28 Developapersonalizedstudyplanandschedule 6. StudyTopics........................................................................▯......................................... 32 Exploreindetailthecontentthatthistestcovers 7. Review SmartTips for Success........................................................................▯............42 Followtest-takingtipsdevelopedbyexperts 8. Check onTesting Accommodations ........................................................................▯... 44 SeeifyouqualifyforaccommodationsthatmaymakeiteasiertotakethePraxistest 9. DoYour Best onTest Day........................................................................▯.....................45 Getreadyfortestdaysoyouwillbecalmandconfident 10. UnderstandYour Scores........................................................................▯....................47 Understandhowtestsarescoredandhowtointerpretyourtestscores Appendix: Other QuestionsYou May Have ...................................................................49 The Praxis® Study Companion 4 Step 1: Learn AboutYourTest 1. Learn AboutYourTest Learnaboutthespecifictestyouwillbetaking English Language Arts: Content Knowledge (5038) Test at a Glance Test Name English Language Arts: Content Knowledge Test Code 5038 Time 150 minutes Number of Questions 130 selected-response questions Format The test includes single-selection, multiple-choice questions with four options. It also includes some of the following innovative question types: multiple-selection multiple choice, order/match, audio stimulus, table/grid, select in passage, and video stimulus. Test Delivery Computer delivered Approximate Approximate Number of Percentage of Content Categories Questions Examination I. Reading 49 38% II. Language Use andVocabulary 33 25% III I III. Writing, Speaking, and Listening 48 37% II About This Test The English Language Arts: Content Knowledge test measures whether prospective secondary school English Language Arts teachers have the standards-relevant knowledge, skills, and abilities believed necessary for competent professional practice. Aligned with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts, the test measures examinees’skills and knowledge of concepts relevant to three categories: reading, including the study of literature (i.e., stories, drama, and poetry) and informational texts (i.e., literary nonfiction, such as essays, biographies, and speeches); use of the English language, including conventions of standard English and vocabulary development; and writing, speaking, and listening. The 130 selected-response questions will address all of these categories. This test may contain some questions that will not count toward your score. The Praxis® Study Companion 5 Step 1: Learn AboutYourTest Test Specifications 7. Understands how literary elements (e.g., characterization, setting, tone) contribute to the Test specifications describe the knowledge and skills meaning of a text measured by the test. Study topics to help you prepare a. analyze the impact of differences in the points to answer test questions can be found in“6. Study Topics” of view of characters and/or narrators on page 32. b. analyze the structure of a plot I. Reading c. analyze how different elements contribute to A. Literature mood, tone, and conflict 1. Knows major works and authors of United States, d. analyze how particular lines of dialogue or British,World (including non-Western), and story events impact meaning young adult literature e. analyze the text for character development a. identify the authors and titles of major works of 8. Understands how figurative language fiction, poetry, drama, and literary nonfiction contributes to the effect of a text 2. Knows the historical, cultural, and literary a. identify examples of various types of figurative contexts of major works and authors of United language (e.g., extended metaphor, imagery, States, British, andWorld literature hyperbole) a. identify the historical or literary context of b. interpret figurative language in context and major works of fiction, poetry, drama, and analyze its role in the text literary nonfiction 9. Understands how poetic devices and structure 3. Understands the defining characteristics of contribute to the effect of a poem primary literary genres a. identify typical characteristics of a genre a. analyze how poetic devices (e.g., rhyme scheme, rhythm, figurative language) b. apply correct terminology for a genre (e.g., contribute to meaning in a poem stanza versus paragraph) b. analyze how structure (e.g., stanza, free verse, 4. Knows the defining characteristics of major forms concrete poem) contributes to meaning in a within each primary literary genre (e.g., poetry: poem ballad, haiku) 10. Understands how reading strategies (e.g., making a. identify characteristics of major forms within predictions, making connections, summarizing) each genre through distinctions in structure support comprehension and content (e.g., sonnets versus ballads, satire a. identify literacy skills to support active reading versus realism) (e.g., text-to-self connection, prediction, 5. Understands how textual evidence supports summarizing) interpretations