Final Exam Study Guide
Final Exam Study Guide HY 101
Popular in Western Civ To 1648
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
History 101 Final Exam Study Guide Class notes Medieval Intellectual Life: Medieval Town Medieval Intellectual Life Scholasticism o Based upon efforts to apply the rules of logic to try to prove Christianity o Main ideology of this time o Formal, emphasis on clarity of writing Peter Abelard (1079-1142) o Scholastic method General truth to describe a more specific detail to prove obvious truths Peter Lambard c. 1100-c.1160 o Student of Abelard o Libri Quathor Sententatium (Four Books of Sentences) Standard textbook for theology Brought the contradictions of the Bible and used logic ordering to make them make sense St. Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274 o Professor at the University of Paris o God’s truth must make sense with the truth of our mind Never any confliction between the two o Summa theologica 1266-1273 Left uncompleted Defining theological book for Medieval times Medieval European Universities o Developing for the first time o Bologna c. 1088 o Paris o Oxford o Cambridge o Prague o All divided into 4 faculties Theology Medicine Law Philosophy o All male student started at the age of 14 o All initial controlled by church Medieval Towns and Trade Routes Trade begins to pick up, especially in coastal towns Trade slowly helped tie Europe together to become economic power Italians were middlemen for the trading to and from the East Italians cities o Decentralized government o Independent forms of government o Become cultural and economic centers The Spread of the Black Death Increase in trade routes and population increased the chance of famine and disease More issues in Western Europe Started in Asia, then, through the trade routes, through Italy Renaissance I The Renaissance Period of rebirth Most famous rebirth of culture Humanism o The seven liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music o Reacting directly against the dominant movement, the scholastic (logic system) In Church and universities Useless system, generates the abstract The language was barbaric Latin, lacked eloquence, couldn’t reach the potential audience “Dark Ages” come from the humanist, described the time without the light of knowledge o People can be perfected through knowledge Wanted to change the educational system to be more well rounded by using the seven liberal arts o Philology The study of language, especially the ancient languages o Had more curiosity about the ancient past Looked at ruins o Values: Education based in 7 liberal arts You can make something out of people Useful knowledge; living more meaningful lives Eloquence Cultivation of virtue by being active in the world Valued unique individualisms You should be politically active, businessman, social, “Renaissance man” Italian Renaissance Humanist Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) 1304-1374 o Father of humanism Leonardo Bruni 1370-1444 o Important in the revival of the study of Greek Lorenzo Valla 1407-1457 o Disproved the Constantine donation Leon Battista Alberti 1404-1474 o One of the ultimate Renaissance men o Cultured, highly educated Italian Renaissance Artist Human centered, classical theme, everyday life Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 o Mona Lisa 1503-1506 o Scientist as well as artist o Wanted to portray an atomically correct form Increase in weather patronage of the arts Proportions and naturalistic representation of the body Each artist is unique and an individual for the first time Social status of being an artist increased Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475-1564 o David 1501-1504 o Sistine Chapel 1509-1512 o Big in Florence and Rome Georgio Vasari 1511-1574 o Lives of the Artists Collection of biographies of the artists of this time Many artists knew and practice many diciplines of art The Northern Renaissance Renaissance as it spread out of Italy How did it spread: o Universities Gathered students from around the world to study at the universities in Italy o Art Artwork and artists were brought by the wealthy in Europe o Movement of written works Desiderius Erasmus c. 1466-1536 o Most famous humanist o In Praise of Folly, 1509 Critique of the Church in a witty way o Greek New Testament 1516 (1 edition) Corrected the newer copies Thomas Moore, 1478-1535 o Martyr, English o Utopia 1516 “No place” o Social critic German Renaissance o Shared core values as the Italian Renaissance but some are different: Celebration