Material contains copyright content: I gave this student my notes to refer to, and it seems he copied the notes word for word and is now selling them. My notes are identical to these and I am appalled that he would have done this.
Ch. 12 Objectives
1. Many agricultural laborers work for a larger farm (term?) while maintaining a small farm
(term?). What is this called?
2. Latin America’s triple heritage
3. Impact of Tordesillas line on language (what, where, and think about 1/3 vs. 2/3) 4. Region’s majority religious branch?
5. Two dominant languages in the region
6. Think geographically; what else impacts development in the Caribbean? 7. Strong shift in the Caribbean to what type of tourism?
8. Biodiversity and mutualism
9. Which Latin American country is leading the region and world in diversity preservation
through their national park system?
10. Other name for shifting cultivation or swidden agriculture
11. By what percentage did the indigenous populations decline in Latin America after contact
12. Term for small country that is overly dependent on export of one commodity & often
ruled by a corrupt elite.
13. Dr. B would encourage you to eat one less burger? (true or false?)
14. What is the #1 culprit of deforestation in virtually every Amazon country? 15. Most biologically diverse climate region in the world?
1. Laifundias. Minifundias. Agricultural Dualism: working for a large farm while
maintaining your own small farm
2. Indigenous, African, and Iberian
3. Treaty of Tordesillas in 1494 in Portuguese. The pope divided the region btw Spain and If you want to learn more check out ce 2200
Portugal. 2/3 LA population speak Spanish. 1/3 speak Portuguese
4. The majority practice Roman Catholicism
5. Spanish and Portuguese
7. Ecotourism: naturebased tourism
8. Biodiversity: variety of scales, total # of species found in a particular ecological region
Tropical RF• = most biological diverse climate region in the world
Biodiversity is declining globally @unprecedented rates = loss of 1 species often leads
to loss/decline of another
Mutualism: species coevolved &depend on one another for survival
9. Costa Rica leads region and world in biodiversity preservation
10. Farmers clean an area of tropical RF and then burn the vegetative remains to release the Don't forget about the age old question of • Why form & join groups?
plant nutrients back into the leached soils
11. Within 150 years of European contact, populations declined 90%
12. A Banana Republic
14. Extensive cattle ranching
15. Tropical rainforest
1. The Greater Antilles are found in which subregion of Latin America
2. The Atacama Desert (in Chile) is the driest place on the planet because: 3. As the tropical rainforest is the most productive biome in the world, its soils have huge
4. All of the following crops were originally domesticated in Latin America except: a. Potatoes
5. All of the following except ___ are past and present agricultural field arrangements found We also discuss several other topics like brian langowski
in Latin America
6. The national parks in Costa Rica have sometimes been referred to as “diamonds in a sea
of devastation” because:
7. The main factor that followed the Iberians (Spanish and Portuguese) to conquer Latin
America in about 40 years’ time was:
8. True or False:
Race is more of a social construction than a category backed up by real biological differences. From a genetic standpoint, there is often as much difference between individuals within a particular radical category (say, black or white) as there is between
individuals in different categories.
9. The Spanish and Portuguese essentially invited a new form of colonialism in Latin America. While there were colonial empires in antiquity (such as Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans), the nascent European colonialism developed in Latin America was different
10. All of the following are examples of how gender roles are changing in Latin America: 11. Geographer Judith Carney has been critical of the dominant conceptions of the
Columbian Exchange (CE). All of the following are elements of her critique: 12. All of the following are critiques of tourism as a means of development in the Caribbean: 13. The rise of the indigenous peoples’ movement in Bolivia was marked by a number of
important milestones. These include all of the following: If you want to learn more check out tsu parking garage
14. Cuba is known for which of the following development achievements: 15. Latin America remains of the least urban of the major world regions.
2. It is in the rainshadow of the Andes mountain and of the impact of the cold Humboldt
6. many of Costa Rica’s beautiful national parks are surrounded by intensive land use for
agriculture, forestry and other uses
7. Old World diseases and subsequent population decline
9. These lands were much further away from the metropole (or power center) than previous
There was a cultural and religious component to Iberian colonialism that was new The highly extractive nature of Iberian colonialism, driven by mercantilist ideologies,
marked a distinct departure from previous colonial endeavors, which had tended to be city states spawning new city states that traded with one another
10. While Latin American immigrants to the U.S. have been historically male, the majority are now female suggesting that women are now increasingly called upon to work in the
cash economy and be breadwinners
Argentina recently (in 2010) passed a law making gay marriage legal If you want to learn more check out mcb 244
Female heads of state have been elected in Argentina, Chile, and Panama 11. The CE downplays the role of Africans (in favor of Europeans) in the exchange The CE narrowly conceptualizes the process as the transfer of plants and seeds The CE does not give adequate attention to the African knowledge systems that allowed
Old World food crops to survive the New World
12. Tourism creates menial and poorpaying jobs. This perpetuates certain stereotypes about
Most tourists get a partial and distorted view of the Caribbean region
Tourism creates an employmentintensive industry that creates lots of jobs 13. Evo Morales was elected president of Bolivia in 2006, the first person of indigenous
descent in Latin America to hold his country’s highest office
The Water Wars of 19992000
The Gas War of 2003
14. Free and universal health care
A higher life expectancy than the United States
A dramatic increase in food productions for local consumption using largely organic methods after the end of its subsidized trade with the Soviet Union in 1991 and a