of a literary text b. evaluate a summary of a passage a. comprehend the literal and figurative c. evaluate the strength of a prediction based on meanings of a text textual evidence b. draw inferences from a text 11. Knows commonly used research-based strategies c. determine the textual evidence that supports for reading instruction (e.g., activating prior an analysis of a literary text knowledge, modeling metacognitive practices, active reading) 6. Understands how authors develop themes in a variety of genres a. recognize commonly used research-based strategies for teaching reading (e.g., activating a. identify the theme(s) or central idea(s) of a prior knowledge, modeling metacognitive given text practices) b. analyze how a theme or central idea is b. evaluate the effectiveness of specific strategies developed throughout one or more works to support a particular reading task c. recognize universal themes from myths, traditional stories, or religious works and how c. interpret research and apply it to particular they are rendered or alluded to in literary reading instruction challenges works The Praxis® Study Companion 6 Step 1: Learn AboutYourTest 12. Is familiar with various literary theories (e.g., 5. Understands methods that authors use to appeal reader-response, feminist criticism) for to a specific audience interpreting and critiquing literary texts a. identify methods of appeal or persuasion (e.g., a. recognize ways literary theories are used to expert opinion, generalization, testimonial) interpret and critique texts b. evaluate the effectiveness of an author’s B. InformationalTexts and Rhetoric methods of appeal 1. Understands how textual evidence supports c. understand how technical or non-technical interpretations of an informational text language is used to appeal to a targeted a. comprehend literal and figurative meanings of audience an informational text 6. Understands how authors develop and support a b. draw inferences from an informational text written argument c. determine the textual evidence that supports a. evaluate the argument and specific claims in a text an analysis of an informational text 2. Understands how a variety of organizational b. determine an author’s purpose and evaluate an author’s reasoning patterns and text structures can be used to develop a central idea in informational texts c. evaluate whether evidence is relevant, factual, and/or sufficient a. identify the central idea of an informational text d. identify false statements and fallacious reasoning, (e.g., slippery slope, red herring, b. analyze how an author develops or refines a central idea in an informational text straw man, post hoc ergo propter hoc) c. identify the organizational pattern of an 7. Knows how to interpret media and non-print informational text (e.g., problem-solution, texts and how they influence an audience cause-effect, sequence order) a. evaluate multiple sources of information presented in different media or formats d. analyze how ideas are connected and distinguished from one another in an b. determine persuasive techniques used in informational text different media e. identify how text features (e.g., index, glossary, headings, footnotes, visuals) contribute to the II. Language Use andVocabulary central idea of an informational text 1. Understands the conventions of standard English 3. Understands how word choice contributes to the grammar, usage, syntax, and mechanics effect of an informational text a. explain the function of the different parts of a. distinguish between connotation and speech denotation in an informational text b. identify errors in standard English grammar, b. identify how technical language is used in an usage, syntax, and mechanics (e.g., inconsistent informational text verb tense, non-parallel structure, sentence fragments, run-ons) c. distinguish between what the text says explicitly and what may be inferred from the c. justify grammar, usage, syntax, and mechanics text choices (e.g., colon versus semicolon, its versus 4. Understands rhetorical strategies that authors it’s, saw versus seen, etc.) use to convey purpose and perspective in d. identify different components of sentences informational texts (e.g., clauses, phrases) a. determine an author’s point of view or e. identify different structures of sentences (e.g., purpose in an informational text simple, complex, compound) b. analyze how an author uses rhetoric to support point of view and/or purpose in an informational text c. recognize rhetorical strategies (e.g., satire, irony, understatement, hyperbole) The Praxis® Study Companion 7 Step 1: Learn AboutYourTest 2. Understands the use of affixes, context, and 2. Understands how awareness of task, purpose, syntax to determine word meaning and audience contribute to effective writing a. apply knowledge of affixes to determine word a. identify how the task, purpose, or intended meaning audience affects a piece of writing b. use context clues to determine word meaning b. choose the most appropriate type of writing for a task, purpose, and audience c. apply knowledge of syntax to determine word meaning c. evaluate the effectiveness of a piece of writing d. analyze