ANTH 1003: Final Exam Study Guide
ANTH 1003: Final Exam Study Guide ANTH 1003
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hayley Seal on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 1003 at George Washington University taught by Dr. Susan Johnston in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Archaeology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at George Washington University.
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ANTH 1003 Dr. Susan Johnston Exam 3 Study Guide ***Know dates to the nearest century at least; know the 15 sites specified by Dr. Johnston, as well as Teotihuacan and Cahokia. These sites are bolded; all other sites are indicated by diamond-shaped bullet points. Human Diaspora Homo genus moved into Old World after 2 mya Modern humans are the only ones who moved out of the Old World Movement into Asia and Europe: after 200,000 BP Accessible by land, walking Populations expand and move as part of subsistence strategy Modern humans replaced already existing hominin populations Peopling Sahul: 80,000 – 12,000 BP Colder during Pleistocene --> lower water levels of oceans Boats probably necessary Goal-oriented migration across bodies of water; must see the other side (intervisibility) Lake Mungo, Australia (40,000 – 30,000 BP): earliest undisputed Australian site, standard hunter-gatherer habitation with burials, stone tools, and fossilized emu eggshells Peopling North America: 60,000 – 11,000 BP Sites don’t emerge until c. 20,000 BP; lack of sites may be because of routes into North America o Beringia: ice is destructive to landscape and if sites are preserved, they are underwater o Coastal route: sites are underwater if they exist Biological evidence connecting Native Americans and Asians supports Beringia route o Teeth; DNA from burial at Mal’ta, Siberia; Diego positive blood traits Peopling of North America occurred before Clovis sites, probably from 20,000 – 15,000 BP Meadowcroft, PA (14,000 – 11,000 BP): rockshelter with stratigraphic levels pre-Clovis; may date to 17,000 – 16,000 BP or even 19,000 BP at the earliest Monte Verde, Chile (14,800 BP): incredibly well-preserved remains due to stream action that waterlogged site; organic material includes children’s footprints, wooden tent stakes, chewed tree leaf, and worked mastodon tusk; inhabitants made stone tools, built a 20-m long tent-like structure, hunted mastodons and collected wild plants; site is older than Clovis but father south from the Bering Strait, raises questions about peopling of the Americas Paisley Caves, Oregon (14,270 – 14,000 BP): coprolites with human mtDNA dated by C14 Clovis sites c. 12,500 BP Peopling North America by following seals across the Atlantic from Europe? Debate #3: PROS: CONS: Similarities between Solutrean (western Time gap between Solutrean and Clovis Europe, 22,000 – 16,5000 BP) and Clovis Tools may have developed similarly to tool industries solve the same problems; they don’t Lack of sites on either end of Beringia necessarily have to be related Sites in the south and east are earlier than Environment of Beringia makes it those in the Northwest reasonable to assume sites there wouldn’t Marine adaptations --> reliance on seals as have survived a food source --> following them across the Pack ice isn’t habitable ocean No evidence that Solutrean culture used marine animals Conclusion: a small group of people may have migrated across the Atlantic, but this theory does not have enough evidence to support a mass migration of people to North America Anzick, MT (12,707 – 12,556 BP): DNA analysis of burial suggests that Clovis tool makers are ancestors of Native Americans; individual is related to Siberian burial o Support for Beringia theory After the Ice Age Pleistocene ends and Holocene begins c. 10,000 BP Mesolithic: Near East and Europe Different names for the same time period, from Paleoindian and Archaic: North America c. 11,000 to whenever food production begins in that area Gets warmer Sea levels rising Land forms changing (weight of ice is gone) Resources changing o More forests, woodland, lakes; animals that are smaller, migrate less or not and all, and reproduce faster (red deer) Mesolithic stone tools responded to specific changes in the environment Axes appear in wooded areas Smaller tools for hunting deer are more frequent; larger tools for mammoth hunting are less frequent 2 widespread cultural traditions: Clovis sites, New Mexico (13,000 – 12,600 BP): tools included fluted points possibly used for hafting; extensive faunal remains included mammoth Folsom, New Mexico (12,800 – 11,700 BP): fluted points of a different style from Clovis, faunal remains focus on bison Pleistocene extinctions caused by humans? Debate #4: PROS: CONS: Human arrival in North America Extinctions occurred both before and coincides with disappearance of after humans arrived genera/species Majority of extinct species were not Evidence of gross