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Final Exam Study Guide

by: Caroline Crews

Final Exam Study Guide HY 101

Caroline Crews

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These notes cover what is necessary for the final exam.
Western Civ To 1648
Daniel Riches
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This 17 page Study Guide was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 197 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
History 101 Final Exam Study Guide Class notes Medieval Intellectual Life: Medieval Town Medieval Intellectual Life  Scholasticism o Based upon efforts to apply the rules of logic to try to prove Christianity o Main ideology of this time o Formal, emphasis on clarity of writing  Peter Abelard (1079-1142) o Scholastic method  General truth to describe a more specific detail to prove obvious truths  Peter Lambard c. 1100-c.1160 o Student of Abelard o Libri Quathor Sententatium (Four Books of Sentences)  Standard textbook for theology  Brought the contradictions of the Bible and used logic ordering to make them make sense  St. Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274 o Professor at the University of Paris o God’s truth must make sense with the truth of our mind  Never any confliction between the two o Summa theologica 1266-1273  Left uncompleted  Defining theological book for Medieval times  Medieval European Universities o Developing for the first time o Bologna c. 1088 o Paris o Oxford o Cambridge o Prague o All divided into 4 faculties  Theology  Medicine  Law  Philosophy o All male student started at the age of 14 o All initial controlled by church Medieval Towns and Trade Routes  Trade begins to pick up, especially in coastal towns  Trade slowly helped tie Europe together to become economic power  Italians were middlemen for the trading to and from the East  Italians cities o Decentralized government o Independent forms of government o Become cultural and economic centers The Spread of the Black Death  Increase in trade routes and population increased the chance of famine and disease  More issues in Western Europe  Started in Asia, then, through the trade routes, through Italy Renaissance I The Renaissance  Period of rebirth  Most famous rebirth of culture  Humanism o The seven liberal arts: grammar, rhetoric, dialectic, arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music o Reacting directly against the dominant movement, the scholastic (logic system)  In Church and universities  Useless system, generates the abstract  The language was barbaric Latin, lacked eloquence, couldn’t reach the potential audience  “Dark Ages” come from the humanist, described the time without the light of knowledge o People can be perfected through knowledge  Wanted to change the educational system to be more well rounded by using the seven liberal arts o Philology  The study of language, especially the ancient languages o Had more curiosity about the ancient past  Looked at ruins o Values:  Education based in 7 liberal arts  You can make something out of people  Useful knowledge; living more meaningful lives  Eloquence  Cultivation of virtue by being active in the world  Valued unique individualisms  You should be politically active, businessman, social, “Renaissance man” Italian Renaissance Humanist  Francesco Petrarca (Petrarch) 1304-1374 o Father of humanism  Leonardo Bruni 1370-1444 o Important in the revival of the study of Greek  Lorenzo Valla 1407-1457 o Disproved the Constantine donation  Leon Battista Alberti 1404-1474 o One of the ultimate Renaissance men o Cultured, highly educated Italian Renaissance Artist  Human centered, classical theme, everyday life  Leonardo da Vinci 1452-1519 o Mona Lisa 1503-1506 o Scientist as well as artist o Wanted to portray an atomically correct form  Increase in weather patronage of the arts  Proportions and naturalistic representation of the body  Each artist is unique and an individual for the first time  Social status of being an artist increased  Michelangelo Buonarroti 1475-1564 o David 1501-1504 o Sistine Chapel 1509-1512 o Big in Florence and Rome  Georgio Vasari 1511-1574 o Lives of the Artists  Collection of biographies of the artists of this time  Many artists knew and practice many diciplines of art The Northern Renaissance  Renaissance as it spread out of Italy  How did it spread: o Universities  Gathered students from around the world to study at the universities in Italy o Art  Artwork and artists were brought by the wealthy in Europe o Movement of written works  Desiderius Erasmus c. 1466-1536 o Most famous humanist o In Praise of Folly, 