nuances of word meaning and figures for a specific task, purpose, and audience of speech 3. Understands the characteristics of clear and 3. Understands the use of print and digital reference coherent writing (e.g., supporting details, materials to support and enhance language organization, conventions) usage a. identify details that develop a main idea a. determine the most appropriate print or digital b. organize a text clearly and coherently reference material (spell checker, style manual, c. use varied and effective transitions throughout dictionary, glossary) for a particular language a text usage task 4. Is familiar with variations in dialect and diction d. justify stylistic choices within a clear and coherent piece of writing across regions, cultural groups, and time periods a. identify variation in dialect and diction across e. introduce, develop, and conclude a text effectively regions, cultural groups, and time periods 4. Understands effective and ethical research b. understand the concept of dialect and its practices, including evaluating the credibility of appropriateness depending on purpose and multiple print and digital sources, gathering audience relevant information, and citing sources 5. Knows commonly used research-based accurately approaches for supporting language acquisition a. identify relevant information during research and vocabulary development for diverse learners on a given topic a. recognize examples of commonly used b. evaluate the credibility of a print or digital research-based strategies for language source acquisition and vocabulary development c. identify effective research practices (e.g., b. evaluate the effectiveness of specific strategies formulating a question, narrowing or to support language acquisition and broadening a topic, choosing effective vocabulary development sources) c. interpret research and apply it to particular d. identify the components of a citation instructional challenges related to language acquisition and vocabulary development e. cite source material appropriately f. integrate information from source material to III. Writing, Speaking, and Listening maintain the flow of ideas 1. Understands the distinct characteristics of various 5. Understands components of effective speech modes of writing (e.g., informative, and presentation delivery argumentative) a. identify characteristics of effective delivery of a speech or presentation (e.g., eye contact, visual a. distinguish between common modes of aids, tone) writing (e.g., argumentative, informative/ explanatory, narrative) b. evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of b. identify examples of common types within using different media to present ideas modes of writing (e.g., journal, letter, essay, c. determine whether information is presented speech, blog) clearly, concisely, and logically c. determine which mode is the most appropriate for an author’s purpose and audience The Praxis® Study Companion 8 Step 1: Learn AboutYourTest 6. Knows approaches for instructing students on 9. Understands the components of effective oral the effective use of digital media to support and communication in a variety of settings (e.g., enhance communication one-on-one, in groups) a. identify techniques for instructing students to a. identify a variety of techniques (e.g., selecting choose and use technological tools (e.g., age-appropriate topics, facilitating appropriate presentation software, blogs, wikis) for discussion behavior, ensuring accountability) effective communication to ensure productive participation and active b. evaluate the effectiveness of specific listening in collaborative discussions technology-based strategies to achieve b. evaluate the effectiveness of specific strategies enhanced understanding of communication for students initiating and participating goals effectively in discussions 7. Understands commonly used research-based 10. Knows that students bring various perspectives, approaches to teaching components of writing cultures, and backgrounds to reading, writing, listening, and speaking, and how to incorporate a. recognize commonly used research-based strategies (e.g., writing workshop, modeling) that awareness into classroom instruction for teaching components of the writing a. use knowledge of students’individual and process group identities to plan instruction responsive to their needs b. identify research-based strategies for teaching particular writing tasks b. know strategies for creating a safe environment for reading, writing, speaking, c. interpret research and apply it to particular writing instruction challenges and listening to take place 8. Understands purposes and methods of assessing reading, writing, speaking, and listening a. recognize a variety of research-based approaches to and purposes of formative and summative assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and listening (e.g., use of rubrics, conferencing techniques, providing useful feedback) b. evaluate the effectiveness of a variety of research-based approaches to and purposes of formative and summative assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and listening (e.g., use of