CMM 308 : Final Exam
CMM 308 : Final Exam CMM 308
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Winn on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CMM 308 at Marshall University taught by Dr. Tarter Barbara in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Persuasive Communication in Communication Studies at Marshall University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Persuasion – Final Exam – Spring 2016 The test will include ten of the following twenty questions. Each will be worth ten points. The questions will be graded based on the following criteria: a. Completeness of answers b. Application of theory c. Thoughtfulness of answers d. Insight into the question 1. Apply at least two of the six cultural values to two of the car commercials found at the link below. Identify each of the commercials that you will be analyzing. Explain which of the two cultural values apply to each, and how. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dAdP3j9T-fA 2. Hammond and Morrison identify seven cultural forces that drive our behavior. Apply the cultural forces to three different advertisements. Identify the advertisement, the cultural force and how it is used to persuade us. Explain. a) “try,try ,try again” is the phrase that normally used in our culture.Like Hammond and Morrison ( 1996) identify Rocky as the quintessential American movie. Sylvester Stallone’s character, Rocky, a championship boxer, takes on impossible dreams and through hard work- and failure finally wins the title. Its cultural force called “ acceptance of mistakes “ when describe the many failures that people have on their ways to achieve the great thing. b) “American dream” is the advertisement to attract people to come to the land of opportunities. It persuades people to believe that we will turn the dream come true. “Pursuing the impossible dreams” is helping thousands of American people achieving what no one believed it will come true. c) “Big Mac” that is how MacDonald uses the method “obsession with big and more” to persuade people to buy a product because Americans like things big. The bigger, the better so being big is tied to being number one. 3. Compare and Contrast the differences in the propaganda strategies used by the Nazis and the Americans during WWII. What conclusions might you draw? Were there some strategies that were used by both? Which strategies do you believe were the most effective for each side? Explain. 4. Donald Trump continues to lead the pack in the Republican Primaries. Apply three of the five ways that Trump uses language strategically to gain support, based on the material found in your textbook? Provide examples of each. 5. Apply each of Aristotle’s six types of emotional appeals to develop arguments to convince people to purchase a Southwest Airlines credit card. Anger : Calmness : Fear : “With the Southwest Airlines credit card, you don’t need to be scared of running out of money” Shame : Pity : Envy : 6. After completing the two Pop Culture Quizzes, what surprised you about your knowledge of Pop Culture? How did your knowledge correlate to your media use? Are your findings significant to how you view the world? Explain. 7. Consider three slogans that you find easy to remember (Not those mentioned in the book). Which linguistic strategy does each slogan utilize? Why does it make this slogan easy to remember? 8. Consider the concept of naming proposed by Burke (1966). How has naming been used to promote and obstruct the same-sex marriage agenda? Provide examples of each. 9. This political campaign has had a plethora of propaganda that has occurred in many forms. How would you apply the strategies of propaganda to each of the following posters? Regardless of your political views, which do you believe is the most effective? Why? Bernie : is the most effective in my opinion because it can show the spirit of the leaders to persuade people to make the American great again. As the message of Bernie, I will contribute to the benefits of American people not for him. Bernie : Clinton : Trump : flag waving Kasich : flag waving. Ted Cruz : 10. The Cover Letter is extremely important in the job search process. Explain the purpose of the cover letter and the elements that should be included, based on the material provided in class and in the Power Points. Purpose of the cover letter: Every employer gets “numerous” cover letter for every job…sometimes hundreds. Do they read every one in detail? -> Cover letter will demonstrate how your skills become well-qualified for their job. How does the employer know what part of the cover letter is applicable to the position for which you are applying? How does the employer know what “you know”? -> show them about the experience you had through your work history in the cover letter. Why should the employer even look at your cover letter? -> it is only key that you get along with the employer. Why is your resume different than all of the rest ? -> you need a cover letter to show your skills Preparation of the cover letter : Find an advertisement for a position that you are interested in based on your answers to the previous questions. Research the company as to what interests them and what they represent. Pay special attention to their mission statement, their organizational chart, and their product. What does the media say about them? 11. How did the Occupy Wall Street campaign use the concept of a consumer culture, suggested by Lears (1983) and Baudrillard (1998)? Explain. th First of all , as Lears explained, around the turn of 20 century, a change in morality, coupled with marketing and advertising, established “self- realization” as a dominant cultural belief. Therefore, people participating in consumer culture means that we continually invent ourselves through the clothes we wear, the car we drive and the house in which we live. Consumer culture is persuasive when it makes us want to acquire objects that have a