HDFS 1070 Final Exam Study Guide
HDFS 1070 Final Exam Study Guide HDFS 1070
Popular in Individual and Family Development
Popular in Human Development
verified elite notetaker
This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Tabacchini on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HDFS 1070 at University of Connecticut taught by Ronald Sabatelli in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Individual and Family Development in Human Development at University of Connecticut.
Reviews for HDFS 1070 Final Exam Study Guide
Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/30/16
HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 1 HDFS 1070 Final Exam Study Guide Which is a better indicator of age? Chronological age or psychological age? o Psychological age. It is a better indicator because chronological age is more subjectively defined by your psychological outlook. What is behavioral slowing? o Behavioral slowing is when there are subtle changes in physiology, such as eye site worsening, slower reflexes, etc. How one frames these changes determine their age and psychological outlook. What is the best predictor of how sexually active an individual will be when they are older? o It would be how sexually active they were as a young person. The more sexually active they were when they were younger, the more sexually active they will be when they are older. What are the stage specific sources of anxiety for middle adulthood? o Midlife polarities are the stage specific sources of anxiety for middle adulthood. These come from the tension between these different polar pressures that individuals experience. Polarity 1: Young vs Old Women and youth/femininity o Women have to physiologically respond to menopause. It is an aggravation factor for them because it is a nuisance that interferes with their quality of life. It also communicates to them that they are no longer young. There are also sexual response changes, such as it being harder to be sexually aroused (less lubrication). Men and youth/masculinity o As men grow older, they lose strength, endurance, reaction times decline, etc. they also become slower to achieve an erection and it takes longer to have an orgasm. There are also more opportunities for erectile failure. Behavioral slowing contributes to this source of anxiety around young vs old. Realize that you are not as strong and capable physiologically as you used to be. This can cause anxiety, sadness, and/or depression. Some people choose to deal with it and make it manageable. You are also forced to develop a perspective on mortality, because people in your cohort are becoming ill and/or dying. Many illnesses such as breast and prostate cancer happen during middle age. Polarity 2: Masculine vs Feminine Gender Convergence: men who have been very masculine throughout their life become aware of the limitations of masculinity at mid age: such as having to process emotion. In mid HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 2 life, men have to be open to emotion, which is considered to be a feminine trait. Men become aware that they have missed out on emotional connections to other people and that there are advantages to being feminine. Women, on the other hand, who have been feminine their entire life become aware of the limitations when they enter mid adulthood. They feel like they have put other people ahead of them at the expense of taking care of themselves. Women spend more time focusing on themselves during this period of time. Men, on the other hand, spend more time focusing on others. Polarity 3: Attachment vs Separation In early adulthood, you establish a life plan. In mid adulthood, as you develop a perspective about life and mortality, you begin to question whether or not your goals are the right ones and whether you should continue to pursue those goals. This polarity has an association between a midlife correction or a midlife crisis. o Attachment: reflected in the pressure to continue to do what you’ve been doing. o Separation: should I do something different? Divorce: leave lifestyle and start a new one without current partner. Want more joy in the time they have left to live. MidLife Crisis: this happens to people who have a lot of anxiety in their life. They feel that they have been pursuing a life that doesn’t bring happiness to them. Changing his or her life dramatically because they are unhappy. MidLife Correction: buy a little something that makes them happy. Polarity 4: Generativity vs Stagnation Generativity: making a commitment to improving the life of society and future generations and acting in a caring, supportive, and creative way. This happens if an individual has successfully resolved earlier crises. Stagnation: focusing on self in a narcissistic egocentric way. This happens if an individual is saddled with anxiety from the prior developmental crises. There is an ongoing tension between individuals who are generative and individuals who are stagnative. Who is at risk for a midlife crisis? o People who have identity foreclosure or people who have identity disruption. Who is responsible for improving societal conditions? o Middle aged people. What is the central process for middle adulthood? HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 3 o Person x’s environment and creativity: each individual has to find a creative way to be in the environment to express their generativity. This differs between individuals depending on their financial means and ability. Ex. Billionaire can donate to charities. A middle class person can run a food drive. What is the factor most associated with the absence of generativity? o