rubrics, conferencing techniques, providing useful feedback) The Praxis® Study Companion 9 Step 2: FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions 2. FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions Becomecomfortablewiththetypesofquestionsyou’llfindonthePraxistests ThePraxisSeries assessments include a variety of question types: constructed response (for which you write a response of your own); selected response, for which you select one or more answers from a list of choices or make another kind of selection (e.g., by clicking on a sentence in a text or by clicking on part of a graphic); and numeric entry, for which you enter a numeric value in an answer field.You may be familiar with these question formats from taking other standardized tests. If not, familiarize yourself with them so you don’t spend time during the test figuring out how to answer them. Understanding Computer-Delivered Questions Questions on computer-delivered tests are interactive in the sense that you answer by selecting an option or entering text on the screen. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully.The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. For most questions, you respond by clicking an oval to select a single answer from a list of options. However, interactive question types may also ask you to respond by: • Clicking more than one oval to select answers from a list of options. • Typing in an entry box.When the answer is a number, you may be asked to enter a numerical answer. Some questions may have more than one place to enter a response. • Clicking check boxes.You may be asked to click check boxes instead of an oval when more than one choice within a set of answers can be selected. • Clicking parts of a graphic. In some questions, you will select your answers by clicking on a location (or locations) on a graphic such as a map or chart, as opposed to choosing your answer from a list. • Clicking on sentences. In questions with reading passages, you may be asked to choose your answers by clicking on a sentence (or sentences) within the reading passage. • Dragging and dropping answer choices into targets on the screen.You may be asked to select answers from a list of options and drag your answers to the appropriate location in a table, paragraph of text or graphic. • Selecting options from a drop-down menu.You may be asked to choose answers by selecting options from a drop-down menu (e.g., to complete a sentence). Remember that with every question you will get clear instructions. Perhaps the best way to understand computer-delivered questions is to view thComputer-delivered Testing Demonstration on the PraxisWeb site to learn how a computer-delivered test works and see examples of some types of questions you may encounter. The Praxis® Study Companion 10 Step 2: FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions Understanding Selected-Response Questions Many selected-response questions begin with the phrase“which of the following.” Take a look at this example: Which of the following is a flavor made from beans? (A) Strawberry (B) Cherry (C) Vanilla (D) Mint How would you answer this question? All of the answer choices are flavors.Your job is to decide which of the flavors is the one made from beans. Try following these steps to select the correct answer. 1) Limit your answer to the choices given. You may know that chocolate and coffee are also flavors made from beans, but they are not listed. Rather than thinking of other possible answers, focus only on the choices given (“which of the following”). 2) Eliminate incorrect answers. You may know that strawberry and cherry flavors are made from fruit and that mint flavor is made from a plant.That leaves vanilla as the only possible answer. 3) Verify your answer. You can substitute“vanilla”for the phrase“which of the following”and turn the question into this statement:“Vanilla is a flavor made from beans.” This will help you be sure that your answer is correct. If you’re still uncertain, try substituting the other choices to see if they make sense. You may want to use this technique as you answer selected-response questions on the practice tests. Try a more challenging example The vanilla bean question is pretty straightforward, but you’ll find that more challenging questions have a similar structure. For example: Entries in outlines are generally arranged according to which of the following relationships of ideas? (A) Literal and inferential (B) Concrete and abstract (C) Linear and recursive (D) Main and subordinate You’ll notice that this example also contains the phrase“which of the following.” This phrase helps you determine that your answer will be a“relationship of ideas”from the choices provided.You are supposed to find the choice that describes how entries, or ideas, in outlines are related. Sometimes it helps to put the question in your own words. Here, you could paraphrase the question in this way: “How are outlines usually organized?”Since the ideas in outlines usually appear as main ideas and subordinate ideas, the answer is (D). The Praxis® Study Companion 11 Step 2: FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions QUICKTIP: