Geography Final Study Guide
Geography Final Study Guide 1010
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Robert Kessinger on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 1010 at Auburn University taught by Mc.Gowin in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 178 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in GEOG at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Bobby Kessinger 4/27/16 Geography Final Ch. 12 Objectives 1. Many agricultural laborers work for a larger farm (term?) while maintaining a small farm (term?). What is this called? 2. Latin America’s triple heritage 3. Impact of Tordesillas line on language (what, where, and think about 1/3 vs. 2/3) 4. Region’s majority religious branch? 5. Two dominant languages in the region 6. Think geographically; what else impacts development in the Caribbean? 7. Strong shift in the Caribbean to what type of tourism? 8. Biodiversity and mutualism 9. Which Latin American country is leading the region and world in diversity preservation through their national park system? 10. Other name for shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture 11. By what percentage did the indigenous populations decline in Latin America after contact w/ Europeans? 12. Term for small country that is overly dependent on export of one commodity & often ruled by a corrupt elite. 13. Dr. B would encourage you to eat one less burger? (true or false?) 14. What is the #1 culprit of deforestation in virtually every Amazon country? 15. Most biologically diverse climate region in the world? Answers: 1. Laifundias. Minifundias. Agricultural Dualism: working for a large farm while maintaining your own small farm 2. Indigenous, African, and Iberian 3. Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 in Portuguese. The pope divided the region btw Spain and Portugal. 2/3 LA population speak Spanish. 1/3 speak Portuguese 4. The majority practice Roman Catholicism 5. Spanish and Portuguese 6. Tourism 7. Ecotourism: naturebased tourism 8. Biodiversity: variety of scales, total # of species found in a particular ecological region Tropical RF• = most biological diverse climate region in the world Biodiversity is declining globally @unprecedented rates = loss of 1 species often leads to loss/decline of another Mutualism: species coevolved &depend on one another for survival 9. Costa Rica leads region and world in biodiversity preservation 10. Farmers clean an area of tropical RF and then burn the vegetative remains to release the plant nutrients back into the leached soils 11. Within 150 years of European contact, populations declined 90% 12. A Banana Republic 13. True 14. Extensive cattle ranching 15. Tropical rainforest Ch. 12 1. The Greater Antilles are found in which subregion of Latin America 2. The Atacama Desert (in Chile) is the driest place on the planet because: 3. As the tropical rainforest is the most productive biome in the world, its soils have huge agricultural potential. 4. All of the following crops were originally domesticated in Latin America except: a. Potatoes b. Maize c. Peanuts d. Coffee e. Manioc 5. All of the following except ___ are past and present agricultural field arrangements found in Latin America a. Taungya b. Latifundias c. Minfundias d. Chinampas e. Haciendas 6. The national parks in Costa Rica have sometimes been referred to as “diamonds in a sea of devastation” because: 7. The main factor that followed the Iberians (Spanish and Portuguese) to conquer Latin America in about 40 years’ time was: 8. True or False: Race is more of a social construction than a category backed up by real biological differences. From a genetic standpoint, there is often as much difference between individuals within a particular radical category (say, black or white) as there is between individuals in different categories. 9. The Spanish and Portuguese essentially invited a new form of colonialism in Latin America. While there were colonial empires in antiquity (such as Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans), the nascent European colonialism developed in Latin America was different because: 10. All of the following are examples of how gender roles are changing in Latin America: 11. Geographer Judith Carney has been critical of the dominant conceptions of the Columbian Exchange (CE). All of the following are elements of her critique: 12. All of the following are critiques of tourism as a means of development in the Caribbean: 13. The rise of the indigenous peoples’ movement in Bolivia was marked by a number of important milestones. These include all of the following: 14. Cuba is known for which of the following development achievements: 15. Latin America remains of the least urban of the major world regions. Answers: 1. Caribbean 2. It is in the rainshadow of the Andes mountain and of the impact of the cold Humboldt current 3. False 4. manioc 5. taungya 6. many of Costa Rica’s beautiful national parks are surrounded by intensive land use for agriculture, forestry and other uses 7. Old World diseases and subsequent population decline 8. True 9. These lands were much further away from the metropole (or power center) than previous colonial ventures There was a cultural and religious component to Iberian colonialism that was new The highly extractive nature of Iberian colonialism, driven by mercantilist ideologies, marked a distinct departure from previous colonial endeavors, which had tended to be city states spawning new city states that traded with one another 10. While Latin American immigrants to the U.S. have been historically male, the majority are now female suggesting that women are now increasingly called upon to work in the cash economy and be breadwinners Argentina recently (in 2010) passed a law making gay marriage legal Female heads of state have been elected in Argentina, Chile, and Panama 11. The CE downplays the role of Africans (in favor of Europeans) in the exchange The CE narrowly conceptualizes the process as the transfer of plants and seeds The CE does not give adequate attention to the African knowledge systems that allowed Old World food crops to survive the New World 12. Tourism creates menial and poorpaying jobs. This perpetuates certain stereotypes about Caribbean people. Most tourists get a partial and distorted view of the Caribbean region Tourism creates an employmentintensive industry that creates lots of jobs 13. Evo Morales was elected president of Bolivia in 2006, the first person of indigenous descent in Latin America to hold his country’s highest office The Water Wars of 19992000 The Gas War of 2003 14. Free and universal health care A higher life expectancy than the United States A dramatic increase in food productions for local consumption using largely organic methods after the end of its subsidized trade with the Soviet Union in 1991 and a tightening the U.S. trade embargo in 1992 15. False Ch. 13 Objectives 1. Which islands separate near Oceania and remote Oceania? 