The feeling that you’ve been deprived all along in your life. Feeling that you have been living a life with no joy in it; only anxiety. Feeling like there are injustices that you’ve experienced in your primary relationships. Feel like life owes them something and have a different attitude towards future generations. What type injustice is most powerful? o The injustices in our family. What is developmental stacking? o Developmental stacking is when exits and entrances occur that are significant and are considered to be horizontal stressors. These involve multiple generations that middle adults are in the middle of and it becomes a significant pile of multi generation events stacked up atop one another. Ex. Parent just died and a grandchild was born at the same time. What is the difference between an exit and an entrance? o An exit is when people leave your life. Ex. Children move out, death of loved ones. o An entrance is when people enter your life. Ex. Marriages, grandchildren being born. What is the most stressful period of time for a parent? o The most stressful time for a parent is when their child reaches the age of adolescence. This is because much anxiety is generated in parents due to the fact that they have less authority over their child. To have an intimate parentchild relationship, parents must renegotiate boundaries and authority to provide the child with autonomy. What is the launching of children? o It is a point in time when a child leaves their parents to live independently. This is a process because a child is not fully launched until they are functionally autonomous (meaning that they take care of their own life and finances). Parents have more power over a child if they are helping them with finances and lose that power once the child can provide their own finances. Why is the timing of launching so unpredictable today? o This is because money flows from parent to child even when they move out. It is a long process in which a lot has to fall into place for it to occur. What is empty nest syndrome? o There is no such thing. Most times, when the children launch, parents are delighted and can move their attention to themselves. It is quite rare for parents to have trouble with their child moving out. Those who have trouble are most likely over reliant on their child for their own wellbeing, which is parentification. What is parentification? HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 4 o Parentification is when the child is the parent of their own parent. There is a role reversal in which the parent relies on the child to take care of them. An example of this would be an alcoholic parent relying on his or her child. What is the personal authority transformation? o It is when the parentchild relationship must be reorganized. This must be done in order for the parent and child to have an intimate relationship after the child moves out and they are no longer parenting them. Parents need to transform their relationship with the child into a more peerlike relationship (treat their child like an adult) and the needs to give up the need to be a child (can’t depend on parents as much as they used to). How does gender affect the personal authority transformation? o Sons are given more autonomy and authority at younger ages than daughters. parents tend to monitor daughters more than sons because they hold onto the view that their daughters are more dependent and less autonomy worthy than sons. The personal authority transformation is most commonly triggered when daughters have a child of their own. Why do children renest? o This is much more common today. This is because children use it as an opportunity to save money, may have a failed relationship, or may have a child out of wedlock. Are stable and vital relationships the same thing? o No. The stability of a relationship (how long they have been married) is not an indicator of success. It is one indicator of success but it’s not determinative. What is the Ushaped curve? o Just about everyone is happiest in the earliest years of their marriage. There is a honey moon phase in marriages and then satisfaction declines and reaches a low point when they have children who are adolescent. After children have launched, the satisfaction goes up again, but doesn’t reach the level where it originally was in the first years of marriage. This is called post launching because parents start to develop a better relationship again. Childless couples, on the other hand, stay relatively stable in satisfaction levels. How is relationship satisfaction determined? o It is determined by whether your experiences meet your expectations, exceed your expectations, or fail to meet your expectations. High satisfaction for example means that a lot of the time their experiences with their partner exceed what they expect. Parenting years are the “I need more from my parenting years”. What is grandparenthood symbolic of? o Grandparenthood is symbolic of the shifting role/position/identity of the grandparent in the family system. This is the point when they are no longer the center of the family system, their grandchildren are the center. This is symbolic of the grandparent’s position in the multigenerational system changing. What mediates the grandparentgrandchild relationship? o The parentchild relationship does. If a parent has a good relationship with their child, then the quality of the grandparentgrandchild relationship will be positive. HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 5 What is the key to parentchild intimacy? o The personal authority transformation. What factor makes the personal authority transformation more