overhunting at Clovis, hunted in wasteful ways or even hunted New Mexico and Olson Chubbock, at all Colorado Extinct species where humans already Historical instances of humans had established presence (Europe) or overhunting species to extinction: moa had not yet done so (Alaska) in New Zealand Extinctions in New Zealand were result Climate change was more complex, of new species introduced by humans fluctuated & species had time to adapt and habitat destruction rather than just Only 5% increase in predation losses hunting can have a significant effect Sites: Star Carr, England (8,700 – 8,400 BCE): around a lake, earliest evidence of domesticated dogs Vlasac, Serbia (7,950 – 7,650 BCE): fairly healthy population; lots of infant deaths but adults lived to middle-age Koster, Illinois (7,500 BCE – 1,200 CE): initially a seasonally occupied campsite that became a permanent, year-round habitation site; domestic dog burial First Food Producers Humans happily and successfully hunted and gathered for 95% of our existence “Why plant when the world is full of mongongo nuts?” c. 10,000 BP people in different places independently began to produce their own food and it spread to most of the world Changes in plants: Changes in animals: Bigger Smaller but meatier Can grow in more places Less aggressive Better for human consumption Smaller horns or none at all More convenient than wild species Cost of domestication: species cannot live without humans (unsheared sheep, corn) Explanations for food production: lots of factors likely worked together to push people into it V. Gordon Childe’s “oasis theory”: Drier at end of Pleistocene --> humans and other species congregated around water --> people observed the natural process of species growing and changing --> began to mimic that process Problem: it was actually moister at the end of the Pleistocene Robert Braidwood’s “hilly flanks” theory: People were pushed to the edges of where wild food was most abundant --> developed agriculture to have a stable food source Richard Lee’s hunter-gatherers theory: Hunting and gathering was relatively easy (less work, more leisure time) and healthier (more variety in diet, less emphasis on starchy foods, less risk for food shortage or endemic disease) o Long-term costs suggest people were pushed into food production o Hunting and gathering is good for abundant environments, but more stressful in limited environments Population increase or climate change or combination of both --> resources are less abundant --> people try to increase range or productivity of species of plants that they rely on o Ability to produce more calories per land area o Greater reliability in a local area if movement to access resources is curtailed Other explanations: o Increased social obligations (communal feasts, payment for favors, etc.) o Maintenance of sedentary lifestyle; hard to go back once you’ve started Food production in the Near East (Fertile Crescent): some Natufians (c. 13,000 – 10,000 BCE) responded to glacial conditions of Younger Dryas (c. 12,000 BCE) by growing food and maintaining sedentary lifestyle Food production in Mesoamerica: focuses on corn; people tinkered with the environment until they crossed a line and could no longer go back to seasonal movement Domesticated plants: barley, millet, wheat, maize, squash, rice Domesticated animals: dogs first, then meaty herd animals such as cattle, pigs, turkey, llamas, and sheep Effects of Food Production Food production may not have directly caused the emergence of complex societies with large populations and densities, but it is a necessary precondition Increased sedentism Increased population Changed perception of land and resources (land becomes something you can own, basis for status distinctions) Pottery explodes: increasingly complicated, stylized, unique to cultures or time periods Neolithic (Old World) begins when food production becomes common, ends when metal production becomes common Full-scale food production leads to small towns and villages; generally small, but patterns that lead to greater status distinctions later on are emerging during the Neolithic Jarmo, Iraq (c. 7000 BCE): found by Braidwood, earliest known farming village at the time it was found; 20 mud-walled houses with 100-150 inhabitants o Domesticated wheat and barley, but wild plants were still collected o Domesticated sheep, goats, and dogs Mehrgahr, Pakistan (c. 7000 – 2500 BCE): use of wild species with reliance on domesticated animals, then dependence on cattle increases drastically San Jose Mogote, Mexico (c. 1500 – 500 BCE): domesticated plants include maize and avocado, wild plants and animals were still used Jericho, Israel (9750 – 6300 BCE): excavated by Kathleen Kenyon in 1950s o Long-term habitation: 21-m tells that span beyond Neolithic habitation o Status differences: plastered skulls present in some burials, but not others o Famous for wall surrounding much of the site and