of heroic German past More concerned with religion More centered at Universities o Tacitus’s Germania This document helped the Germans learn more about the past and their ancestors o Roman Law Civil law especially, they apply this law code all over Europe Politics in Renaissance Italy They big five: Florence, Venice, Milan, Naples, Papal States o Most important political powers o Did not get along, constant warfare, constantly shifting alliances Aimed at preventing one of the big five from getting all the power Constant competition led to innovation Foreign invasion start in 1494 o Milan gets the French to help and send in troops, then Spain gets involved, and the Holy Roman Empire Civic humanism o The humanist began to think more politically o Developed in city-states o Leonardo Bruni – Panegyric to the City of Florence (1403- 1404) and History of the Florentine People (1442) To empower the people of Florence o Francesco Guicuadrini 1483-1540 Recordi Secular political advice Machiavelli 1464-1527 The West’s first political scientist, describes how politics actually is Classical principle of humanism Deeply rejected abstract form of politics st Discourses of Livy c. 1515-1519; 1 published in 1531 o Description of a republic Il Principe (The Prince) c. 1513; 1 published in 1532 o Italy in turmoil, foreign invasion were going on Machiavelli and Luther Nicoló Machiavelli, 1469 – 1527 Wrote The Prince in political and personal turmoil Medici family o Powerful and wealthy banking and merchant family o Ran the show in Venice o Had been in power during the French invasion; goes into exile He becomes an official in the new republic government Medici family comes back into power 1512 o Machiavelli is jailed and tortured for his participation in the republic government o He then is under house arrest and restricted from participating in politics Il Principe (The Prince) c. 1512; 1 published 1532 o Written for the Medici to prove his worth and advice o Fortuna and virtú Two main concepts of the book Fortuna: fortune/fate No control over the circumstances Cannot fall back on a certain set of rules Virtú: virtue/moral Must be relied on Indefinable quality of character that allows the individual to assess political situation and make the best decision Could be trained through education and experience We judge decision on political success, not if it is ethical o Cicero De Officus Major influence; did the opposite of Cicero Left the Humanists surprised Examples: Man vs. beasts Keeping a promise Good, ethical vs. best result Development before Luther Invention of the printing press o Johannes Gutenburg c. 1400-1468 Perfected the printing press o Most famous for the Gutenburg bibles o Becomes extremely important for spreading Luther’s ideas Christian Humanism o Especially present in Northern Europe o To make people better Christians o Wanted to inspire people through eloquence in their work o Tried to get the Bible to the original texts by learning biblical Hebrew and ancient Greek Grievance Literature o Especially present in the Holy Roman Empire o Multiple level of complaints o The world is out of whack The Church wasn’t doing the spiritual requirements Martin Luther, 1483-1546 Relatively comfortable family Father expected Luther to become a lawyer o Sent to University to start his studies; 1505, graduates; in this year, he is caught in a massive thunderstorm, prays for safety in return for becoming a monk and devoting his life to religion o Joins an Augustan monastery 1507, ordained as a priest 1512, professor, teaching theology at Catholic University Obsession rule-following o Confessed way too much Had a mental breakdown over the thought that he would never be good enough 95 Theses 1517 o Indulgences Payment to lessen your time in Purgatory Saints has an abundance of grace, this excess would flow over into the entire Church The Church would dispense this excess in exchange for great donations for the Church The increase in indulgences in the 1500s The Papacy was renovating St. Peter’s Church; sincere religious belief that this luxury was in honor of G-d o Pope Leo X 1513-1521 Cut a deal with the Arch Bishop so he could hold 2 positions at once and so the Pope could pay for all of the renovation by selling indulgences o A formal Latin debate over indulgences o Published, then translated from Latin to German and mass printed without Luther’s knowledge The reformation is not about indulgences o There were a spark to inspire Luther to discuss his opinions more openly Leipzig Disputations 1519 o Public debate