1509  Critique of the Church in a witty way o Greek New Testament 1516 (1 edition)  Corrected the newer copies  Thomas Moore, 1478-1535 o Martyr, English o Utopia 1516  “No place” o Social critic  German Renaissance o Shared core values as the Italian Renaissance but some are different:  Celebration of heroic German past  More concerned with religion  More centered at Universities o Tacitus’s Germania  This document helped the Germans learn more about the past and their ancestors o Roman Law  Civil law especially, they apply this law code all over Europe Politics in Renaissance Italy  They big five: Florence, Venice, Milan, Naples, Papal States o Most important political powers o Did not get along, constant warfare, constantly shifting alliances  Aimed at preventing one of the big five from getting all the power  Constant competition led to innovation  Foreign invasion start in 1494 o Milan gets the French to help and send in troops, then Spain gets involved, and the Holy Roman Empire  Civic humanism o The humanist began to think more politically o Developed in city-states o Leonardo Bruni – Panegyric to the City of Florence (1403- 1404) and History of the Florentine People (1442)  To empower the people of Florence o Francesco Guicuadrini 1483-1540  Recordi  Secular political advice Machiavelli 1464-1527  The West’s first political scientist, describes how politics actually is  Classical principle of humanism  Deeply rejected abstract form of politics st  Discourses of Livy c. 1515-1519; 1 published in 1531 o Description of a republic  Il Principe (The Prince) c. 1513; 1 published in 1532 o Italy in turmoil, foreign invasion were going on Machiavelli and Luther Nicoló Machiavelli, 1469 – 1527  Wrote The Prince in political and personal turmoil  Medici family o Powerful and wealthy banking and merchant family o Ran the show in Venice o Had been in power during the French invasion; goes into exile  He becomes an official in the new republic government  Medici family comes back into power 1512 o Machiavelli is jailed and tortured for his participation in the republic government o He then is under house arrest and restricted from participating in politics  Il Principe (The Prince) c. 1512; 1 published 1532 o Written for the Medici to prove his worth and advice o Fortuna and virtú  Two main concepts of the book  Fortuna: fortune/fate  No control over the circumstances  Cannot fall back on a certain set of rules  Virtú: virtue/moral  Must be relied on  Indefinable quality of character that allows the individual to assess political situation and make the best decision  Could be trained through education and experience  We judge decision on political success, not if it is ethical o Cicero De Officus  Major influence; did the opposite of Cicero  Left the Humanists surprised  Examples:  Man vs. beasts  Keeping a promise  Good, ethical vs. best result Development before Luther  Invention of the printing press o Johannes Gutenburg c. 1400-1468  Perfected the printing press o Most famous for the Gutenburg bibles o Becomes extremely important for spreading Luther’s ideas  Christian Humanism o Especially present in Northern Europe o To make people better Christians o Wanted to inspire people through eloquence in their work o Tried to get the Bible to the original texts by learning biblical Hebrew and ancient Greek  Grievance Literature o Especially present in the Holy Roman Empire o Multiple level of complaints o The world is out of whack  The Church wasn’t doing the spiritual requirements Martin Luther, 1483-1546  Relatively comfortable family  Father expected Luther to become a lawyer o Sent to University to start his studies; 1505, graduates; in this year, he is caught in a massive thunderstorm, prays for safety in return for becoming a monk and devoting his life to religion o Joins an Augustan monastery  1507, ordained as a priest  1512, professor, teaching theology at Catholic University  Obsession rule-following o Confessed way too much  Had a mental breakdown over the thought that he would never be good enough  95 Theses 1517 o Indulgences  Payment to lessen your time in Purgatory  Saints has an abundance of grace, this excess would flow over into the entire Church  The Church would dispense this excess in exchange for great donations for the Church  The increase in indulgences in the 1500s  The Papacy was renovating St. Peter’s Church; sincere religious belief that this luxury was in honor of G-d o Pope Leo X 1513-1521  Cut a deal with the Arch Bishop so he could hold 2 positions at once and so the Pope could pay for all of the renovation by selling indulgences o A formal