CJ Test 3
CJ Test 3 CJ 100
Popular in Intro to Criminal Justice
Popular in Criminal Justice
This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Courtney Small on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CJ 100 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Douglas Klutz in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 374 views. For similar materials see Intro to Criminal Justice in Criminal Justice at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
Reviews for CJ Test 3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 04/30/16
CJ 100 Test 3 study guide Violent Crimes • Physical injury or death • Most of these offenders are committed by people who know their victims 1. Murder and no negligent (voluntary) manslaughter o Willful killing of 1 human being to an other (intent is present) o 1st degree: premeditated: intentional killings, felony murder o 2nd degree: unplanned (death at victim was a distinct possibility: reckless action). Involuntary manslaughter o 3rd degree: intentional killing in which the offender had no prior intent (no premeditated) to kill ("heat of passion") 2. Forcible Rape o Used to be "carnal knowledge of a female forcibly against her will" o Update: FBI changed the definition to include male and not just include "forcible" (unconscious, physically, or mentally disabled, drugs/ alcohol, etc.) 3. Robbery o Taking or attempting to take anything of value from the care, custody or control of a person/s by force or threat of force or threat of force or violence and/or by putting victim in fear 4. Aggravated Assault o Unlawful attack by one person upon another for the purpose of inflicting severe or aggravated bodily injury Property Crimes • The object of the theft type offenders is the taking of money or property but there is no force or threat of force against victims 1. Burglary o Unlawful entry of structure to commit a felony of theft o To classify an offense as a burglary, the use of force to gain entry need not have occurred 2. Larceny Theft o Unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession or of an other o Not taken by force and violence or by fraud 3. Arson o Any willful or malicious burning or attempting to burn with or without intent to defend, a dwelling house public building, motor vehicle or aircraft, personal property of another Elements of a Crime 1. Actus Reus-‐ The evil act (guilty act) o Act or conduct that is prohibited o Must be a voluntary act or qualifying omission • Voluntary-‐ Performed consciously as a result of effort (involuntary does not qualify as actus rues) • Omission-‐ Failure to perform an act when physically capable 2. Men’s Rea-‐ Evil mind ("guilty mind") o Level of intent to commit an actus rues o Think about the varying degrees of murder we discussed (and manslaughter): First, Second, Voluntary (Third), Involuntary 3. Attendant Circumstances o Specific circumstances which must surround the actus rues (criminal act) o Examples: Is speeding a crime? 4. Causation of Result o Result-‐ Occurs because of the commission of the actus rues o Example: Convicted of homicide (result-‐death of another human being) Corrections • Community corrections –builds stability employment • $70-‐75 billion/yr. spent in US • <5% world pop but almost 25% world prisoners • 1/100 adults in prison/jail (2.4 mill) • 7.5 mill adults + juv under corrections • Penitentiary (prison)-‐ institution to punish criminals through isolation to reflect on crimes Strict Liability • Narrow range of crimes that are exceptions to the requirement of actus rues + men’s rea=crime Ex. Actus rues but no criminal Intent (means rea) • Offenses that are punished without regard to the individual’s state of mind Bondsmen/Bounty Hunters • Nature of work Bail Bondsmen (Bond) • Private business that loan money to defendants who lack the money to make bail • Charge a fee (5%-‐10%) to put up money to gain defendants release • If charges are dropped or a defendant Is acquitted the bondsman still keeps the fee paid to make bail Bounty Hunting/Bail Enforced Agents • Hired by bondsmen to find defendants who have skipped out on bail ***All the cases *** Pennsylvania System • Penitiaries • Separate confinement-‐inmates in isolation from other inmates in ALL activities • Solitary confinement • Reflect and repent New York System • Rival PA system • Congregate System-‐ Prisoners in isolation @ night but worked with others during the day • Worked under rule of silence and no looking • Industrial efficiency purpose of prison • Contract Labor System-‐Labor sold on contractual basis to private employers, who provided