big tower --> large number of people required for construction; either cooperated voluntarily or were forced to build them Possibly built to control access to nearby spring; may reflect changing concept of land or resource ownership o Evidence of domesticated wheat, barley, and goats Catal Huyuk, Turkey (7300 – 6200 BCE): one of the largest Neolithic sites in Near East; at least several thousand people and up to 10,000; overgrown village, not a city functionally o Mud-brick houses with high population density o Possibly controlled obsidian source nearby o Famous for parietal art in almost every residence, many depicted burial scenes; evidence of ritual/religious life Appearance of sites that are consistently used for ritual during Neolithic; often associated with burials Not all are associated with food production: Gobekli Tepe, Turkey (9200 – 7300 BCE): as many as 20 circular stone structures; no evidence that people at this site had domestic food, could have been built by hunter- gatherers Megaliths common to Western Europe c. 4500 – 1200 BCE, many are burial sites West Kennet, England (3500 BCE): burial chambers in a tiny portion of the front part of a long tunnel; must have been a visual statement of some kind Boyne Valley tombs (c. 3000 BCE): 3 burial mounds/tombs, one surrounded by smaller mounds; suggests that some sort of status distinction is emerging at this time Stonehenge (c. 3100 BCE): involved planning and construction, ritual purposes may include astronomical associations Complex Societies Complex society = a society with complex social systems consisting of many interacting parts Integrated moving parts; people rely on other people to meet their needs Status differentiation based on different access to resources or privileges Childe’s criteria for complex societies: 1. Concentration of population (cities) 2. Full-time specialists 3. Concentration of surplus that usually flows into the middle 4. Institutionalized status differences 5. State organization (centralized political structure) 6. Monumental art and architecture (especially if it benefits a central authority or power) 7. Long-distance trade 8. Writing 9. Conflict Archaeological evidence for Childe’s criteria: Concentration of population: cities, increased living spaces that cover larger areas of land Full-time specialists: Pottery, metalworking, writing, rulers, specific areas where stuff is made Institutionalized status differences: monumental art and architecture, different house sizes or presence of palaces, expensive or rare grave goods in large quantities (especially in burials of children) State organization: writing, rulers Monumental art and architecture: pyramids, statues of kings Trade: goods moving in 2 directions or goods radiating from one central location, resources appearing in non-native areas, agreed-upon value for objects, writing or artistic depictions Writing: tablets, inscriptions Conflict: writing, artistic depictions, weapons, defensive structures, violent deaths in large numbers Why complex societies? Managerial model: people in large groups need someone to manage them and effectively run society (Childe) Resource concentration: control of particular resources allows some people to exert control over others (Karl Wittfogel) Ideology: a few people manipulated ideology to convince those at the bottom that elites should run things (Tim Pauketat) Warfare: people in circumscribed environments competed for resources and formed ever-larger polities as they lose control of resources but have nowhere else to go (Robert Carniero) Additional important sites: Uruk, Iraq (c. 4,000 – 3,100 BCE): Mesopotamian city about 40,000 people at its height (largest Mesopotamian settlement during this time), city-state and religious center located within floodplain and surrounded by defensive wall. Use of wheeled carts pulled by draft animals, potter’s wheel, cylinder seals and cuneiform tablets, and manufacture of metal weapons, luxury goods, and jewelry. Monumental temples include the Eanna Precinct and Temple D. Ur, Iraq (c. 3,800 – 450 BCE): Mesopotamian city with royal cemetery that shows status differences; plan of “great death pit”, sacrificial victims in some but not all burials, 16 royal burials in stone tombs with lots of grave goods and sacrificial victims (servants and soldiers). Burial of Mes-kalam-dug surrounded by various copper, gold, and silver grave goods including a golden helmet. Queen Pu-Abi’s burial: stone tomb with entire funeral procession including a chariot, a harp, various sacrificial victims (both human and animal) and stone, gold, and silver grave goods. Amarna, Egypt (c. 1,346 – 1,332 BCE): about 20,000 people at its height, built by Akhenaten and made the capital of Egypt when he became pharaoh. Inhabited only during Akhenaten’s reign because his successor, King Tut, moved the Egyptian capital back to Thebes. Other cities were probably larger, but most may be hidden under