tightening the U.S. trade embargo in 1992
Ch. 13 Objectives
1. Which islands separate near Oceania and remote Oceania?
2. Review “why & how” of timespace compression
3. Why do high islands receive more rainfall than low islands?
4. Most linguistically diverse subregion?
5. Syncretic religion in New Zealand between who?
6. New geopolitical center
7. “canary in the coal mine” why? We also discuss several other topics like dna replivation
8. Real problem related to the science of global climate change
9. Australia’s tectonic activity causing what in the upper crust?
10. Why is much of central Australia dry?
11. New Zealand’s location, climate
12. Where does most of the plastic accumulate in the great pacific garbage patch?
13. Options for political status of colonies post WWII
14. What made Pacific trade profitable?
15. Even though some Small Island Developing States might be more economically linked than ever before, what is still impacting economic development?
1. Marshall, Solomon, and Ponnpei
2. Timespace compression: increasing connectedness from improved communication and
Physical distance alone no longer accounts for level of connection
Why and How? Shipping (nodes or pts. Of connection), flights, internet,
telephone, social media= amplification
3. High islands formed by volcanoes (Mauna Kea rivals Mt. Everest 29K) or limestone cliffs. Low islands made of coral reefs= atoll. High islands receive more rainfall because
high elevations create an orographic effect. Low islands rely on storms for precipitation 4. Melanesia
6. Asia Pacific. Extends to Russia, U.S., and India. Global focal point militarily (U.S.,
Russia, China, India, and North Korea)
7. Lowelevation islands. Australia is being affected since 2000. 9 years of drought
followed by torrential rain and flooding, massive cyclones, and raging wildfires 8. Retention of extra energy in atmosphere causing global climate change 9. The Australian plate squeezed eastward from Indian Ocean plate in W, squeezed to the
west from Pacific Plate in E, and Southern Boundary is the midoceanic ridge in
10. The influence from a highpressure cell
11. New Zealand is located off the southeast coast of Australia in the Pacific Ocean, it has a
cold climate because its outside of the tropics
12. They are located in western garbage patch and eastern garbage patch 13.
14. 1956 and on container ships have brought about Pacific trade profitable 15. Remote location impacts eco. Development, Small Island Developing States (SIDS),
Kiribati represents development issues more broadly (limited arable soils, relative location, and environmental vulnerability)
1. The International Date Line marks:
2. Australia has a large number of earthquakes today primarily because: 3. Atolls are comprised of ___ and are formed around ___ volcanoes.
4. Orographic precipitation on high islands
5. The last country in the Pacific Ocean to be occupied by humans was:
6. More than 1,000 distinct languages are spoken in Melanesia because:
7. The Lapita civilization is important to understanding the cultural geography of the Pacific
because the Lapita:
8. After World War II, colonies in the Pacific region were allowed to choose their political status. Each of the following demonstrates one of the three choices offered by the United
Nations Trusteeship Council:
9. The Australian gov. passed the White Australia Policy in 1901 with the primary goal of
keeping migrants from ___ out of Australia.
10. True or False:
Residential segregation of Maori and Pacific islander minority populations is relatively
common in New Zealand
11. Between 1500 and 1950, the center of global trade was the ___, and since the 1950s, the
center of global trade has shifted to the ___.
12. Distance decay assumes directional symmetry and that the actual distance between two places describes the level of connections between the places. Timespace compression
13. True or False:
Small countries like Kiribati are especially vulnerable in the rapidly changing world
economy because they have few products and limited quantities of the products 14. Greenhouse gases are a concern for climate change scientists because the gases: 15. The country with the highest rate of carbon emissions per person in the developed world
1. The new day, to the west of the line from the old day to its east
2. The continent of Australia is being squeezed from the west and east through plate
4. Generates rain on the windward side
Creates dry conditions on the leeward side
Depends on the prevailing winds
5. New Zealand
6. People migrated to the region around 30,000 years ago and had little spatial interaction
with each other
7. Acted like pioneers and purposefully settled beyond Near Oceania and into Remote
8. The Solomon Islands chose to become an independent country
The Hawaiian Islands chose to become integrated into the U.S.
Guam chose to become a protectorate of the U.S.
12. Some places or nodes are more connected by transportation and communication than
Places that are not connected are distanced in the modern world economy The distances between global cities is compressed because of deepening connections
14. Trap energy in the troposphere
15. The U.S.