Don’t be intimidated by words you may not understand. It might be easy to be thrown by words like“recursive”or“inferential.”Read carefully to understand the question and look for an answer that fits. An outline is something you are probably familiar with and expect to teach to your students. So slow down, and use what you know. Watch out for selected-response questions containing“NOT,”“LEAST,”and“EXCEPT” This type of question asks you to select the choice that does not fit.You must be very careful because it is easy to forget that you are selecting the negative.This question type is used in situations in which there are several good solutions or ways to approach something, but also a clearly wrong way. How to approach questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages When answering questions about graphs, tables, or reading passages, provide only the information that the questions ask for. In the case of a map or graph, you might want to read the questions first, and then look at the map or graph. In the case of a long reading passage, you might want to go ahead and read the passage first, noting places you think are important, and then answer the questions. Again, the important thing is to be sure you answer the questions as they refer to the material presented. So read the questions carefully. How to approach unfamiliar formats New question formats are developed from time to time to find new ways of assessing knowledge.Tests may include audio and video components, such as a movie clip or animation, instead of a map or reading passage. Other tests may allow you to zoom in on details in a graphic or picture. Tests may also include interactive questions.These questions take advantage of technology to assess knowledge and skills in ways that standard selected-response questions cannot. If you see a format you are not familiar with, read the directions carefully.The directions always give clear instructions on how you are expected to respond. QUICKTIP: Don’t make the questions more difficult than they are. Don’t read for hidden meanings or tricks. There are no trick questions on Praxis tests.They are intended to be serious, straightforward tests of your knowledge. Understanding Constructed-Response Questions Constructed-response questions require you to demonstrate your knowledge in a subject area by creating your own response to particular topics. Essays and short-answer questions are types of constructed-response questions. For example, an essay question might present you with a topic and ask you to discuss the extent to which you agree or disagree with the opinion stated.You must support your position with specific reasons and examples from your own experience, observations, or reading. Take a look at a few sample essay topics: • “Celebrities have a tremendous influence on the young, and for that reason, they have a responsibility to act as role models.” • “We are constantly bombarded by advertisements—on television and radio, in newspapers and magazines, on highway signs, and the sides of buses.They have become too pervasive. It’s time to put limits on advertising.” • “Advances in computer technology have made the classroom unnecessary, since students and teachers are able to communicate with one another from computer terminals at home or at work.” The Praxis® Study Companion 12 Step 2: FamiliarizeYourself withTest Questions Keep these things in mind when you respond to a constructed-response question 1) Answer the question accurately. Analyze what each part of the question is asking you to do. If the question asks you to describe or discuss, you should provide more than just a list. 2) Answer the question completely. If a question asks you to do three distinct things in your response, you should cover all three things for the best score. Otherwise, no matter how well you write, you will not be awarded full credit. 3) Answer the question that is asked. Do not change the question or challenge the basis of the question.You will receive no credit or a low score if you answer another question or if you state, for example, that there is no possible answer. 4) Give a thorough and detailed response. You must demonstrate that you have a thorough understanding of the subject matter. However, your response should be straightforward and not filled with unnecessary information. 5) Reread your response. Check that you have written what you thought you wrote. Be sure not to leave sentences unfinished or omit clarifying information. QUICKTIP: You may find that it helps to take notes on scratch paper so that you don’t miss any details.Then you’ll be sure to have all the information you need to answer the question. For tests that have constructed-response questions, more detailed information can be found on page 5. The Praxis® Study Companion 13 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions 3. Practice with SampleTest Questions Answerpracticequestionsandfindexplanationsforcorrectanswers Sample Test Questions This test is available via computer delivery.To illustrate what the computer-delivered test looks like, the following sample question shows an actual screen used in a computer-delivered test. For