ANTHRO223, Midterm Study Guide
ANTHRO223, Midterm Study Guide ANTH 223
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Emma Cochrane on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANTH 223 at University of Oregon taught by Lynn Stephen in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 199 views. For similar materials see Anthroplogy of Chocolate in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
Anthropology of Chocolate Midterm #1 Study Guide Short Answer Questions: (deﬁne the term and outline its relevance to the broader context of cacao) • Slavery: • Child slaves are sold into slavery to work in cacao farms on the Ivory Coast and Ghana. There are 1.8 million children working in cacao ﬁelds in Ghana and the Ivory Coast. There are many brutal labor practices like trafﬁcking and dangerous work. • Family farming • Many cacao farms in Ghana are family businesses, with everyone in the family from children to adults working to plant, take care of, and harvest the cacao. Most of the family farms are small, only 7 to 10 acres, and the average per capita income in Ghana is $775/person • Worst Forms of Child Labor • Children working 43+ hours a week in dangerous conditions (using machetes, being around harmful chemicals), subject to abuse, trafﬁcking, pornography, prostitution, etc while working as child slaves in the cacao ﬁelds. There are 1.5 million children to be removed from these hazardous conditions Harkin Engel Protocol • • The Harkin Engel Protocol is an international agreement made in 2001 to end dangerous child labor. It was signed by all major chocolate companies. By signing, companies have to condemn the use of dangerous/worst forms of child labor, have to work with other stakeholders to investigate and report on these problems in Ghana and the Ivory Coast, to generate and execute a program to combat abuse, and to create and fund a foundation (International Cocoa Initiative) to over see these efforts (all done by 2002, which didn’t happen) • Protolanguage • Protolanguage is a language that many languages are said to decent from. Protolanguage helps us explain where the origin of the word cacao and chocolate come from. Historical linguistics • • Historical linguistics is the study of the history of language and how languages change over time and relate to each other. Languages often borrow words from each other, so we can analyze where the words “cacao” and “chocolate” came from and how they evolved into the words we have now. • Logogram in a glyph versus phonetic sign in a glyph • Mayan script was a logosyllabic system. Glyphs either represented a word (like kakawa for cacao) or a syllable within a word. Sometimes, a glyph had multiple meanings. • Possible origins of the word cacao The word chocolate comes from the Nahuatl word chocolatl and entered into the • English language from Spanish, where chocolatl became chocolate. The word cacao comes from the Maya word “kakawa” (pronounced kakaw) • Ethnohistory • Ethnohistory uses historical and ethnographic data at its foundation. It uses maps, music, paintings, photography, folklore, oral tradition, ecology, site exploration, language, customs, museum collections, archaeological materials, etc. Ethnohistory can show us where cacao came from and how it was used in ancient societies. • Popul Vuh • The Popul Vuh is the origin story of the Quiche Mayans. It was written in 1548 and is called “The Sacred Book” or the “Book of the Council”. It is the Mayan’s equivalent of the Bible. The Popul Vuh was lost for a century, but has now been translated to Spanish. • Quiche Maya • The Quiche Maya used cacao in their rituals and ceremonies and believed that cacao trees were sacred and contained the path between all four spiritual realms. In the Popul Vuh, the Maya’s sacred book, it is said that the ﬁrst humans were made from cacao and maize. • Theobromine Theobromine is a compound found in chocolate that we have identiﬁed in certain • artifacts that prove that cacao was used in ancient societies. It helps us identify how they used it and what for. • Ritual • Rituals involved a set of ﬁxed actions and often words performed as a part of a ceremony. They operate within the context of a worldview or a belief system. In many Mayan rituals, cacao was used as an offering to the gods or as a way to celebrate. • Rite of Passage • A rite of passage marks the passing of one stage of life and the entry into another stage of life (birth, puberty, marriage, death, etc.). In many rituals, cacao is used as an offering. • Tribute A tribute is a tax on peoples protected within an empire. Defeated people within