between Luther and Johan Eck, 1486-1541 Professor and great debater Challenges Luther to public debate o Eck spent more time disproving Luther Calls out the consequences of Luther’s thinking Led Luther to accept the more radical conclusions of his thinking o Causes Luther to be more of a threat June 1520, Papal threat Writing of 1520, in reaction to the Papal threat o Aug., To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation o Oct., On the Babylonian Captivity Attack of the sacramental system o Nov., On Christian Liberty Most detailed writing on Luther’s thinking and main thoughts Luther is excommunicated Diet of Worms 1521 o Luther is called in front of the emperor to explain his radical thinking and told to recant o When he doesn’t, he is labeled as an imperial outlaw Popularity o Diet of Worms was the first even that is similar to a media sensation due to the printing press Information about it spread quickly o 1518-1525, 1/3 of all the German books were Luther’s work o 1534, first complete version of German Bible was mass produced and was translated by Luther Protestant Reformation: Mainstream and Radical Lutheran Theology o Sola scriptura (salvation be scripture) Everything we know about God and salvation comes from the scripture Not in scripture, not required (but not necessarily bad) Fundamental attack on established traditions and rituals of Catholic Church o Sola fide Salvations on faith along Acceptance of the fact that you will never be good enough, and that is ok because Jesus died for all sins to be forgiven Faith in New Testament Trust that promise of no? o Sola gratia Salvation by Grace alone Salvation is a gift, even though you are underserving God gives you faith through your grace Luther is a predestination Path is chosen for you Nothing more you can do to earn your faith or grace o Priesthood of all believers Ministers: Part of the body of believers, not presiding over them Inner/outer man o Inner is spiritual self o Outer man is the man the world sees Consubstantiation o Communion Bread and wine remain bread and wine but there is a presence of God is felt Confessions of Augsburg o First group of Lutheran setting the guidelines of the church Spread of Lutheranism o Northern Europe is very affected (Norway, Sweden, Parts or Germany) o Political leaders become Church heads State and religion Radical Reformation o Unwanted misunderstanding of Luther’s writings o Drew upon local traditions and beliefs o Thousands of various interpretations groups were all different, but some believed in: Apolcalypticism: world ending soon Ant- clericalism: blaming the clergy for world problems Biblical literalism: Every word is literally true “Reformation by Provocation” o People were scare of reform groups o Luther distanced himself from radical reformers, aligns himself with elites of society to establish state churches Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt o Supported Luther from the beginning o Violent spilt with him over impatience of wanting to change the world now German Peasants’ War 75,000 peasants die Luther initially spilt, but sides with elites, law and order o Quietism Passive disobedience if a leader leads you against something God saves o Anabaptists Munster 1535 Some were pacifists, some were militant radicals Catholic Counter-Reformation Catholic Counter-Reformation Council of Trent 1545-1563 o Series of 3 councils that meet over these 18 years o Starts with Pope Paul III The papacy isn’t a big fan because of the power the council could attain o Accomplishments: Canon of the scripture is settled upon Pope becomes more powerful Discipline, pluralism Revival of papal inquisition o Point-by-point response to Luther o Sacraments established Societas Jesu (Jesuits) o Founded 1537 o Builds on the Augustinian order o Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556 Founder o Takes the form of an army, travels o Church inhabitant Index of Prohibited Books o List of books you shouldn’t have o Mostly protestant works Baroque Art o Religious themes, celebrated Catholic Responses to Protestant Theological Development Sola scriptura? No – tradition is also binding Sola fide? No – works are also necessary Sola gratia? Sort of – grace is essential but we must reach our and take hold of The Stripping of the Altars Duffy The ornate nature of the Churches distracting from inner thinking but it is supposed to honor God Mainstream Protestant Development Jean Calvin o Geneva, originally from France Driven out of France for religists ideas o Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1 edition, 1536 Calvin continuously worked on it and edited it o Pre-destination was the core of his thinking o Calvinism becomes a broad movement Lacked an international governing body Church of England (Anglican Church) o King Henry VII, r. 1509-1547 Wanted to get a divorce, so he created his own church o Used to put the monarchy first, eventually it became more like Lutheranism and Calvinism European Religious Wars Schmalkaldic Wars 1546-1555 o League of Schmalkadic 1531 Unit of mostly Lutheran territories o Emperor Karl V, r. 1519-1556 Catholic o Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555 Legalized Lutheranism Cuius regio, eius religio Whoever rules the territory, decided the religion A commoner could move to territory where they practiced the same religion Didn’t solve the tension French religious/civil wars 1562-1596 o Huguenots – French Calvinist 10% of the population, wealthiest o Monarchy vs. Huguenots o St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre Most violent, memorable day of this war Wedding to patch up tension turned into a blood bath o Edict of Nantes, 1598 Calvinists given protection but still restricted; did not solve the tension either Dutch Revolt (Eighty Years’ War) 1566/68-1648 o King Philip II of Spain, r. 1556-1598 Counter-reformation Catholic Provoked a rebellion by trying to make Catholicism the religion of his territories o Prince William of Orange 1533-1584 Leader of the rebellion English Civil War, 1642-1651 o King Charles I, r. 1625-1649 o Puritans Wanted to purify the Anglican Church of the remaining aspects of the Catholic Church o King is captures, and eventually beheaded o Oliver Cromwell, 1594-1658 A Puritan leader Lord Protector 1653-1658 Rise of the House of Habsburg Habsburg were the ruling family in Austria 1438 Albrecht III elected Holy Roman Emperor o The Habsburgs remained Holy Roman Emperors until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806 1477, Maxilmillian I marries Mary of Burgundy o Habsburgs get Burgundian lands (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Rhineland Territories) 1496, Maximillian and Mary’s son Philip marries Princess Juana of Spain o Habsburgs eventually gets Spain as well as Spanish holding in Italy and New World 1521, Philip and Juana’s son Ferdinand marries Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, eventually bringing these lands to the Habsburgs Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648 Habsburgs versus everyone else Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625 o Letter of Majesty, 1609 Calvinist gets a promises from Habsburg family about their religious freedoms Not kept by Emperor Ferdinand II, r. 1619-1637 o The defenestration of Prague, 1618 Symbolic moment to demonstrate that he didn’t agree with his Catholic administrators by throwing them out of a window of the palace o Battle of White Mountain, 1620 Outside of Prague Loss for the rebels The Danish Phase, 1625-1629 o King Christian IV of Denmark, r. 1588-1648 Not an impressive king Lutheran o Albrecht von Wallenstein, 1583-1639 One of the most powerful generals in the Empire, teds forces to exile the Danish o Danish driven out of the war o Edict of Restitution, 1629 Strict set of laws made to end the war but only made it worse about religion and politics Swedish Phase, 1630-1635 o King Gustavus Adolphus Very impressive general, dies in combat Lutheran o Sack of Megeleburg, 1631 Protestant city Successful siege that led to more than 50% of the population dying o Battle of Breileinfield, 1631 o Battle of Lutzel, 1632 Tactile win o Battle of Nordlingen, 1634 o Peace of Prague, 1635 Many protestant leaders wanted out of this war and came together to make peace; didn’t work French/Final Phase, 1635-1648 o The French had been sending aid to the protestants for a while o Cardinal Richelieu Catholic Church member; in charge of the French government o The addition of the French changes the tide of the war o Westphalia Negotiations Munster Osnabruck The Peace of Westphalia, 1648 Consequences of the War: o Legal changes to legalizes Lutheranism and Calvinism o Violent impact Spread of deceases Violence o End of universalism in Europe o France emerges as the new big power o Psychological No unification, political, religious Theorist of the New Political World Both men came from the war Jean Bodin, 1530-1596 st o Six books of a Commonweale 1 edition, 1576 o Sovereignty: the right to give law regardless of their consent Absolute: the law given power must be unbound, “above