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BIOL 2120 Final Study Guide

by: Tia Spears

BIOL 2120 Final Study Guide Biol 2120

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Tia Spears
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This is the study guide for the final
Human Anatomy & Physiology 2
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This 73 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tia Spears on Saturday April 30, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biol 2120 at Georgia State University taught by Safer in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy & Physiology 2 in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 04/30/16
Study Guide Final BIOL 2120 1. What are hormones?  long-distance chemical signals that travel in the blood or lymph 2. What are the general functions of the endocrine system?  Functions of the endocrine system o Maintaining homeostasis of blood composition and volume  regulate amount of substances dissolved in blood  e.g., glucose, cations, anions  regulate blood volume, cellular concentration, and platelet number o Controlling reproductive activities  affect development and function  affect expression of sexual behaviors o Regulating development, growth, and metabolism  regulatory roles in embryonic cell division and differentiation  involved in catabolism and anabolism of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids o Controlling digestive processes  influence secretory processes  influence movement through digestive tract 3. What are some of the major endocrine glands?  Major Endocrine Organs o Single organ that is entirely endocrine in function o Include:  pituitary gland  pineal gland  thyroid gland  parathyroid glands  adrenal glands 4. What is the function of melatonin? From which endocrine gland is it secreted?  makes us drowsy  cyclic production with increased levels at night  affects synthesis of hypothalamic hormone o responsible for synthesis of two hormones from anterior pituitary o involved in regulation of reproductive system 5. What is the parathyroid gland? What cells make up this gland? What is the purpose of these cells?  Parathyroid glands o Four nodules on posterior thyroid gland o Two different cell types:  chief cells  source of parathyroid hormone  released in response to decreased blood calcium levels  return blood calcium to normal levels  oxphil cells  function unknown 6. How are endocrine cells within other organs differentiated from the major endocrine organs? What are some examples of endocrine cells within other organs?  Endocrine Cells Within Other Organs o Housed in tissue clusters in specific organs o Secrete one or more hormones  organ with additional primary function o Include:  hypothalamus, skin, thymus  heart, liver, stomach  pancreas, small intestine  kidneys, gonads 7. What are the three kinds of hormones, based on chemical composition that we discussed in class? How are these classes of hormones different from each other? What are some specific examples of each type?  Steroid Hormones o Lipid-soluble molecules synthesized from cholesterol o Includes steroids produced in gonads o Includes steroid synthesized by adrenal cortex  Protein Hormones o Most hormones are in this category o Composed of small chain of amino acids o Water-soluble o Includes polypeptides, between 14 to 199 amino acids  e.g., insulin, glucagon, parathyroid hormone o Includes oligopeptides, between 3 to 10 amino acids  e.g., oxytocin, antidiuretic hormone o Includes glycoproteins  composed of proteins with attached carbohydrate  e.g., follicle-stimulating hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone  Biogenic Amines o Modified amino acids o Includes:  catecholamines released from adrenal medulla  thyroid hormone released from thyroid gland o Water-soluble except for thyroid hormone  contains two tyrosine amino acids containing a nonpolar ring 8. What are the five actions hormones can potentially have on their target cells?  Hormone action on target cells 1. Alter plasma membrane permeability of membrane potential by opening or closing ion channels 2. Stimulate synthesis of proteins or regulatory molecules 3. Activate or deactivate enzyme systems 4. Induce secretory activity 5. Stimulate mitosis 9. Explain in detail how water soluble hormones affect their target cells versus lipid soluble hormones. (hint: think about where the hormonal receptors are and whether or not a G protein is involved versus intracellular receptors and direct gene activation).  Two mechanisms, depending on their chemical nature: 1. Water-soluble hormones (all amino acid–based hormones except thyroid hormone)  Cannot enter the target cells  Act on plasma membrane receptors  Coupled by G proteins to intracellular second messengers that mediate the target cell’s response 2. Lipid-soluble hormones (steroid and thyroid hormones)  Act on intracellular receptors that directly activate genes 10. Target cell activation depends on three factors. What are these three factors?  Target cell activation depends on three factors 1. Blood levels of the hormone 2. Relative number of receptors on or in the target cell 3. Affinity of binding between receptor and hormone 11. What is up regulation? What is down regulation?  