high value. The same as the Occupy Wall street campaign, it aims the problems which are very closely related to the people at that time, it protests greed, corruption, income inequality, and the influence of corporations on American life. It creates a value for the community to have a better equality in social life. 12. Apply Mongeau’s (1998) four components of fear to the following cartoon. Which of the components adds to the humor of the cartoon? Fear ( severity of threat ) : in the last picture, it means that it will be threaten us if we know that the airport X-ray will give them cancer. It develops the fear inside people’s mind in the future Second : it proved the probability of the threat’s occurring. The man keeps afraid of the plane. when at that time, there are so many problems related to the plane. Third : it shows the efficacy of the recommended coping response and that the audience member can enact a solution. 13. More than three dozen women have recently told or retold stories of alleged abuse at the hands of Bill Cosby, perhaps best known, for the Cosby show. As his agent, which image repair strategies delineated by Benoit, would you use to defend him? Indicate the four strategies, define them, and provide an applicable example. Minimization - reduces the negative feeling toward the offense. You could say that Cosby did have sex with the women, but it wasn’t really rape. They both had drinks and now the women are claiming it wasn’t consensual. Counterattack - assaulting the credibility of the accuser. The women are bringing false charges for fame and money. Defeasibility - lacked information or control over a situation. Cosby was intoxicated and was unable to see the wrongfulness of his actions. Simple denial - deny the act occurred. Cosby at first did deny the charges. 14. After going to the website http://www.isidewith.com/political- quiz and completing the on-line survey, which political candidate does it say that you most side with? Are you surprised? Are there some issues that were more important to you than others? Explain. After the survey , Hilary Clinton is one of six persons that I have sided with on most 2016 Presidential Election issue. 15. Provide three examples of cross-promotional campaigns (Not presented in the textbook or in the Power Points). How did each organization benefit? Were there any disadvantages? a) Use social media outlets : Add comments to a business partner's Facebook page, or Tweet about the company : Advantages : social media becomes one of the fastest ways for people to connect and review the productivity of the company. Putting good comments on their pages is giving a hand with them to know that your business is also interested in the what they did. Closer relationship turns to be a great partner. Disadvantages : when putting a negative comment on their partners, it will encourage to lose the connection with their partners and our reputation. b) Run a contest with prizes from all your partners: for example, a grocery store, runs a contest to find a winner who eats hamburgers most with the prize for everyone who attends this competition, they will receive a gift card 10% discount on filling gas or 15% on purchasing meat. Advantages : save time and money to advertise the business. Get connected closely with their partners. Improve their reputation. Benefits to the customers. Disadvantages : should get connected with the business with high reputation. If not, it will create a negative effect for the customers who putting their trust on the business. c) Share space : Starbucks Coffee leases space in some Target stores. Consider sharing a facility -- and customers -- with another business Advantages : it creates a win-win theory between companies. What do you think when you come to the Kroger store and see Starbuck inside ? It increases a reputation of both Kroger and Starbuck and it is also a convenient idea for people who shopping in Kroger , they can drinko a cup of fabulous coffee from Starbuck. Disadvantages : using wrong combination , it causes the inappropriate situations happened like Starbuck and HomeDepot ? ( not fit ) http://www.nfib.com/content/resources/marketing/10-ideas-for-cross- promoting-your-company-50506/ Cross-promotional campaigns are when two businesses come together to promote their products. One example is when Disney and McDonald’s partnered on toys for happy meals. After 10 years, Disney cancelled the partnership, allegedly because they did not want to be associated with marketing fast food to children and fueling childhood obesity. People who did not agree with this reasoning said the mutual benefits were too high for Disney to cancel the partnership for those reasons. M&Ms have partnered with Indiana Jones to promote both the candy and the movie. Eclipse gum partnered with Twilight (the movie) and their partnerships seem to have been successful. 16. Pepsi has made a number of bad celebrity choices to advertise their products. List three of these celebrities and explain what made them such a bad choice. Pepsi has Michael Jackson in their commercials and it turned out that Jackson was accused of inappropriate behavior with young boys. They also partnered with Madonna, who shorty after made her music video to “Like a Prayer,” which was interpreted as sexualized and blasphemous. Pepsi dropped her. The third person is Britney Spears who later went through an emotional breakdown and shaved her head. People perceived her as “crazy.” 