Latin debate over indulgences o Published, then translated from Latin to German and mass printed without Luther’s knowledge  The reformation is not about indulgences o There were a spark to inspire Luther to discuss his opinions more openly  Leipzig Disputations 1519 o Public debate between Luther and Johan Eck, 1486-1541  Professor and great debater  Challenges Luther to public debate o Eck spent more time disproving Luther  Calls out the consequences of Luther’s thinking  Led Luther to accept the more radical conclusions of his thinking o Causes Luther to be more of a threat  June 1520, Papal threat  Writing of 1520, in reaction to the Papal threat o Aug., To the Christian Nobility of the German Nation o Oct., On the Babylonian Captivity  Attack of the sacramental system o Nov., On Christian Liberty  Most detailed writing on Luther’s thinking and main thoughts  Luther is excommunicated  Diet of Worms 1521 o Luther is called in front of the emperor to explain his radical thinking and told to recant o When he doesn’t, he is labeled as an imperial outlaw  Popularity o Diet of Worms was the first even that is similar to a media sensation due to the printing press  Information about it spread quickly o 1518-1525, 1/3 of all the German books were Luther’s work o 1534, first complete version of German Bible was mass produced and was translated by Luther Protestant Reformation: Mainstream and Radical  Lutheran Theology o Sola scriptura (salvation be scripture)  Everything we know about God and salvation comes from the scripture  Not in scripture, not required (but not necessarily bad)  Fundamental attack on established traditions and rituals of Catholic Church o Sola fide  Salvations on faith along  Acceptance of the fact that you will never be good enough, and that is ok because Jesus died for all sins to be forgiven  Faith in New Testament  Trust that promise of no? o Sola gratia  Salvation by Grace alone  Salvation is a gift, even though you are underserving  God gives you faith through your grace  Luther is a predestination  Path is chosen for you  Nothing more you can do to earn your faith or grace o Priesthood of all believers  Ministers: Part of the body of believers, not presiding over them  Inner/outer man o Inner is spiritual self o Outer man is the man the world sees  Consubstantiation o Communion  Bread and wine remain bread and wine but there is a presence of God is felt  Confessions of Augsburg o First group of Lutheran setting the guidelines of the church  Spread of Lutheranism o Northern Europe is very affected (Norway, Sweden, Parts or Germany) o Political leaders become Church heads  State and religion  Radical Reformation o Unwanted misunderstanding of Luther’s writings o Drew upon local traditions and beliefs o Thousands of various interpretations groups were all different, but some believed in:  Apolcalypticism: world ending soon  Ant- clericalism: blaming the clergy for world problems  Biblical literalism: Every word is literally true  “Reformation by Provocation” o People were scare of reform groups o Luther distanced himself from radical reformers, aligns himself with elites of society to establish state churches  Thomas Müntzer and Andreas Karlstadt o Supported Luther from the beginning o Violent spilt with him over impatience of wanting to change the world now  German Peasants’ War  75,000 peasants die  Luther initially spilt, but sides with elites, law and order o Quietism  Passive disobedience if a leader leads you against something God saves o Anabaptists  Munster 1535  Some were pacifists, some were militant radicals Catholic Counter-Reformation Catholic Counter-Reformation  Council of Trent 1545-1563 o Series of 3 councils that meet over these 18 years o Starts with Pope Paul III  The papacy isn’t a big fan because of the power the council could attain o Accomplishments:  Canon of the scripture is settled upon  Pope becomes more powerful  Discipline, pluralism  Revival of papal inquisition o Point-by-point response to Luther o Sacraments established  Societas Jesu (Jesuits) o Founded 1537 o Builds on the Augustinian order o Ignatius Loyola 1491-1556  Founder o Takes the form of an army, travels o Church inhabitant  Index of Prohibited Books o List of books you shouldn’t have o Mostly protestant works  Baroque Art o Religious themes, celebrated Catholic Responses to Protestant Theological Development  Sola scriptura? No – tradition is also binding  Sola fide? No – works are also necessary  Sola gratia? Sort of – grace is essential but we must reach our and take hold of The Stripping of the Altars  Duffy  The ornate nature of the Churches