Lymphatic System Notes
Lymphatic System Notes BIOL 2510 - 001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Brooke Polinsky on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BIOL 2510 - 001 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Shobnom Ferdous in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology II in Anatomy at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Lymphatic System Final Notes: • What are the three components of the lymphatic components? ◦ lymphatic vessels ◦ lymph- consists of interstitial ﬂuid,lymphocytes,and macrophages ◦ lymphoid tissues and organs • What are two types of lymphoid organs? ◦ primary lymphoid organs= bone marrow and thymus. Where B lymphocytes andT lymphocytes mature ◦ secondary lymphoid organs= lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils. Where mature lymphocytes divide to produce more lymphocytes • What are the functions of the lymphatic system? ◦ produce,maintain,and distribute lymphocytes ◦ maintain normal blood volume and eliminate carnation in chemical composition of interstitial ﬂuid by returning excess tissue ﬂuid and proteins back to bloodstream ◦ provide an alternative route for the transport of hormones,nutrients,and waste • Lymphatic capillaries are very permeable due to what? ◦ one way ﬂaplike mini valve that allows ﬂuid in the interstitial to enter when P(interstitial space) > P(lymph cap) ◦ when P (interstitial space) < P(lymph cap),valves close,no leaking of ﬂuid back into interstitial space ◦ collagen ﬁlaments anchor to surrounding CT • What is a structure of the lymphatic capillaries? ◦ lacteals= special set of lymphatic capillaries for transporting absorbed fat from small intestine to bloodstream • What is the ﬂow of lymph? ◦ 1.Lymphatic capillaries ◦ 2.Lymphatic collecting vessels- 3 tunics as blood vessels;tunica intimate,media,and external ◦ 3.Lymphatic Trunk- lumber (2=left and right),intestinal (1),bronchomediastinal (2),subclavian (2), and jugular (2) trunks ◦ 4.lymphatic ducts (right lymphatic ducts,thoracic duct) ◦ Venous system= ducts drain into junction of internal jugular vein and subclavian vein • What are two types of lymphatic ducts? ◦ right lymphatic duct- drains lymph from upper right lime and right side of head and thorax ◦ thoracic duct- drains lymph from the rest of the body • Lymph transport is aided by what? ◦ 1.valves in lymphatic vessels ◦ 2.skeletal muscle contractions ◦ 3.pressure changes during respiration ◦ 4.contraction of smooth muscle in walls of lymphatic trunks and ducts • What do lymphocytes do? ◦ protect body against antigens ◦ produced in red bone marrow • What are the three types of lymphocytes? ◦ T(thymus dependent) lymphocytes (T cells) ‣ mature in thymus ‣ involved in cell-mediated immunity of adaptive immunity ‣ do not produce antibodies ◦ B(bone marrow derived) lymphocytes (B cells) ‣ mature in bone marrow ‣ involved in humoral immunity of adaptive immunity ‣ give rise to plasma cells- secrete antibodies ◦ Natural Killer Cells ‣ involved in innate immunity ‣ attack foreign cells • What are three types of lymphoid cells? ◦ Macrophages= phagocytize foreign substances ◦ dendritic cells= capture antigen and transport lymph nodes ◦ reticular cells = produce reticular ﬁber storm for support f cells in lymphoid organs • What is the function of lymphoid tissue? ◦ proliferation site for lymphocytes ◦ acts as a surveillance point • What is the composition of lymphoid tissue? ◦ loose reticular connective tissue ◦ macrophages remain on reticular ﬁbers ◦ lymphocytes move between blood vessels and lymphoid tissue patrolling for pathogens • What is the function of a lymph node? ◦ main lymphoid organ in body ◦ ﬁlters lymph- macrophages in nodes destroy debris and microorganisms in lymph ◦ helps activate the immune response- lymphocytes encounter antigens and are activated to mount attack • What are swollen glands? ◦ local inﬂammation or infection will increase number of lymphocytes and macrophages in the lymph nodes • What is the ﬂow through the lymph nodes? ◦ 1.afferent lymphatic vessels ◦ 2.lymph node ‣ sub capsular sinus,medullary sinuses,hilum ◦ 3.efferent lymphatic vessels • What do fewer efferent vessels than afferent vessels in the lymph nodes mean? ◦ slow movement of lymph through the nodes • What are tonsils? ◦ MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissues) ◦ removes pathogens from food/inhaled air • What are the three structures of the tonsils? ◦ pharyngeal tonsil (1)- in posterior wall of the nasopharynx ◦ palatine tonsils (2)- largest tonsils and most infected= tonsillitis ◦ lingual tonsils- collection at base of tongue • What is the function of the thymus? ◦ maturation site forT lymphocytes precursors ◦ only lymphoid organ that does not directly ﬁght antigens • What is the blood thymus barrier? ◦ prevents contact between antigen andT lymphocyte precursors • What is involved int he growth of the thymus? ◦ relatively large and active in the ﬁrst 2 years of life ◦ reaches maximum size just before puberty ◦ decrease in size and becomes ﬁbrous gradually after puberty ‣ production of immunocompetent cells continues but slows down with age • What is the function of the spleen? ◦ Defense-removes abnormal RBCs and platelets,pathogens and bacteria by macrophages ◦ stores breakdown products from RBCs for later reuse ◦ stores platelets for release into bloodstream when needed • What is lymphedema? ◦ condition in which lymph accumulate and the limb gradually becomes swollen and distended • What is elephantiasis? ◦ parasite-induced emma where lymph vessels,especially those of lower limb and scrotum,become clogged with parasitic roundworms • What is lymphoma? ◦ any tumor of lymphoid tissue • What is Hodgkin's lymphoma? ◦ malignancy of lymphoid tissue ◦ swollen lymph nodes,fatigue,fever ◦ treatment:chemotherapy / radiation • What is Non-hodgkin's lymphoma? ◦ cancer so lymphoid tissue except Hodgkin's lymphoma,uncontrolled division of lymphocytes ◦ swollen lymph nodes,swollen spleen ◦ treatment- chemotherapy/radiation
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