the law”, the government need to be able to give laws whether of not the audience agrees, Perpetual: resides in one body, the government continues to exist outside of an individual Invisible: the power stays with the government o Fist political form was the family Father the leader Only natural political bond o Soveirnor should be above religion Thomas Hobbs, 1588-1679 o Similar to Bodin o English; study at Oxford, great intellectual o Everyone is born with a natural freedom o “War of all against all” o rade a little bit of your freedom in exchange for order and peace o Leviathan Discussion Notes The Prince Two big themes: o Virtue: The ability to know when to be morally bod or good, the way you react o Fortune: fate Both themes relate to playing the hand the ruler is dealt On Christian Liberty Faith o Gets you into heaven o Isn’t the same thing as works o Faith in God’s perfection and protection A person can never do enough works in order to safe themselves; must have faith Distinction between inner and outer person o Inner: soul, Outer: body o Soul carries the guilt of sin, but can be forgiven o Good works are a way of disciplining the body The Twelve Articles of the Peasants of Swabia and Admonition to Peace by Martin Luther, pg. 301 German Peasant War Both religions The 12 Articles are written for public view and lords Luther thinks that they should be concerned with politics Paul really influences Luther Institutes of the Christian Religion Catechism by John Calvin, pg. 281 Even if you can’t read, you can visually see the evidence of a higher power in nature and art God is a punisher as well as a blessing Doubt happens Possible Essay Ideas The nature of rulers o Leaders are the elite o Military? The way people/cultures were incorporated into an empire o Alexander to Holy Roman Empire/Habsburg Politics and Religion o The relationship changing o Can both unite (Crusades) or divide (Thirty Years’ War) Keep Moving West, the definition of the west o At the beginning of the semester, we started in Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent being the center of civilization; o Moving more west as the course continues How has civilization changed over time o Government ties to an individual leader o Roman Empire, Frankish Kingdoms, Holy Roman Empire Unification of Europe o Through politics and religion o Describe the fall of this unification Remember to incorporate events from pervious sections and readings. Big Events/Names to Review for Identification Chester Star o 4-key elements of Civilization: presence of firmly unified states, distinct social classes, economical independence, conscience development of the arts Greek “Dark Ages” o C. 1200-700, consequence of isolation, decline in population and cities, no large scale trade, decline in culture and trade Aristotle o Greek philosopher, the polis is the natural way Persian Wars, 490, 480-479 BC o Between Persia and Greece o Battle of Marathon, 490: Athens militia somehow beat Persia Delian League and Peloponnesian League o Athens’s alliances and Sparta Alliances, respectively o Athens starts to abuse its alliances Alexander the Great, r. 336-323 BC o Great military leader who expanded that Macedonian Empire, created Alexandria, integrated they conquered lands well First Triumvirate o Pompey, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar; supporting each other in ruling the Roman Republic; turned into a civil war; Caesar assonated in 44 BC Second Triumvirate o Mark Antony, Octavian/Augustus, Marcus Lepidus; Caesar’s allies during his life; Augustus left in charge Augustus r.27BC -14AD o First emperor of the Roman Empire; brought on the Pax Romana Constantine the Great, r. 306-337 o Edict of Milan 313 (ended the persecution of Christians); founder of Constantinople; first empire to show favor to Christianity St. Benedict of Nursia, c. 480-547 o Established Monte Cassino; created 530 rules for the monastery Charlemagne, r. 768-814 o Frankish King; huge expansion of the Carolingian Frank Kingdom; converted a majority of his people to Christianity; relied of churchmen for a lot of this government Pope Gregory IVV o Reformed the church; wanted to raise moral standard and to keep political leaders outside the church; the Catholic Church can’t be wrong; fought with Emperor Heinrich IV Norman Conquest of England 1066 o King William I, “the Conqueror” 1066-1087; Battle of Hastings deciding factor Pope Urban II, 1088-1099 o Starts the first Crusades at the Council of Clermont, 1095
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