the purposes of this guide, sample questions are provided as they would appear in a paper-delivered test. The Praxis® Study Companion 14 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions The sample questions that follow illustrate the kinds of Questions 2–3 are based on the following excerpt questions in the test. They are not, however, from Charlotte Brontë’s Jane Eyre. representative of the entire scope of the test in either content or difficulty. Answers with explanations follow This was all the account I got from Mrs. the questions. Fairfax of her employer and mine. There are Directions: Each of the questions or statements below is people who seem to have no notion of sketching a character, or observing and followed by suggested answers or completions, except for describing salient points, either in persons or question 12, which asks you to place marks in table things: the good lady evidently belonged to columns, and question 17, which asks you to select one or this class; my queries puzzled, but did not more answers. In each case, select the answer(s) that is draw her out. Mr. Rochester was Mr. best. Rochester in her eyes, a gentleman, a landed proprietor–nothing more: she inquired and 1. The book announced an insane world of searched no further, and evidently wondered dehumanization through terror in which the at my wish to gain a more definite notion of individual was systematically obliterated by an his identity. all-powerful elite. Its key phrases—Big Brother, doublethink, Newspeak, the Ministry 2. The passage suggests that the speaker would of Peace (devoted to war), the Ministry of describe the “account” mentioned in the first Truth (devoted to lies), the Ministry of Love (devoted to torture)—burned their way at once sentence as into the modern consciousness. (A) enlightening The passage above discusses (B) mystifying (A) E.M. Forster’s A Passage to India (C) deficient (B) Thomas Pynchon’s V. (D) erroneous (C) George Orwell’s 1984 3. Mrs. Fairfax differs from the speaker in that (D) Flannery O’Connor’s The Violent Bear It Away Mrs. Fairfax (A) has more interest in the complexities of people’s personalities (B) judges people by their social station in life (C) is more willing to take people at face value (D) has a more positive opinion of Mr. Rochester The Praxis® Study Companion 15 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions Questions 4–6 are based on the following excerpt 7. Grammar may be taught in two main ways— from Zora Neale Hurston’s Their Eyes Were by experience with discourse that entails the Watching God. varieties of word forms and sentence construction, or by analyzing dummy The people all saw her come because it was sentences and diagramming parts. Plentiful sundown. The sun was gone, but he had left discursive experience is what really teaches his footprints in the sky. It was the time for grammar, for it exercises judgment and provides language intake, whereas formal sitting on porches beside the road. It was the time to hear things and talk. These sitters had grammar study has been proved irrelevant. been tongueless, earless, eyeless Politics more than pedagogy retards the conveniences all day long. Mules and other changing of the curriculum to fit this truth. brutes had occupied their skins. But now, the The author of the passage above argues that sun and the bossman were gone, so the skins (A) using language in a wide variety of felt powerful and human. They became lords of sounds and lesser things. They passed situations improves grammar nations through their mouths. They sat in (B) good judgment can be improved by judgment. studying the rules of formal grammar (C) analyzing and diagramming provide 4. The description of the sun in the second exercise in logical thinking sentence contains which of the following (D) formal study of grammar improves literary devices? writing ability (A) Foreshadowing (B) Irony 8. Science fiction: readers claim to either love it or loathe it; either they avoid it like poison or (C) Flashback they devour favorite works and authors like (D) Personification chocolate addicts gulping down fudge truffles. The author of the passage compares certain 5. Which of the following is the best way of readers with “chocolate addicts” primarily in describing the last three sentences of the order to passage (“They became . . . in judgment”) ? (A) suggest that science fiction is not a (A) The sentences emphasize the weariness serious literary genre the sitters feel after a long day’s work. (B) indicate the depth of certain readers’ (B) The sentences are used to paint a feelings about science fiction picture of the way in which the sitters (C) explain why some readers consider wish they spent their evenings. science fiction to be dangerous (C) The sentences are a vivid way of (D) contrast the characteristics of science describing the ease and authority the fiction with those of other literary genres sitters feel during the evening. (D) The sentences highlight the contrast between the feelings of the sitters and the feelings of the bossman. 