likely to occur? o Individuation enhancing parents. This creates a more harmonious family system. What are some of the reasons why grandparents raise their grandchildren? o Teen mom and children who have mental health issues. What is the common theme in situations where children are being raised by their grandparents? o There is raised anxiety in the child’s environment. What factors influence a grandparent’s transition into becoming the primary parent to their grandchild? o WantednessIntentionality o Anticipatory Socialization o Clarity o Social Supports Available Sanctioned: more likely to get support because it was a tragedy. Unsanctioned: less likely to get support because judgment is passed on the family. How is the cognitive process of a child in an unexpected offtime death of a parent different from the cognitive process of a child with a parent being absent? o If the parent has died, the child processes that it was sad and that is why they are in the situation of being cared for by their grandparents. If the parent is absent, the child tries to come to terms with the parent not getting their act together to take care of them. Going back to the beginning weeks of the semester, what is the epigenetic principle? o The epigenetic principle is the theory that what happens in the earlier stages of development serves as a foundation for the later stages. Success in earlier stages creates a better possibility for success in later stages. Change is possible as well. What is the psychosocial crisis of middle adulthood? What is the central process? o Generativity vs Stagnation o The central process is person x’s environment and creativity (what is necessary to make the successful resolution possible). What is the psychosocial crisis of later adulthood? What is the central process? o Integrity vs Despair o The central process is introspection. What is introspection? o Introspection is the reflection on whether your life has made a difference and whether you have lived a life in integrity. It is also the reflection on how your life has progressed and your responses to challenges and the decisions you have made. What is the psychosocial crisis of very old age? What is the central process? o Immortality vs Extinction HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 6 o The central process is social support. Basically being involved with a network of people that encourages them they are cared for and loved. Why don’t Americans talk about death like other cultures do? o Americans don’t talk about death because we don’t want to think about it. This is not a good thing because we are then not prepared for death when it is right around the corner. What are the emotional stages of responding to one’s own death? o Denial: refusing to accept the fact that you are dying. In a state of denial and the anxiety that is experienced is extremely overwhelming, which causes you to shut it off by denial. This doesn’t allow you to accept the trust and process your emotions. o Anger: this is the secondary expression of the primary emotion of anxiety. This is a way of channeling anxiety into energy that in turn distracts from that overwhelming anxiety. This anger comes from loss of control. Behind that anger is the fear of dying. o Bargaining: becoming religious and spiritual as a way to avoid death. Many attempt to give back to others in hopes that they will be able to live in exchange for that. People are more likely to bargain if they have been despairing and don’t feel that they have made a difference for others in their life. o Depression: this is a secondary response to the anxiety of hopelessness. o Acceptance: not everyone gets to this stage. People are more likely to get to this stage if they have been generative and feel integrity. If one dies accepting their death, their family and friends feel they were important in their life and their death helps them guide their own lives. This lead to the development of the hospice program. What is the hospice program? o The hospice program is an institutional set of procedures that helps people get to a state of acceptance that they are dying. They are placed into a setting where they are made comfortable, are cared for, accepted, and have regular interactions with their family and friends. This helps them feel that after they have died they will still live on (feel integrity and immortality). What has the US done with the hospice program? Why does prejudice occur? o Prejudice occurs when there is a lack/absence of meaningful contact between diverse members of the population. Why is there prejudice against the elderly in the US? o There is prejudice against the elderly in the US because of the lack of filial piety and because young people lack the encouragement and opportunities to have meaningful interactions with older people. If there were more interactions, then it would break down the stereotypical barriers and the elderly could provide guidance and mentorship to the young, which could provide knowledge to them. What is filial piety? o Filial piety is a cultural value orientation which speaks directly to the respect that we extend to family members as they grow older. HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 7 On what end of the spectrum is the US for filial piety? o The US is low in filial piety, which means that generally we have little respect that goes to people based on their age and standing in the family hierarchy. Other countries such as Asia, for example, are very high in filial piety, meaning that they place a high importance on respecting the elderly. What is the ageist view? o It is a form of prejudice that paints the