modern cities. Harappa, Pakistan (c. 2800 – 1900 BCE): about 20,000 – 25,000 people with raised mound at one end and residence area below. Surrounded by a non-defensive wall 45 feet high, possibly used symbolically to control commerce. Home to “granary” and cemeteries. Possible standardization of weights and writing; urban planning. Mohenjo-Daro, Pakistan (c. 2800 – 1900 BCE): about 30,000 – 40,000 people with raised mound at one end and residence area below. Surrounded by a non-defensive wall. Home to Great Bath. Possible standardization of weights and writing. Substantial craft activity including metalworking and pottery; non-monumental temples; subtle variation in size of residences. Lothal, India (c. 2800 – 1900 BCE): trade hub of Indus Valley, residences separated from craft production areas. Manufacturing of stone, pottery, and metal including copper, bronze, and carnelian; objects manufactured here appear elsewhere. Feature lined with bitumen may have been a dry dock. Manching, Germany (3 – 1 century BCE): Iron Age Temperate Europe site of up to 10,000 people; dense habitation with specialized areas for production of iron, pottery, wood, and glass; urban planning. Some evidence for coinage including blanks and molds. Vix, France (late 6 – early 5 century BCE): burial of a 35 year old woman with lots of physical ailments; she was laid out on the bed of a wagon and her burial contained lots of elaborate, gold, elite objects including a necklace associated with elite burials, foreign objects (black figurewear from Mediterranean and Aegean), crater (vessel for wine consumption) 5 feet high that can hold 300 gallons. Teotihuacan, Valley of Mexico (200 BCE – 750 CE): largest concentration of population in the New World up to that point with 125,000 – 200,000 people; religious, political, and economic center. Laid out along a grid organized in quadrants divided by Avenue of the Dead and another major road; residential areas were family units organized around temple complexes; elaborate sewage and water systems. Over 600 specialized craft areas including obsidian and pottery manufacturing; located near obsidian deposits. Tikal, Guatemala (400 BCE – 900 CE): Classic Maya site with population estimates ranging from 40,000 – 100,000 people; city-state whose influence may have spread to almost 1000 square miles around the city. Centered around Great Plaza with large pyramid-like temple. Collapsed c. 900 CE due to environmental strain and internal conflict; population just moved, didn’t disappear. Cahokia, Illinois (600 – 1300 CE): North American Mississippian site with 6,000 to 40,000 people; relatively rapid rise and fall. Functionally urban center with 120 mounds and various other structures; influence (distribution of artifacts) spread beyond the site itself. Monk’s Mound is the most significant monumental structure. Abandoned before 1400 CE. NAGPRA (Discussion) Purpose: to give federally recognized Native American tribes control over those human remains, sacred and funerary objects, and objects of cultural patrimony that are culturally affiliated with a particular tribe Covers 5 types of items: 1. Human remains 2. Associated funerary objects 3. Unassociated funerary objects 4. Sacred objects 5. Objects of cultural patrimony (culturally affiliated) 2 qualifications: 1. Item is Native American 2. Item is culturally affiliated with a particular tribe Definitions: Native American: of, or relating to, a tribe, people, or culture that is indigenous to the United States Cultural affiliation: a relationship of shared group identity which can be reasonably trace historically or prehistorically between a present-day Indian tribe or Native Hawaiian organization and an identifiable earlier group Affiliated remains: those that can be shown to have a cultural or geographical link to a modern Native population Sacred object: ceremonial objects which are needed by traditional Native American religious leaders for the practice of traditional Native American religions by their present-day adherents MESOPOTAMIA EGYPT INDUS VALLEY TEMPERATE MESOAMERICA: MESOAMERICA: NORTH AMERICA: EUROPE TEOTIHUACAN MAYA CAHOKIA 4000 – 2350 BCE 3100 – 1070 BCE 2800 – 1900 BCE 700 – 150 BCE 200 BCE – 750 CE 400 BCE – 900 CE 600 – 1300 CE CONCENTRATION Uruk, Iraq: Amarna, Egypt: Harappa: Hillforts or Teotihuacan: Tikal: 40,000 – Mississippian OF POPULATION c. 4000 - 3100 c. 1346 - 1332 20 – 25,000 people “oppida” range 125,000 – 100,000 people culture: BCE BCE 20,000 and from 500 to 200,000 people 40,000 people people (other Mohenjo-Daro: maybe 20,000 El Mitador: up to Etowah, Georgia: cities were 30 – 40,000 people people; cities by Cuicuilco: buried 100,000 people 2,000 – 5,000 Ur, Iraq: major probably larger) function, not size by a volcanic people Mesopotamian Raised “citadel” at eruption c. 100 CE Quirigua, burial area one end, residence Manching, Guatemala: 5,000 Moundville, area below Germany: 3 – 1 st people