equipment and inmates made products to sell • Strict discipline, obedience was key Cincinnati, 1870 • Reform should be rewarded with release • Indeterminate sentencing guidelines instead of fixed sentences • State and Local gov. pay 90% cost of all correctional activities • Jail à <1yr. commit misfeasors, holding • Prisonà Felonies, long term Models of Incarceration 1. Custodial-‐ security, discipline, order 2. Rehabilitation-‐ Treatment programs (drug courts) 3. Reintegration-‐ Ties to family and community (community corrections) • Majority are #1 Federal Bureau of Prisons: • Congress 1930 • Classified security ranges: Level 1 (least secure) • Level 5 à most secure, “super max”, penitentiary at Florence, Co. • ADX Florence-‐ “Alcatraz of Rockies” State Correctional • 40 States prisons exceed max security • 20K inmates in super max • Cali Pelican Bay Private Prison • Over crowding & rising cost and response • Argue private enterprise can build and run as effectively as govt, lower cost to tax payers • Private facilities hold approx. 6% state prisoners, 15% federal Jail Contemporary Jail • 3400 in US • Constant inmate turnover à Correctional services are usually lacking in jail • Mix of different ages and criminal history = major problem Probation • Conditional release into community (avoids incarceration) • Submitting drug tests curfews and stay away from certain people/areas • 4.2 mill offenders on probation • officers= police officers and social workers o keep clients (offenders) out of trouble o help obtain house, job, treatments o 1930s à 50 unit case load o 1967 à 35 unit caseload o Today à national average for adult supervision is 150, urban> 300 • Ends in ½ ways 1. Offender successfully completes probation pd. 2. Prob status revoked because of a technical violation Parole • Provisional release from prison • Main goals: manage prison pop and rehab Intermediate Sanctions • Fines: sum of money paid to state by convicted as punishment • Restitution: Repayment in $ or service by offender to victim who suffered loss of offense • Forfeiture: gov seizure of property and other assets used in criminal activity Home Confinement: regular offender to remain in home (house arrest) Community Service: unpaid labor Day Reporting Centers: Offender reports each day Trial by Media 1. Definition: Media Decided a. Example: OJ Case i. First big trial by media ii. Former football star, known prior to trial iii. Became a communicator iv. Murder trial People of the senate of California vs. Orenthal James Simpson. Nov. 2, 1994 v. SO much physical Evidence vi. 3 separate crime scenes 1. OJ house 2. Nicole Simpson’s house (where murder occurred) 3. OJ’s car (white bronco) vii. Charged with 2 counts of 1 degree murder (premeditated) viii. Nicole Brown Simpson-‐ ex wife of 2 years murdered violently ix. Ron Goldman-‐ Nicole’s lover (he fought back) x. Key Evidence: 1. History of abuse; domestic violence (jealously) 2. Couldn’t keep story straight à not consistent 3. Warrant issued for arrest 4. Famous car chase 5. Left apparent suicide note 6. Holds gun to his head 7. If innocent, why run from cops? 8. Bronco had OJ and Nicole’s blood on it OJ Simpson • Civil and criminal trial • EDTA à prevents blood from clotting in test tube, not natural • Evidence: o EDTA in blood on OJ socks o Blood on back gate o Bruno Molly Shoes § 300 in world § expensive (ugly and will never wear) § Claimed to not have them; pictures show him wearing them • Mark Fuhrman: o Claimed never to say the N word on the stand; found recording of him saying it o Racially charged language o Falsified police report th § Pleaded the 5 • Reasonable Doubt: Police searched bronco before forensically examined o How crime scene was handled o Mark Fuhrman o EDTA in blood stains • Survival Suit • Plaintiff & Victim Casey Anthony • Her daughter was fstnd dead • Acquitted of 1 degree murder charge (not premeditated) • Acquitted of 1 degree manslaughter (death could be accident) • Lack of physical evidence • Delay in recovering Caylee’s remains • Built case around Casey’s moral character (party life, liar, etc.) • Liar = Murderer • Prosecution Vs. Defense theories • Prosecution à Plea Bargain assumption • Defense à Plead innocent • First Degree Murder vs. aggravated manslaughter • Beyond reasonable doubt-‐ burden of proof • Cause Of Death à undetermined Caylee’s Law • Impose stricter requirements on parents to notify law enforcement of the death or disappearance of a child • Felony is a parent/ legal guardian fails to report a missing child in a timely matter
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'