PY 358 Final Exam study guide
PY 358 Final Exam study guide PY 358
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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Carolina Chaves on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PY 358 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Andrea Loraine Glenn in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 184 views. For similar materials see Abnormal Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 04/30/16
EXAM 4 Study Guide 1. Sexual Dysfunction a. Disorders related to the desire phase i. What is hypoactive sexual desire disorder? For men, it’s little or no desire to have sex ii. What is female sexual interest/arousal disorder? They have little/no desire for sex iii. What are the causes? BiologicalHormone and neurotransmitter abnormalities (low testosterone; also medication and drugs PsychologicalAnxiety, depression or anger; other psychological disorders SocioculturalSituational pressures, cultural standards and trauma b. Disorders related to the arousal/excitement phase i. What is erectile disorder? Difficulty attaining or maintaining erections ii. What are the causes? Biological Hormones, vascular; Medications and substance abuse(use); Nocturnal Penile Tumescence PsychologicalPerformance anxiety; spectator role SocioculturalJob and marital stress; expectations 1. What is nocturnal penile tumescence used for? It’s a spontaneous erection of the penis during sleep or when waking up. All men without physiological erectile dysfunction experience nocturnal penile tumescence, usually three to five times during the night, typically during REM sleep. 2. What is the spectator role? They feel like they are watching themselves c. Disorders related to the orgasm phase i. What is delayed ejaculation? Also called “impaired ejaculation,” this condition occurs when it takes a prolonged period of sexual stimulation for a man to ejaculate. ii. What is premature ejaculation? More common in younger, less experienced men; uncontrolled ejaculation either before or shortly after sexual penetration. iii. What is female orgasmic disorder? Female orgasmic disorder (FOD) involves difficulty in achieving orgasm, substantially decreased intensity of orgasm, or both. d. Disorders related to pain i. What is dyspareunia? Pain associated with sexual intercourse ii. What is vaginismus? Muscle spasms in the vagina that interfere with penetration 2. Treatment of Sexual Dysfunction a. What are the features of modern sex therapy? 1) Assessing and conceptualizing the problem 2) Interviews 3) Medical exam/history 4) Psychophysiological assessmentdirectly measure the physiological aspects of sexual arousal 5) Medications ii. What is a penile strain gauge used for? It measures of blood flow to the penis, typically used as a proxy for measurement of sexual arousal by measuring the circumference of the penis with the strain gauge. iii. What is a vaginal photoplethysmograph used for? It’s the most common way to assess vaginal blood flow and is widely used to measure genital sexual arousal in women. iv. What is the process of “sensate focus”? Sensate focus exercises offer variety and increased personal awareness through basic touch. Couples start off by spending 30 minutes or so caressing each other through touch alone and not arouse each other to the point of orgasm. Through this process they will reach the point to where they are allowed to touch each other to reach orgasm and may even be allowed to have intercourse. All of this done with positive feelings. 3. Paraphilias a. What does the word paraphilia mean? What are the general criteria? “Para” means abnormal and “Philia” means liking or attraction. General definition: Over a period of at least six months, recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving objects or situations outside the usual sexual norms. b. Know the definitions of the following specific paraphilias: i. Fetishism Sexual attraction to nonliving objects; most of the person’s sexual desire focuses on the object(inanimate) ii. Transvestic Disorder Recurrent need or desire to dress in clothes of the opposite sex to achieve arousal; not the same as gender dysmorphia; mostly male. iii. FrotteurismRecurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, urges, or behaviors involving touching and rubbing against a stranger. iv. Voyeurism Observing an unsuspecting person undressing naked, or having intercourse for the purposes of arousal. v. Exhibitionism Achieving sexual arousal by exposing genitals to unsuspecting strangers; “flashing” vi. Masochism The tendency to derive pleasure, especially sexual gratification, from one’s own pain or humiliation; A person who finds pleasure in selfdenial, submissiveness vii. SadismFind fantasies, urges or behaviors involving the thought or act of psychological or physical suffering of a victim sexually exciting; imagine they have total control over a sexual victim. viii. Pedophilia Sexual attraction to children or young adolescents, usually younger than 13; may be attracted to male or female children, or both; 90% male c. What are some potential causes of paraphilias? i. Inability to develop adequate social relationships with appropriate people for sexual relationships ii. Classical conditioning (how are deviant associations reinforced?) Sexual arousal may become associated with a neutral object if it is repeatedly presented while the individual is aroused. 