the • empire were forced to pay the tax in the form of goods and labor. Cacao beans were often given as a tribute. Tribute was an important component of the Aztec society. • Stratiﬁcation • Stratiﬁcation is a system or formation of classes. Cacao was consumed by royals and nobility while commoners never got a taste. • Gendered division of labor • Both men and women worked in the cacao ﬁelds and it was believed that there were more than two genders. For women, death in childbirth was comparable and as honorable as death on the battleﬁeld. Women also fought in battles. Rank and status was just as important as gender and family and lineage were put ahed of gender. • Mexica/Aztec empire • A society in early Mesoamerica who used cacao as currency and as a drink for royals. • Mexica stratiﬁcation system different kinds of ranks 1. Capulli: exogamous kinship and craft groups (leaders). It is made up of ranked patrilineages. People in this rank are allowed to own land. They all share a religion and are educated. There are about 2000 people in each capulli and 200-400 warrior units. The capulli consumed cacao. 2. Nobility (“pipiltin”) 3. Free-men (“macehualtin”): upward mobility possible as knits 4. Serfs (“mayaque”) 5. Slaves (“tlacotin”): Slavery was personal, not hereditary. • There are also intermediary positions. There are merchants (“pochtec”) who formed a class of their own with their own patron God and only marry within their class. There are also artisans (“tolteccatl”) who work for nobles. • Hernan Cortez • Hernan Cortez was a Spanish explorer who followed in Christopher Columbus’ footsteps and went to explore Mesoamerica. He defeated King Montezuma and the Aztec Empire and build Mexico City (formerly Tenochtitlan). During his conquest, he tasted the “royal drink” (cacao) that the king drank 50x a day. He also noticed cacao was being used for currency instead of gold. • Cristobal Colon (Christopher Columbus) • Cristopher Columbus discovered cacao when he sailed on his fourth voyage to Mesoamerica. He brought back cacao to Spain and introduced it to people there. While he was in Mesoamerica, he discovered the Lucayans and decided that they would make good servants and thought they would easily be converted to Christianity. He treated them as lesser and didn’t understand their obsession with chocolate. • Lacayans • These are the people who lived on the island where Christopher Columbus came to. He took a few of them home with him. These people used cacao in their every day life and offered it to Christopher Columbus and his men when they arrived. • Discovery, conquest, encounter • There is a debate of whether Christopher Columbus’s travels to the Lucayos was a discovery, since he discovered the Lucayans and cacao from them, a conquest, because he came in and decided they would be his servants and that they would convert to his religion (and because he brought over small pox), or an encounter, because he ran into the people of the islands. • Louis the XIV • Louis the XIV married Maria Teresa from Spain. Maria Teresa brought cacao with her when she moved to Paris to be with him and realized that chocolate didn’t exist there. She introduced chocolate to the royalty and chocolate became popular within Versailles. • Versailles • Cacao was brought to Versailles by Maria Teresa of Spain when she married Louis the XIV. She introduced cacao to all the people in Versailles and it became very popular. • Royal court of Europe • Cacao was indulged in the royal court of Europe after being introduced to Spain. There was a lot of stratiﬁcation within the court. • Medicinal properties of chocolate in 17th century Europe • There were 4 bodily humors – blood, yellow bile, black bile, and phlegm. Everything was considered either warm, cold, dry, or moist. Chocolate was introduced as medicine and was considered as warm and moist. • Democratization of chocolate in England • Chocolate cafes were started bringing chocolate from the royalty down to the commoners. • Triangular trade: Europe, Africa, Americas • The triangular trade between Europe, Africa, and the Americas brought goods and people back and forth between continents. Cacao, sugar, and slaves were a few of the things moved within the triangular trade. Sources of colonial cacao production • • Cacao wasn’t just produced in Mesoamerica. Cacao was also produced in colonial Africa as well. Essay Questions: 1. Should child labor in cacao production in Ghana and the Ivory Coast be regulated? Why or why not? What should be the standards for that regulation, who should be bound by them, who should enforce those standards, and