Alabama: 1,000 century BCE people Surrounded by a wall 10,000 people Uxmal, Mexico: with specialist 25,000 people Cahokia: 6,000 – areas 40,000 people; Copan, Honduras: functionally urban Bndracte, France: 25,000 – 30,000 2 century – 20 people BCE 5 – 20,000 people FULL-TIME Pottery, Pottery, Pottery made in and Metal, glass Craft Jade: must be Production of SPECIALISTS metalworking, metalworking, distributed from objects, pottery, neighborhoods acquired, requires precise writing, rulers writing, rulers certain areas “artisan quarters” skill to make spearpoints, 25% of population carvings in stone King List: list of Lots of Maritime travel Coinage probably involved in craft Depictions of and minerals, titles and gold/metal grave used for status activities religious stone axes, shell professions from goods in tombs Metalworking rather than specialists in beads 3000 BCE transactions rituals and processions Astronomical Druids were layout? religious Woodhenge; if specialists noted intentional, by Classical indicates writers (Caesar) specialist activity INSTITUTIONALIZED Monumental art Monumental art ? Documentary Goods that are Depictions of Burials in mounds STATUS and architecture, and architecture, sources (Caesar), unevenly people sitting DIFFERENCES grave goods grave goods Expression of elite burials, elaborate distributed and down while Monk’s Mound: (ELITES) status may have gold ornaments difficult to obtain everyone else is evidence for Sumerian king Egyptian king been very different standing up palisade around it list: Weld- lists: Abydos king and not preserved Vix, France: late Jade masks, Blundell prism (c. list (1309 – 1291 archaeologically 6 – early 5 th pottery restricted Depictions of Mound 72: 1763 – 1753 BCE) BCE) and Karnak century BCE in distribution, smiting or primary burial of king list (1490 – Elite goods? Bangles Burial of a woman some metal bloodletting man with 20,000 Elaborate gold 1436 BCE) found everywhere contained gold objects shell beads, grave goods at but gold or agate objects, elite and Pyramid at additional burials Ur; sacrificial King Tut’s tomb ornaments more elaborate grave Individuals sitting Palenque, Mexico: of 3 males and 3 victims in some and grave goods rare goods, foreign up in burials and burial of the ruler females with high but not all objects artistic depictions Pakal with status artifacts, burials; plan of No elite monuments, may indicate elite elaborate 272 sacrificial “great death pit” no wealthy burials, Hochdorf burial, status sarcophagus cover victims (mix of no major differences Germany (530 local and non- in residence size BCE) is a mound Sacrificial victims Tomb 85 at Tikal: local victims) with tomb inside in burials individual with Cemetery is tiny and that includes lots (Pyramid of the greenstone mask High-status individuals buried of gold objects Mood, in place of missing artifacts from are healthy/well- Quetzalcoatl) head, in sitting Mound 72: nourished --> posture, grave weapons, tools, possibly being buried goods associated unused projectile at all is indicator of with elite status points, mica elite status (sting-ray spine) sheets, “discoidals” Figurine from Mohenjo-Daro? Having one shoulder bare is associated with high status in more modern times Copper and silver “crowns” from Harappan burials STATE Best indication in Best indication in ? ? Probably a city- City-states: El ? ORGANIZATION writing writing state, influence Mirador, Copan Standardized Caesar described spread 20mi Direct control of Secular leader, Secular leader, weights and writing groups of people around the city Never politically 60 – 90 miles but has clear but has clear but we don’t unified; city-states around the city overlaps with overlaps with know how they Stela 31 from competed religion religion would have Tikal depicts Material culture described Maya ruler Tikal may have distributed more City-states mostly United under a themselves wearing costume spread influence widely (“weeping controlled by single ruler after and headdress almost 1,000 eye” motif) kings but also by 3100 BCE Probably not city- associated with square miles a priesthood states Teotihuacan around city but no 3-tiered hierarchy Priesthood was warfare real evidence that of site sizes Not unified similarly May have had it was more than a influential as in some kind of city-state Probably a Temples owed Mesopotamia flexible flexible political labor, taxes, etc. centralization structure (like Europe) MONUMENTAL ART Structures Structures ? No evidence of Pyramids of the Large and Monk’s Mound: & ARCHITECTURE mostly, if not mostly, if not stone or any Sun and Moon: significant largest pyramid only, benefitted only, benefitted Structures may other kind of primarily pyramids/temples: north of Mexico, rulers and priests rulers and priests require similar monuments or platforms with steep-sided and lots of labor amounts of work to anything built for temple on top, vertical required to