elderly in a broad view as not being necessarily welcome, not necessarily relevant, and not necessarily worthy of our time and energy. The US has an ageist view. Why are the elderly in the US so inclined to move to communities in which they are surrounded by other elderly members? o This is because ageism creates an expectation to others and the elderly that as people get older they should segregate themselves away from younger age groups. The elderly feel unwelcome, which significantly lowers the interaction rate between young people and the elderly. What is the difference between behavioral slowing and frailty? o Behavioral slowing is the gradual change in your physical strength and abilities which accompanies the aging process. Frailty is related to behavioral slowing but requires assistance with daily living because you are not capable of being entirely independent and selfsufficient (it exists on a continuum). What are the different styles of adjustment to aging? o 75% of the elderly fall into the first 3 categories. These are ranked most adjusted to worst adjusted. o Reorganizers: substitute new activities for older ones and are considered well adjusted to the aging process. o Focused: limited to a few activities that they really value and are symbolic of them being younger. Organize their life around those activities as they get older. When those activities can’t be done any longer, they experience despair and don’t find a new activity to substitute the old one. They feel a sense of depression and loss. o Disengaged: withdraw from all activities and let go of them because they can no longer do them because of age. Use this as a chance to experience a calm and relaxed lifestyle. The problem with this is that they become too sedentary and don’t use their minds and bodies anymore. This accelerates the decline of their life. o Holding on: push themselves to a point that they used to at a younger age, even when they are compromised to do it. People admire them from afar but some feel bad for them because they are in denial and not getting enjoyment from the things they do anymore. These people are anxious to stop themselves from getting older. These people have high levels of denial. o Constricted: they limit social activity to very narrow ranges of things, become preoccupied with again and try to protect themselves from getting old. This accelerates the effects of aging. These people experience no joy in being middle aged and older because they are always worried about aging. HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 8 What is the gender different in patterns of retirement? o Women have more energy and interest in working longer than men generally. 80% of women over the age of 65 today are single. Of those 80%, only about 4 5% repartner post 65. This means they economically have to support themselves longer if they remain single. Also, the life expectancy is longer for women than men by 6 years. What are some of the marital issues that couples have to deal with in later life? o Rebalancing the boundary between work and family, coping with behavioral slowing, and the management of frailty. What new roles/identities do couples take on in older age? o They become either the caregiver or the carereceiver. This is because one slows earlier than the other and becomes frail. Both partners could be frail at the same time, so the one who is less frail would become the caregiver. Conjugal identities and the roles that they perform in their relationship need to be adjusted to introduce the new roles and identities with frailty. Why are women more likely to take on the caregiver role? o Women are more likely to take on the caregiver role because men have a shorter life expectancy. Also, men are typically older than their female partner, so that accelerates their decline even more. It is more likely that a man will require assistance with daily living than a woman. What are the four factors that influence role transitions into the caregiver or carereceiver role? o 1 Knowledge of the role/anticipatory socialization o 2 If the role is desired or wanted o 3 Social support availability o 4 Clarity of the role Who provides the greatest amount of support for the frail elderly? o Elderly spouses provide the most support to the frail elderly. This is because most couples prefer to live independently in their own homes and figure out how to care for one another. Who is most likely to experience the death of a partner? o Women. This is because women have a higher life expectancy than men and tend to marry older men. Why is the remarriage rate so much higher for elderly men than elderly women? o This is because women have better support around them and don’t use marriage like men do for social support. Men remarry to replace their source of social support. Also, men have a greater pool of elders—basically there are way more women still living at an old age than men. One about 5% of widowed women remarry, while 90% of widowed men remarry within 2 years. What is the generational squeeze? o It is when the middle generation is caught between the demands of the again generation and their own children. This is a midlife issue because as their parents become frail, they will be squeezed between providing them with care while still having their own dependent children. HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 9 Why will the generational squeeze be most pronounced for our cohort? o Because our parents tended to have children later than the generations before and so are we. This means that we are more likely to have parents require assistance while out children are still young. Why is