distracting from inner thinking but it is supposed to honor God Mainstream Protestant Development  Jean Calvin o Geneva, originally from France  Driven out of France for religists ideas o Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1 edition, 1536  Calvin continuously worked on it and edited it o Pre-destination was the core of his thinking o Calvinism becomes a broad movement  Lacked an international governing body  Church of England (Anglican Church) o King Henry VII, r. 1509-1547  Wanted to get a divorce, so he created his own church o Used to put the monarchy first, eventually it became more like Lutheranism and Calvinism European Religious Wars  Schmalkaldic Wars 1546-1555 o League of Schmalkadic 1531  Unit of mostly Lutheran territories o Emperor Karl V, r. 1519-1556  Catholic o Religious Peace of Augsburg 1555  Legalized Lutheranism  Cuius regio, eius religio  Whoever rules the territory, decided the religion  A commoner could move to territory where they practiced the same religion  Didn’t solve the tension  French religious/civil wars 1562-1596 o Huguenots – French Calvinist  10% of the population, wealthiest o Monarchy vs. Huguenots o St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre  Most violent, memorable day of this war  Wedding to patch up tension turned into a blood bath o Edict of Nantes, 1598  Calvinists given protection but still restricted; did not solve the tension either  Dutch Revolt (Eighty Years’ War) 1566/68-1648 o King Philip II of Spain, r. 1556-1598  Counter-reformation Catholic  Provoked a rebellion by trying to make Catholicism the religion of his territories o Prince William of Orange 1533-1584  Leader of the rebellion  English Civil War, 1642-1651 o King Charles I, r. 1625-1649 o Puritans  Wanted to purify the Anglican Church of the remaining aspects of the Catholic Church o King is captures, and eventually beheaded o Oliver Cromwell, 1594-1658  A Puritan leader  Lord Protector 1653-1658 Rise of the House of Habsburg  Habsburg were the ruling family in Austria  1438 Albrecht III elected Holy Roman Emperor o The Habsburgs remained Holy Roman Emperors until the dissolution of the Empire in 1806  1477, Maxilmillian I marries Mary of Burgundy o Habsburgs get Burgundian lands (Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Rhineland Territories)  1496, Maximillian and Mary’s son Philip marries Princess Juana of Spain o Habsburgs eventually gets Spain as well as Spanish holding in Italy and New World  1521, Philip and Juana’s son Ferdinand marries Princess Anna of Bohemia and Hungary, eventually bringing these lands to the Habsburgs Thirty Years’ War 1618-1648  Habsburgs versus everyone else  Bohemian Phase, 1618-1625 o Letter of Majesty, 1609  Calvinist gets a promises from Habsburg family about their religious freedoms  Not kept by Emperor Ferdinand II, r. 1619-1637 o The defenestration of Prague, 1618  Symbolic moment to demonstrate that he didn’t agree with his Catholic administrators by throwing them out of a window of the palace o Battle of White Mountain, 1620  Outside of Prague  Loss for the rebels  The Danish Phase, 1625-1629 o King Christian IV of Denmark, r. 1588-1648  Not an impressive king  Lutheran o Albrecht von Wallenstein, 1583-1639  One of the most powerful generals in the Empire, teds forces to exile the Danish o Danish driven out of the war o Edict of Restitution, 1629  Strict set of laws made to end the war but only made it worse about religion and politics  Swedish Phase, 1630-1635 o King Gustavus Adolphus  Very impressive general, dies in combat  Lutheran o Sack of Megeleburg, 1631  Protestant city  Successful siege that led to more than 50% of the population dying o Battle of Breileinfield, 1631 o Battle of Lutzel, 1632  Tactile win o Battle of Nordlingen, 1634 o Peace of Prague, 1635  Many protestant leaders wanted out of this war and came together to make peace; didn’t work  French/Final Phase, 1635-1648 o The French had been sending aid to the protestants for a while o Cardinal Richelieu  Catholic Church member; in charge of the French government o The addition of the French changes the tide of the war o Westphalia Negotiations  Munster  Osnabruck  The Peace of Westphalia, 1648  Consequences of the War: o Legal changes to legalizes Lutheranism and Calvinism o Violent impact  Spread of deceases  Violence o End of universalism in Europe o France emerges as the new big power o Psychological  No unification, political, religious Theorist of the New Political World  Both men came from the war  Jean Bodin, 1530-1596 st o Six books of a Commonweale 1 edition, 1576 o Sovereignty: the right to give law