1. Why might paraphilias exist mostly in males? The focus of a paraphilia is usually very specific and unchanging iii. Strong sex drive May masturbate 34 times a day iv. Extreme suppression of sexual thoughts and masturbation d. Treatment of paraphilias i. What is aversion therapy? The goal is to change the associations and context of deviant sexual arousal patterns from pleasurable to neutral objects. ii. What is covert sensitization? Harmful situations/ consequences iii. What is masturbatory satiation? Make someone have an orgasm; then make then masturbate beyond orgasm; pairs deviant w/ lack of arousal iv. What is orgasmic reorientation? Teaches people to respond to more appropriate sources of sexual stimulation; shown conventional stimuli v. What medications are used? SSRIs help reduce the compulsionlike behaviors Antiandrogens lower the production of testosterone and reduces sex drive; disrupts normal sexual feelings also 4. Gender Dysphoria a. What are the criteria? Strong desire to be rid of one’s sex characteristics Strong desire to be a member of the other gender Strong desire to be treated as a member of the other gender Strong conviction that one has the typical feelings and reactions of the other gender b. When is a person’s gender identity thought to solidify? Between 18 months and 3 years c. What are the advantages and disadvantages of including it in the DSM? Advantage= now people will know how to diagnose Disadvantage= gender identity and sexual orientation are not the same d. Is gender identity related to sexual orientation? NO e. What are the causes? Genetictwin studies; Hormones at critical period during development may masculinize or feminize a fetus. Structural differences in the area of the brain that controls male sex hormones. f. How is it treated? What are the requirements for treatment? Sex reassignment surgery: must live in the oppositesex role for 12 years and stable psychologically, financially and socially g. What is a side effect of hormone treatment? i. Permanent infertility 5. What is Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia? Chromosome female (XX); brains are flooded w/ male hormones in utero, producing mostly male genitalia, but still have ovaries and female internal organs. a. Why does this condition contradict the prenatal hormone link to gender identity? Because they have male hormones but also have female internal organs; prenatal hormone link says that the hormone will masculinize or feminize a fetus and in this case it does not. 6. What is the definition of hermaphrodite? They are born with ambiguous genitalia a. When are physical corrective procedures conducted nowadays? They are usually “assigned” to a particular sex at birth sometimes via surgery or hormone treatments. 7. Sexual Orientation a. Is homosexuality currently considered a disorder? No, it’s not in the DSMV now b. What is gender nonconformity? Few develop the “wrong” gender identity Most likely to develop homo preferences c. Is there a genetic link to homosexuality? 50% concordance among twins d. What is the fraternal birth order effect? What may be the mechanism that results in this effect? The more older brothers a guy has, the more likely they will be gay; this may be because the mother’s body has already had boys so her body releases some female hormones on the last baby boy and it may be the reason this happens. 8. Antisocial Personality Disorder a. What are the criteria? Dramatic, emotional, pervasive disregard/violation of the rights of others occurring since age 15. Has to have 3 or more of the following: Break social norms Deceitfulness Impulsivity or failure to plan ahead Irritability and aggressiveness Reckless disregard for safety of self and others Consistent irresponsibility Lack of remorse b. What is the difference in psychopathy and antisocial PD? People who have psychopathy are superficially charming, glib, they’re fearless and have low anxiety. People who have antisocial PD are deceitful, irritable and aggressive, and have impulsivity or failure to plan ahead. c. Are more incarcerated individuals diagnosed with APD or psychopathy? 5080% of correctional inmates have APD while the vast majority of people with psychopathy do not commit violent crimes. d. What are the criteria for psychopathy? Criteria= superficially charming, glib, egocentric/ grandiose, manipulative, pathological lying, lack of guilt and empathy, shallow emotions, callous, fearlessness, low anxiety, stimulation seeking and they’re impulsive. They tend to be narcissistic e. Is sociopath a scientific term? No! it’s not used in psychology f. What are the biological risk factors for antisocial behavior? 50/50 genetic and environment i. Genetic – what percentage is due to genetic factors? 50% ii. Brain 1. What do the brains of predatory versus affective murderers look like (in the prefrontal cortex)? Reactive aggression (Affective)Felt better after hitting or yelling at someone Proactive aggression (Predatory)Used physical force to get others to do what you want. 2. What does the amygdala do? Is functioning and structure increased or decreased in psychopathic individuals? Involved in generating emotional responses, particularly fear; Conditioninglearning to associate your actions w/someone else’s response; sensitivity to punishment (a lack of) Functioning is decreased in psychopathic individuals because function and interaction are compromised. 3. What does the striatum do? Is the size increased or decreased in psychopathic individuals? The striatum is the input module to the basal ganglia, a neuronal circuit necessary for voluntary movement control. Psychopathic individuals showed a 9.6% increase in striatum volumes. Analyses of subfactors of psychopathy revealed that caudate body volumes were primarily associated with the interpersonal and affective features of psychopathy, while caudate head volumes were primarily associated with the impulsive, stimulationseeking features. g. Treatment of antisocial behavior i. What programs do not work in reducing antisocial behavior? ii. A major obstacle to treatment is the individual’s lack of conscience or desire to change. Most of those in therapy have been forced to participate by an employer, their school, or the law or they come to the attention of therapists when they also develop another psychological disorder. iii. What types of programs do work? Some cognitive therapists try to guide clients with antisocial PD to think about moral issues and about the needs of other people. A structured environment that teaches responsibility toward others. 