how? Answer all ﬁve parts to the question. • Child labor should be regulated as it puts over a million children in danger each year. • Family labor should not count as child labor. • Child labor should be deﬁned as child slavery/trafﬁcking (anything that could be dangerous) • There are many ways to regulate it: government, the International Cocoa Initiative, etc. • It should be in the law so that everyone is bound by the standards. • Standards should be enforced by law enforcement and whoever is regulating it. 2. Archaeology has been crucial to helping tell the story of the origins of cacao and its use as a drink among indigenous people. Provide three detailed examples of how archaeologists know that Mayan peoples before the arrival of the Spanish used cacao in a variety of ways. • Theobromine has been found in Mayan artifacts like vases that show that cacao was carried or made inside of it. Archaeologists have found cacao within graves showing that cacao was used in • rituals, like funerals. • Mayan glyphs and the Popul Vuh depict cacao on trees, being offered to the gods, and cacao being used as a drink. There is also a glyph for “kakawa”, their word for cacao. 3. Cacao has always been important in the ritual life of Mesoamerican indigenous peoples and continues to be to this day. For this question, choose a speciﬁc right of passage and the ritual associated with it among the Maya and describe in detail the structure of that ritual, the way that cacao is used, what it means, and what change in status results from the ritual. Then choose a ritual you are familiar with and write a parallel description using either chocolate or another food or drink item. Write a parallel description: the structure of that ritual, the way that cacao or other material is used, what it means, and what change in status results from the ritual. • Mesoamerican rituals: cacao is used in Mayan naming ceremonies (birth of a child), to consecrate marriages, and is offered to dead ancestors (dia de los muertos), etc • American rituals: marriage, death, birthday parties (quinceaneras, sweet 16 & 21), etc. 4. Aztec society as well as the royal courts and populations of Europe were stratiﬁed with extreme differences between those on top and those on the bottom. For the question, describe the different ranks and statuses of people found from top to bottom among the Aztec in 1519 and the ranks and statuses of people from top to bottom in the court of Louis the XIV. Describe the role that chocolate played in both societies, who had the right to drink chocolate, and who produced it. • Aztec society ranks: capulli (royals), nobility, free-men, serfs, and slaves, with intermediary positions (merchants and artisans) • The royals in this society drank chocolate while others used cacao as currency and the commoners farmed the cacao. • Louis XIV’s Court: the royals, Roman Catholic Clergy, nobility, bourgeoisie, city workers, peasants • Royals and nobility drank cacao while others were the ones who made it but never drank it 5. Cacao was usually produced by people who did not necessarily consume it, both in Aztec society and in the royal courts of Europe, such as the court of Louise the XIV in France and the court of Cosimo III de’Medici, the Grand Duke of Tuscany. For this question, describe where and how cacao was produced and arrived in the court of Moctezuma who ruled in 1519, where and how cacao was produced and made its way into the court of Louis XIV of France or the court of Cosimo III de’Medici in Tuscany, and how and why cacao and chocolate were more “democratized” in England before anywhere else in Europe (i.e. much more available to everyone, not just elites) • Cacao/drinking chocolate was brought to the court of Louis XIV by Maria Teresa, whom Louis XIV married. She was from Spain and couldn’t believe that France didn’t have chocolate so she brought it with her when she moved to Versailles. She shared it among the royals/nobility within Versailles. • Moctezuma was the king of Aztec society and drank cacao 50 times a day and also bathed in it. The slaves in the strata harvested and made the drink for him. • When Cortez conquered the Aztecs, he brought cacao back to Spain and it became widely popular there within nobility. • Cacao and chocolate were more democratized in England because England believed that France making cacao only available to the elite was ridiculous. They believed chocolate should be available to anyone who could pay for it and it was on offer for anyone who patronized coffee shops. Chocolate houses were made.
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