regardless of their consent  Absolute: the law given power must be unbound, “above the law”, the government need to be able to give laws whether of not the audience agrees,  Perpetual: resides in one body, the government continues to exist outside of an individual  Invisible: the power stays with the government o Fist political form was the family  Father the leader  Only natural political bond o Soveirnor should be above religion  Thomas Hobbs, 1588-1679 o Similar to Bodin o English; study at Oxford, great intellectual o Everyone is born with a natural freedom o “War of all against all” o rade a little bit of your freedom in exchange for order and peace o Leviathan Discussion Notes The Prince  Two big themes: o Virtue: The ability to know when to be morally bod or good, the way you react o Fortune: fate  Both themes relate to playing the hand the ruler is dealt On Christian Liberty  Faith o Gets you into heaven o Isn’t the same thing as works o Faith in God’s perfection and protection  A person can never do enough works in order to safe themselves; must have faith  Distinction between inner and outer person o Inner: soul, Outer: body o Soul carries the guilt of sin, but can be forgiven o Good works are a way of disciplining the body The Twelve Articles of the Peasants of Swabia and Admonition to Peace by Martin Luther, pg. 301  German Peasant War  Both religions  The 12 Articles are written for public view and lords  Luther thinks that they should be concerned with politics  Paul really influences Luther Institutes of the Christian Religion Catechism by John Calvin, pg. 281  Even if you can’t read, you can visually see the evidence of a higher power in nature and art  God is a punisher as well as a blessing  Doubt happens Possible Essay Ideas  The nature of rulers o Leaders are the elite o Military?  The way people/cultures were incorporated into an empire o Alexander to Holy Roman Empire/Habsburg  Politics and Religion o The relationship changing o Can both unite (Crusades) or divide (Thirty Years’ War)  Keep Moving West, the definition of the west o At the beginning of the semester, we started in Mesopotamia and the Fertile Crescent being the center of civilization; o Moving more west as the course continues  How has civilization changed over time o Government ties to an individual leader o Roman Empire, Frankish Kingdoms, Holy Roman Empire  Unification of Europe o Through politics and religion o Describe the fall of this unification Remember to incorporate events from pervious sections and readings. Big Events/Names to Review for Identification  Chester Star o 4-key elements of Civilization: presence of firmly unified states, distinct social classes, economical independence, conscience development of the arts  Greek “Dark Ages” o C. 1200-700, consequence of isolation, decline in population and cities, no large scale trade, decline in culture and trade  Aristotle o Greek philosopher, the polis is the natural way  Persian Wars, 490, 480-479 BC o Between Persia and Greece o Battle of Marathon, 490: Athens militia somehow beat Persia  Delian League and Peloponnesian League o Athens’s alliances and Sparta Alliances, respectively o Athens starts to abuse its alliances  Alexander the Great, r. 336-323 BC o Great military leader who expanded that Macedonian Empire, created Alexandria, integrated they conquered lands well  First Triumvirate o Pompey, Marcus Crassus, Julius Caesar; supporting each other in ruling the Roman Republic; turned into a civil war; Caesar assonated in 44 BC  Second Triumvirate o Mark Antony, Octavian/Augustus, Marcus Lepidus; Caesar’s allies during his life; Augustus left in charge  Augustus r.27BC -14AD o First emperor of the Roman Empire; brought on the Pax Romana  Constantine the Great, r. 306-337 o Edict of Milan 313 (ended the persecution of Christians); founder of Constantinople; first empire to show favor to Christianity  St. Benedict of Nursia, c. 480-547 o Established Monte Cassino; created 530 rules for the monastery  Charlemagne, r. 768-814 o Frankish King; huge expansion of the Carolingian Frank Kingdom; converted a majority of his people to Christianity; relied of churchmen for a lot of this government  Pope Gregory IVV o Reformed the church; wanted to raise moral standard and to keep political leaders outside the church; the Catholic Church can’t be wrong; fought with Emperor Heinrich IV  Norman Conquest of England 1066 o King William I, “the Conqueror” 1066-1087; Battle of Hastings deciding factor  Pope Urban II, 1088-1099 o Starts the first Crusades at the Council of Clermont, 1095


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