build; Ziggurat Pyramids for build as monuments specific high- associated burials 100 feet high and single important in Egypt and status individual and other Temple 1 and 2 at covers 16 acres Temples elevated individual Mesopotamia, but structures Tikal, Pyramid of over landscape (pharaohs) no obvious Burial mounds underneath the Magician at Evidence for a connection to a (large, require Uxmal, building (maybe specific individual or time and labor to Area was “Observatory” at temple) on top of small group of build) monumentalized Caracol Monk’s Mound: people; unknown after it was function was to function Oppida may be already special Roof-comb makes elevate monuments in monuments at something “Granary” from themselves (large, Tikal especially Harappa? surrounded by imposing “Woodhenge”, walls) various other Great Bath at Hieroglyphic monumentally- Mohenjo-Daro? stairway at Copan sized mounds shows past rulers City walls (45 feet and deeds high at Harappa) (monument associated with elites) LONG-DISTANCE Non-native Non-native With Mesopotamia: Pottery from the Teotihuacan-style Jade, obsidian Wide range of TRADE resources, resources, copper (native to south (often stuff appears in with Teotihuacan, sources for written records written records, Indus Valley) and associated with other places pottery objects found at artistic depictions grain alcohol/wine) Cahokia 3 major trade Jade was highly Cacao (chocolate) partners named Traded with Possible Exports: animals prized, significant consumed as Importation of in written records Minoan and standardization of for meat material; some liquid, associated exotic chert (one may have Aegean cultures weights and consumption, from Guatemala with ritual been Indus measures grain, hunting appears in 1/3 of burials Valley) Egyptian artistic dogs, slaves went Pyramid of the were non-local depictions of Lothal: metal to Roman society Moon burial individuals people bringing manufacturing; in imported feature lined with Structure at Tikal items from bitumen may have in style of faraway places been a dry dock; Teotihuacan (pottery in styles objects architecture of Aegean and manufactured here Crete) appear elsewhere Located close to source of green obsidian WRITING Cuneiform from Hieroglyphs from ? ? ? Appears by 400 N/A c. 3100 BCE c. 3100 BCE BCE Begins c. 2600 BCE Limited, Writing-y Primary context: Earliest example influenced by symbols, but too Glyphs on images, economic, from Abydos c. Mostly on seals contact with few examples for monuments, keeping track of 3300 BCE, without evidence of Greeks & Romans, interpretation painted murals, economic resemble tags wear can’t really be stelae, pottery interactions and may have used to interpret Teotihuacan between people been used as Clearly symbolic Celtic society “name glyph”? Writing on bark of many labels to indicate paper/strips languages places or Not yet translated Most informative They at least (Dresden Codex): personal names documents come knew about it like books, burned Hymn to Ninkasi, 3000 symbols but from outsiders because of others by Spanish so only goddess of Primary context: over 100 have only (Caesar) --> in the area 4 left today brewing identification of been used once or a perspective of (Maya) rulers in few times someone in About things ceremonial process of important to displays and on conquest, no elites: dates, monuments, “objective names, political identification of history” histories, etc. things in tombs Indigenous Calendar: secular, documentation: sacred, and the not readable or Long Count --> interesting dated monuments CONFLICT Documentary Histories told by Weapons Documentary Weapons, Depictions of Absence of heads sources of battle Egyptians show evidence: Caesar sacrificial victims,soldiers, possibly and hands of and conquest their culture as Cranial trauma in military control of holding weapons sacrificial victims having been born 9/58 individuals Most surrounding areas in burials Naram-Sin Stela out of conflict or from study of documentary Depiction of shows conquest, chaos Harappan burials sources describe smiting? depictions of Celts as violent Falls c. 750 CE Depiction of soldiers, Narmer Palette: because they probably due to Documentary violence on Effigy weaponry clear record of were written by internal conflict: evidence: ruler of pipe in Cahokia conquest people evidence of Copan captured style conquering them burning, esp. and sacrificed by Depictions of religious and eliteruler of Quirigua, soldiers and Weapons, shields, areas, population recorded on stelae weapons war helmet reduced then gradually Internal conflict Depictions of abandoned may have played a warriors with role in collapse Celtic style shields SUMMARY All criteria All criteria Institutionalized Cities? All criteria All criteria met State met met social status? State met organization? Monumentality? organization? No writing Writing? No writing
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