6. Zora Neale Hurston is associated with which of the following literary movements? (A) New England Puritanism (B) Transcendentalism (C) Naturalism (D) Harlem Renaissance The Praxis® Study Companion 16 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions 9. From the very beginning, I wrote to explain my 10. Which of the following is the best description own life to myself, and I invited any readers of traditional phonics instruction? who chose to make the journey with me to (A) Students study lists of high-frequency join me on the high wire. I would work without words in order to increase reading speed a net and without the noise of the crowd to and comprehension. disturb me. The view from on high is dizzying, instructive. I do not record the world exactly (B) Students are taught individual letter as it comes to me but transform it by making sounds first, followed by letter combination sounds and the rules of it pass through a prism of fabulous stories I have collected on the way. I gather stories the putting these combinations together to way a lepidopterist hoards his chloroformed make words. specimens of rare moths, or Costa Rican (C) Students are immersed in written beetles. Stories are like vessels I use to language, and encouraged to decode interpret the world to myself. entire words using context clues. ----------Pat Conroy (D) Students analyze patterns of organization and syntax as a way of Which of the following best describes the learning to recognize common organization of the passage? structures. (A) The author provides several explanations for taking a certain course of action. 11. Every day was a happy day, and every night was peaceful. (B) The author uses analogies to explain his experience of a particular action. The sentence above can best be classified as (C) The author makes a comparison (A) simple between his own experiences and that of (B) compound others in his profession. (C) complex (D) The author chronicles the various phases of his work in a particular discipline. (D) compound-complex The Praxis® Study Companion 17 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions 12. Place a mark in the column next to each sentence that most accurately na▯mes the type of error contained in the sentence. For each sentence, select one error. Subject-Verb Adjective/Adverb Sentence Split Infinitive Disagreement Faulty Parallelism Confusion Mark decided to hastily clean the house before his parents returned from their trip. To be on time, Sharon quick got ready and drove to school. Joaquin enjoyed skating, sledding, and also to go skiing in the cold weather. Although she enjoyed weekends, Fridays was Tanya’s favorite day of the week. 13. Whenever the mood strikes her, Angela takes a short walk around the block. In the sentence above, the underlined portion can best be described as (A) an adjective clause (B) a relative clause (C) a subordinate clause (D) an independent clause 14. A student comes across the unfamiliar words “intercontinental,” “interglacial,” “interface,” and “intercept” in his reading. The student can use his knowledge of affixes to understand that all of the words share which meaning? (A) between; among (B) not; opposite of (C) earth; environment (D) under; too little The Praxis® Study Companion 18 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions 15. At the border of two countries there is a port 17. Which of the following strategies are most where fishermen work. The fishermen do not appropriate for helping students comprehend speak the same language, so they new vocabulary in nonfiction texts? communicate using one that has been Select all that apply invented by them for the purpose of trade. (A) Writing sentences on the board for the The scenario above most accurately students to copy describes which of the following types of language? (B) Studying examples of texts that use the new vocabulary in context (A) A dialect (C) Activating the students’ prior knowledge (B) A creole to develop a framework for the new (C) A pidgin vocabulary (D) A regionalism (D) Providing frequent opportunities for the students to use their new vocabulary words 16. Anna feels that she is confusing “who” and “whom” in her narrative. She wants to correct (E) Having the students look up definitions in her error. Which of the following reference the dictionary and write them several times materials will best help Anna accomplish such a task? 18. A student is conducting a research project (A) A dictionary and has learned of a website that may have (B) A thesaurus useful information. The domain extension for (C) A glossary the site is .org. Which of the following assumptions about the website is correct? (D) A grammar guide (A) All of the information on the site is current. (B) The site has been evaluated for bias. (C) The site might belong to a nonprofit agency. (D) The author of the site is well respected in his or her field. The Praxis® Study Companion 19 Step 3: Practice with SampleTest Questions Questions 19–21 refer to the following 22. In a holistic evaluation of student essays, paragraphs. evaluations are made on the basis of the I. On a dark, secluded street stood three (A) number and variety of errors made by abandoned houses. The first had broke
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