2. Review “why & how” of timespace compression 3. Why do high islands receive more rainfall than low islands? 4. Most linguistically diverse subregion? 5. Syncretic religion in New Zealand between who? 6. New geopolitical center 7. “canary in the coal mine” why? 8. Real problem related to the science of global climate change 9. Australia’s tectonic activity causing what in the upper crust? 10. Why is much of central Australia dry? 11. New Zealand’s location, climate 12. Where does most of the plastic accumulate in the great pacific garbage patch? 13. Options for political status of colonies post WWII 14. What made Pacific trade profitable? 15. Even though some Small Island Developing States might be more economically linked than ever before, what is still impacting economic development? Answers: 1. Marshall, Solomon, and Ponnpei 2. Timespace compression: increasing connectedness from improved communication and transportation networks Physical distance alone no longer accounts for level of connection Why and How? Shipping (nodes or pts. Of connection), flights, internet, telephone, social media= amplification 3. High islands formed by volcanoes (Mauna Kea rivals Mt. Everest 29K) or limestone cliffs. Low islands made of coral reefs= atoll. High islands receive more rainfall because high elevations create an orographic effect. Low islands rely on storms for precipitation 4. Melanesia 5. Maori 6. Asia Pacific. Extends to Russia, U.S., and India. Global focal point militarily (U.S., Russia, China, India, and North Korea) 7. Lowelevation islands. Australia is being affected since 2000. 9 years of drought followed by torrential rain and flooding, massive cyclones, and raging wildfires 8. Retention of extra energy in atmosphere causing global climate change 9. The Australian plate squeezed eastward from Indian Ocean plate in W, squeezed to the west from Pacific Plate in E, and Southern Boundary is the midoceanic ridge in Antarctic Ocean 10. The influence from a highpressure cell 11. New Zealand is located off the southeast coast of Australia in the Pacific Ocean, it has a cold climate because its outside of the tropics 12. They are located in western garbage patch and eastern garbage patch 13. 14. 1956 and on container ships have brought about Pacific trade profitable 15. Remote location impacts eco. Development, Small Island Developing States (SIDS), Kiribati represents development issues more broadly (limited arable soils, relative location, and environmental vulnerability) Ch. 13 1. The International Date Line marks: 2. Australia has a large number of earthquakes today primarily because: 3. Atolls are comprised of ___ and are formed around ___ volcanoes. 4. Orographic precipitation on high islands 5. The last country in the Pacific Ocean to be occupied by humans was: 6. More than 1,000 distinct languages are spoken in Melanesia because: 7. The Lapita civilization is important to understanding the cultural geography of the Pacific because the Lapita: 8. After World War II, colonies in the Pacific region were allowed to choose their political status. Each of the following demonstrates one of the three choices offered by the United Nations Trusteeship Council: 9. The Australian gov. passed the White Australia Policy in 1901 with the primary goal of keeping migrants from ___ out of Australia. 10. True or False: Residential segregation of Maori and Pacific islander minority populations is relatively common in New Zealand 11. Between 1500 and 1950, the center of global trade was the ___, and since the 1950s, the center of global trade has shifted to the ___. 12. Distance decay assumes directional symmetry and that the actual distance between two places describes the level of connections between the places. Timespace compression recognizes that: 13. True or False: Small countries like Kiribati are especially vulnerable in the rapidly changing world economy because they have few products and limited quantities of the products 14. Greenhouse gases are a concern for climate change scientists because the gases: 15. The country with the highest rate of carbon emissions per person in the developed world is: Answers: 1. The new day, to the west of the line from the old day to its east 2. The continent of Australia is being squeezed from the west and east through plate movements 3. Limestone/dormant 4. Generates rain on the windward side Creates dry conditions on the leeward side Depends on the prevailing winds 5. New Zealand 6. People migrated to the region around 30,000 years ago and had little spatial interaction with each other 7. Acted like pioneers and purposefully settled beyond Near Oceania and into Remote Oceania 8. The Solomon Islands chose to become an independent country The Hawaiian Islands chose to become integrated into the U.S. Guam chose to become a protectorate of the U.S. 9. China 10. True 11. Atlantic/Pacific 12. Some places or nodes are more connected by transportation and communication than others Places that are not connected are distanced in the modern world economy The distances between global cities is compressed because of deepening connections between cities 13. True 14. Trap energy in the troposphere 15. The U.S.
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