1. Disorders related to Impulse Control a. Intermittent Explosive Disorder i. What is it? It’s a behavioral disorder characterized by explosive outbursts of anger and violence, often to the point of rage that are disproportionate to the situation at hand (e.g., impulsive screaming triggered by relatively inconsequential events). ii. What may be a cause? Inadequate production of serotonin; moodregulating and behavior inhibiting neurotransmitter iii. How is it treated? Treatment with antidepressants along with behavior therapy akin to anger management b. Gambling disorder (listed with substance use disorders) i. What is it? Persistent and recurrent problematic gambling behavior leading to clinically significant impairment or distress. ii. How can it be treated? CBT, medication, coping skills work best iii. What may have caused pathological gambling in the mayor from San Diego? 2. Mental Health & the Law a. What do forensic psychologists do? Testifying in trials based on clinical evaluations b. Is insanity a legal term or psychological term? Insanity is a legal term not a psychological one Defendants may have mental illness, but not necessarily qualify for legal definition of insanity c. What concepts are included in the Code of Alabama? It is an affirmative defense to a prosecution for any crime that, at the time of the commission of the acts constituting the offense, the defendant, as a result of severe mental disease or defect, was unable to appreciate the nature and quality or wrongfulness of his acts. Mental disease or defect does not otherwise constitute a defense. "Severe mental disease or defect" does not include an abnormality manifested only by repeated criminal or otherwise antisocial conduct. The defendant has the burden of proving the defense of insanity by clear and convincing evidence. d. How often is the Not Guilty by Reason of Insanity defense used? Approximately 25% of those found NGRI e. What requirements must be met for a person to be competent to stand trial? Capacity to understand the criminal process, including the role of participants in that process Ability to assist in own defense through consulting counsel 3. Mental Health & Mass Shootings a. Is autism linked to violence? No, it’s not! b. What is dysphoric mania? Dysphoric mania refers to a group of symptoms that fall under bipolar disorder. Individuals with these symptoms usually experience depression and mania at the same time, which can trouble patients greatly. The combination of depression and the agitated state of mania can lead to extreme behaviors, such as attempted suicide or violence. c. What is selective mutism? Selective Mutism is an anxiety disorder characterized by not speaking outside the home to select individuals or in select settings, which continues for more than 1 month. Most commonly found in children, they understand spoken language and have the ability to speak but often are reluctance to speak in some settings, have a phobia of speaking and fear of people. Selective Mutism is related to severe anxiety, shyness, and social anxiety. d. Know the common myths He just snapped. Usually not sudden and impulsive, but planned out (time to gather weapons, etc.). No one knew. Usually there are multiple warning signs. Problem is determining probability of rare outcome. Greater attention to warning signs will allow us to identify mass killers before they act. Although there are signs, these characteristics are prevalent in the general population and there will undoubtedly be false positives. 4. Aging and Cognitive Disorders a. Disorders found in people of all ages but connected to process of aging i. Depression – features are the same 1. What is it more related to? Often related to medical problems 2. Are the elderly more or less likely to commit suicide? More likely to commit suicide ii. Anxiety iii. Substance use disorders 1. What is a common type of substance abuse in the elderly? alcohol and prescription drugs iv. Psychotic disorders 1. Delusional disorder – what is it? A condition associated with one or more nonbizarre delusions of thinking—such as expressing beliefs that occur in real life such as being poisoned, being stalked, being loved or deceived, or having an illness, provided no other symptoms of schizophrenia are exhibited. b. Disorders of cognition that result from brain abnormalities i. Delirium 1. What are the symptoms? An inability to stay focused on a topic or to switch topics Getting stuck on an idea rather than responding to questions or conversation Being easily distracted by unimportant things Being withdrawn, with little or no activity or little response to the environment 2. What are the causes? Alcohol or sedative drug withdrawal. Drug abuse. Electrolyte or other body chemical disturbances. Infections such as urinary tract infections or pneumonia (more likely in people who already have brain damage from stroke or dementia) Poisons. Surgery. 3. How is it treated? By treating the underlying cause. ii. Neurocognitive Disorders 1. What are they? Includes delirium, mild cognitive impairment and dementia—are characterized by decline from a previously attained level of cognitive functioning. 2. Alzheimer’s Disease a. What are the symptoms and stages? Significant decline in at least one area of cognitive functioning (memory, learning, attention, visual perception, planning, language, social awareness) Presentation changes over time: Mild: Memory impairment, Word finding difficulties, Executive dysfunction Moderate: Continued deterioration of above, Reduced spatial and motor function Severe: Unresponsive, Severe memory loss, Unable to make judgments or solve problems b. What happens in the brain? Senile/amyloid plaques Deposits of proteins between the cells Neurofibrillary tangles Twisted protein fibers within the cells Plaques may cause proteins to break down, which result in tangles, which cause the death of neurons c. Which areas of the brain are primarily affected? Prefrontal lobes: important for shortterm memory Hippocampus and amygdala: important for long term memory 3. Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder a. What causes it? Strokes – blood flow to the brain is cut off Anoxia or hypoxia (lack of oxygen to brain) b. How does it progress? Continued progressive changes in brain pathology and cognitive function; Changes are “stepwise”
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