institutional care for the elderly not the norm for the US? o This is because they tend to be cared for by their spouses or their children. Only when care is impossible are they put into institutions. Why do females tend to be caregivers for the elderly? o Most of the elderly that are being cared for are females. This goes back to the fact that women generally live longer than men. So when a frail elderly woman is left without her husband, she can only rely on her children to take care of her. Elderly females don’t want males helping them do things such as dressing or showering. Also, females are socialized to be caregivers, so they are expected to do this. Most children who become caregivers are daughters or daughterinlaws. What are the different types of relationships between parent and child as proposed by Holmes? (parent is elderly and frail and child is middleaged) o The Mutual Relationship: the personal authority transformation has succeeded and they are in a more peerlike relationship. These children willingly become a caregiver for their parent. o Hierarchical/Passive Relationship: the child in this relationship is still psychologically intimidated by their parent because their approval and disapproval is still dominant in their life. These people are still in a childlike position as they get older and they become a caregiver out of a sense of obligation. This creates a lot of conflict in the child’s own family and the rest of the family system. o Hierarchical/Rebellious Relationship: this has to do with the family legacy of conflict around authority and autonomy throughout the entire lifetime. These children fight with their parent all the time because the parent still tries to impose authority over their adult child. This kind of relationship is least likely out of all of these relationships to become a caregiver. If they do become a caregiver, they usually delegate care or don’t do it well. This opens up the possibility of abusiveness towards their frail parent. Why do we hold on to a negative perception of American families? o We hold on to a negative perception of American families because we hold to a more negative view of marriages than is really the case. The common understanding that exists around the divorce rate is that 1 in 2 marriages end in divorce. This is not accurate! The actual rate of divorce in the US is closer to 1 in 7. How many of the activities you enjoy require that you be married to do them? o None of them. We marry because it enhances the things that we enjoy by having sometime to share it with. Marriage enhances the quality of our lives. What are the factors mediating the decision for someone to leave their partner? o Satisfaction vs Distress HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 10 Satisfaction: if your experiences exceed your expectations in a broad and cast array of domains of your life, you’re satisfied, which promotes stability. Distress: when people feel there is no hope and no future in their relationship. This type of relationship is characterized by high levels of negative sentiment override (NSO). o Dependence: being a function of the alternatives that you perceive you have available to you and the barriers associated with breaking up. This is one of the factors that operates in a breakup because people have to believe that there are better alternatives than their present relationship. What is NSO? o It refers to a situation where regardless what your partner does, you tend to frame it in negative ways. These people are looking only for the negative things in their partner, which overrides all positive sentiment. These people believe there is no hope and no future in their relationship and are dissatisfied for a long period of time. This is one factor that needs to be in place in order for people to want to leave their partner. What are some barriers to breaking up with someone? o The loss of pride that your relationship that you thought would be the love of your life has failed you and that you have invested so much into it. To watch it not succeed is a personal cost for people. o Economic loss. o Violation of moral principles. o Family and social network disapproval of you. o Social sanctions that might occur. o The loss of support. o The loss of friend networks. What accounts for the rapid increase in divorce rates since 1970? o Changes in women’s economic standing, changes in women’s educational achievements, and the widespread availability and improvements in contraception. o Women feel less constrained to stay in their marriage today. This is because women have more access to education, jobs, and money, which means that they have better alternatives and fewer barriers to getting out of relationships. This is why the divorce rates are higher today. How does the dissolution of a lifetime partnership impact adults? o The impact is different in terms of how old they are and what their alternatives are at the time that they get a divorce. For some people it is an opportunity for self growth while for others they have to completely readjust their life because their life was built around that marriage. What is separation distress? o Separation distress is a fancy term for anxiety that is specific to separation. This is anxiety that goes handinhand with breaking up. How a break up impacts them has a lot to do with how much anxiety they have experienced and do experience HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 11 and their capacity to cope with that anxiety. The anxiety of the confusion of how something so good could get so bad creates anxiety which adds to the difficult experience of a breakup. When do the