17. Indicate four products that you use, based on loyalty campaigns. What hard and soft rewards do you get from the campaigns? What would it take to choose a different product? Personally, I prefer to shop at Kroger because of the Kroger plus card benefits. I also have a speedy card, a Sephora card, and an Ulta card. Kroger is mostly hard benefits- they’ll give you monetary discounts on different products that you purchase in store; especially their store brands. Speedy cards are also mostly hard benefits- discounts on gas, and products that you purchase in store. Sephora provides it’s customers with soft benefits- different distributers and brands will send products in for the store to distribute. For every so many dollars that you spend in store, you’ll get so many points; the points are redeemable for sample sizes of products from a few different brands. Ulta provides it’s customers with both hard and soft benefits. Ulta will send out coupons to it’s members (10% off of purchases for ulta members only), and they also have a points system in which members get cash back on purchases after building up so many points (hard benefits). In addition to the hard benefits, they also have birthday gifts for members that come from the different brands (similar to how Sephora has their points system set up). Personally, I am not specifically dedicated or loyal to one brand (or store); I just like to follow the deals. If I know that Walmart has a better deal on a specific item that I like to use, I’ll go to Walmart. **If you guys don’t want to use one of these examples, we also talked about Sam’s Club and how they give out samples to members and the samples are an example of a soft benefit. The different distributers and brands will send samples to Sam’s to pass out to the store members. Since the samples are provided by the brands and not the store itself, the benefits are considered to be soft benefits.** 18. We know that Photoshopping occurs frequently in advertising. Using Baker and Martinson’s (2001) set of ethical standards, can this practice ever be ethical? Explain through application of their theory. How do you believe this has affected our culture? Baker and Martinson proposed the TARES test, which asks the practitioner to decide whether or not the following are applicable: Truthfulness of the message, authenticity of the persuader, respect for the audience, and equity of the persuasive appeal They also insist that the persuasion must serve a moral end rather than an immediate and instrumental end, and that an emphasis must be made on the audience’s ability to voluntarily change their attitudes of actions. I don’t personally believe that photoshopping is ever ethical. It is untruthful, unauthentic, and it shows zero respect for the audience. I feel that it serves no moral end, and it provides a way for the media to manipulate the message. A good example of this is the manipulation and photoshopping that many lingerie companies use in their campaigns and marketing. If you look at photos of Victoria secret models, the editing is so realistic that the models literally look flawless. This type of advertisement places unrealistic expectations on young women. Companies like American Eagle and Aerie have recently started campaigning against photo- editing, and have began leaving their underwear models untouched to show women that it’s okay to have flaws. Unrealistic expectations like these can lead to serious self-esteem issues in young ladies who see these ads. 19. Chapter 10 and the Power Points identify a number of fallacies that can be applied to an argument. Identify and define at least three logical fallacies in the following cartoon. What are the limitations of using cartoons to persuade? **I couldn’t find the information from the PPT slides (or my notes), so I googled it and this is what I came up with. If you want to cross check with your notes, feel free (: Ad hominem- this is a clear attack on the character of Obama, and has nothing to do with his opinions or arguments. Red Herring- Instead of addressing the issues that the artist is bringing to light (the terrorist attacks), he is attacking the Obama’s character when there are clearly bigger issues at hand Moral equivalence- The artist is saying that because Obama desires to remain politically correct, that he’s a liar and is twisting the truth. Hasty Generalization- Just because Obama prefers to remain politically correct, he is assuming that he is trying to manipulate the truth. Limitations- Cartoons have the disadvantage of exaggerating and simplifying complex historical events; they’re often politically motivated and make no attempt at objective, independent analysis. They can be unrepresentative; they may reflect the views of the readership of a newspaper, but this is one newspaper with a limited circulation in one country. It make not reflect the views of the majority. Many cartoons are polemical and intended to shape political opinion. 20. After reading the study by Georgetown University on Digital Persuasion (2013), how might you market a cause of your choice, to the four distinct categories of supporters? (The study is on Blackboard under Motivational Appeals) Mainstreeter- While active on social media, only support causes via offline actions (donating in person or through mail), volunteering or attending events - give them tangible ways to help out - show them the impact of their influence - equip them to tell your organizations story to others in person - gain their trust by being completely transparent Minimalist- Minimalists support only their chosen causes online (most often on Facebook) - Make sure that your website is credible -Tell your story in a way that quickly conveys the most important information - Strive for consistent updates Moderate- Individuals who balance offline and online support of both global and local causes - Encourage them to see the upside of their influence and how to exert their influence - They want to conform, so show them how many people are involved - Ask them to participate more online Maximizer- go all out to support the cause they care about (online, offline, everything in between) - Maximizers respond best to compelling content and stories that ehy can share - Empower them to play their natural role as influencers - Make sure that your online presences are consistent - Video is key for this group
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