greatest majority of divorces occur? Why? o The greatest majority of divorces occur within the first 3 years of marriage (70%). This means that that majority of divorces occur among relatively young couples who are married for short periods of time and are least likely to have children. This is likely because they get so caught up in the passion and romance of being in a relationship that they slide into a marriage and later discover that they aren’t compatible. Young people also don’t have as many economic barriers, so that makes it easier for them to leave. What are factors that contribute to separation distress in adults? o Loss of attachments, erosion of trust, identity disruptions, and family system reorganizations. Why is it said that when people go through a divorce, many of them go through past psychosocial crises again? o This is because the loss of attachment to their ex makes them rethink whether we should ever trust people, whether they can trust themselves to know, and whether others can be counted on to meet their expectations. This is like having the psychosocial crisis of trust all over again. Additionally, the disruption of identity from reorganizing their life forces them to go back and deal with the psychosocial issue of identity. There are high levels of anxiety until they work through these psychosocial crises. What are some indicators of successful adaptation within adults to break ups? o The acceptance that the marriage has ended, the ability to make peace with their ex, and the establishment of a realistic appraisal of one’s own contribution to the breakup. Why do some people hold a lot of anger towards their ex? o Anger is a secondary emotion. They are angry because they are anxious. When they get past the anger to their ex, it means they are managing their anxiety about whether they can trust, whether they matter, and whether they are competent. Why is there a significant amount of murder among men toward their ex wives? o This is because what happens to most men when they are anxious is that anger is the only acceptable emotion. They believe that to be emotional and anxious is feminine. This anxiety turns into anger towards their ex, which sometimes results in a man taking a gun and killing his wife. This happens when they don’t get control over that anxiety. This is not as common among women because they experience more secondary emotions and don’t channel them into anger. What is the impact that divorce has on kids? o First off, it is not divorce that is bad for kids, it’s the ineffective parenting that is driven by anxiety that is bad for kids. In highconflict distressed relationships where people stay together, kids are exposed to parents whose anxiety can compromise effective parenting. Divorce can create excessive anxiety within HDFS 1070 Final Study Guide, Page 12 parents, which can then temporarily make them an ineffective parent. When a child feels they are not being paid enough attention, they usually act out. What are genetic predispositions? o Genetic predispositions are a certain subset of conditions that are tracked through genetics. If you have a certain cluster of genes, you are considered to be predisposed to have a certain disease or condition. Why do we need to understand our sources of anxiety? o We need to understand our sources of anxiety because it is the primary emotion behind most problem emotions and behaviors. If we are excessively anxious about one or more of: trust, mattering, and competence, our behavior is less likely to be constructive and more likely to be selfdestructive. This can make out relationships, performance, and jobs suffer. We have to learn how to identify the source of anxiety (cognitive) and contain it (behavioral). One thing we can do is use cognitive behavioral therapy to cope with excessive anxiety. Why should we not chase emotional distancers? o Because men are biologically different than women in a sense that their brains are different in how they process emotions. When men are asked too many questions and have too much emotion put into a situation, their brains usually flood and they shut down. They usually distance themselves to get control of that overwhelming emotion. What women need to realize is that they should give men space when that happens, rather than continuing to chase him away. If women give men space to gain control over their emotions, they calm down and come back to achieve the goal from the previous conversation. How should people love? o People need to be conscious and intentional when learning how to love. We must expose ourselves to situations where there are no conditions involved in being loving and intimate with someone. This will create a joyful experience and minimize conditional love. We must be generative, kind, and have fun. Once we achieve that, we form a template for what we should do with partners throughout our lives. What makes people enjoy their job? o Not the job itself, but the people you interact with at work. Why is it okay to retreat from a position you have taken? o It is okay to retreat because if you don’t, you are the most anxious about your competence and mattering. You are also demonstrating excessive anxiety. People need to understand that it is okay to back down from a position. Why is it important to contemplate death? o It is important to contemplate death because it provides us with a foundation to find out what is truly important to us and also creates the possibility to pursue joy. The single most important things that should create joy in your life are your relationships with others and your family.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'