Up-regulation—target cells form more receptors in response to the hormone  Down-regulation—target cells lose receptors in response to the hormone 12. How do hormones circulate in the blood? How are hormones removed from the blood?  Hormones circulate in the blood either free or bound o Steroids and thyroid hormone are attached to plasma proteins o All others circulate without carriers  The concentration of a circulating hormone reflects: o Rate of release o Speed of inactivation and removal from the body  Hormones are removed from the blood by o Degrading enzymes o Kidneys o Liver o Half-life—the time required for a hormone’s blood level to decrease by half 13. How are blood levels of hormones controlled?  Blood levels of hormones o Are controlled by negative feedback systems o Vary only within a narrow desirable range  Endocrine reflexes o Regulated secretion of hormone controlled through reflex 14. Compare and contrast the three types of stimulation that can lead to hormonal secretion? Give examples of each.  Hormonal Stimuli o Hormones stimulate other endocrine organs to release their hormones  Hypothalamic hormones stimulate the release of most anterior pituitary hormones  Anterior pituitary hormones stimulate targets to secrete still more hormones  Hypothalamic-pituitary-target endocrine organ feedback loop: hormones from the final target organs inhibit the release of the anterior pituitary hormones  Humoral Stimuli o Changing blood levels of ions and nutrients directly stimulates secretion of hormones 2+ o Example: Ca in the blood 2+  Declining blood Ca concentration stimulates the parathyroid glands to secrete PTH (parathyroid hormone)  PTH causes Ca concentrations to rise and the stimulus is removed o Pancreatic hormones  Neural Stimuli o Nerve fibers stimulate hormone release  Sympathetic nervous system fibers stimulate the adrenal medulla to secrete catecholamines 15. In detail describe pituitary-hypothalamic relationships. How does the hypothalamus interact with the posterior pituitary versus the anterior pituitary? What specific hormones are associated with each lobe of the pituitary?  The pituitary gland (hypophysis) has two major lobes 1. Posterior pituitary (lobe):  Pituicytes (glial-like supporting cells) and nerve fibers 2. Anterior pituitary (lobe) (adenohypophysis)  Glandular tissue  Posterior lobe o A downgrowth of hypothalamic neural tissue o Neural connection to the hypothalamus (hypothalamic-hypophyseal tract) o Nuclei of the hypothalamus synthesize the neurohormones oxytocin and antidiuretic hormone (ADH) o Neurohormones are transported to the posterior pituitary 16. Describe the anatomy of the pancreas. Where is the pancreas located? Why is the pancreas considered an endocrine and exocrine organ? How are pancreatic acini cells different from the pancreatic islet cells? Which cells produce glucagon? Which cells produce insulin?  Pancreas characteristics o Elongated organ between duodenum and spleen o Posterior to the stomach o Performs exocrine and endocrine activities o Mostly composed of groups of cells, pancreatic acini  pancreatic secretion  secreted through pancreatic ducts into small intestine o Pancreatic islet cells  small clusters of endocrine cells scattered among acini  1% of total pancreatic volume  composed of two primary cell types:  alpha cells secreting glucagon  beta cells secreting insulin  other minor cell types, delta cells and F cells  secrete somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide respectively 17. Describe in detail how blood glucose levels are maintained by insulin and glucagon. Insulin:  Insulin released from pancreas following food intake  Glucose levels detected by chemoreceptors  Target cells bound by insulin o activates second messengers in target cells  In hepatocytes o glycogenesis stimulated o glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis inhibited o glucose molecules removed from blood and stored as glycogen  In adipose tissue o lipogenesis stimulated and lipolysis inhibited o decreased fatty acid levels in blood o storage of fat increased  Release of insulin o results in decrease in all nutrients in blood o increase in synthesis of storage forms of molecules o decrease of alternative nutrients  cells more likely to use available glucose o decreases with decreased glucose levels  Insulin not required for glucose uptake in all cells o e.g., nervous tissue, kidney o hepatocytes, erythrocytes o take up glucose independently 18. What are some complications from diabetes? Compare and contrast the following: type I diabetes, type II diabetes, gestational diabetes, and hypoglycemia.  Diabetes mellitus o inadequate uptake of glucose from blood o with chronically elevated glucose, blood vessels damaged o leading cause of retinal blindness, kidney failure, and nontraumatic amputations in the United States o associated with increased heart disease and stroke  Type 1 diabetes (insulin absent) o absent or diminished release of insulin by pancreas o tends to occur in children and younger individuals o may have autoimmune component o requires daily injections of insulin  Type 2 diabetes (insulin ineffective) o from decreased insulin release or insulin effectiveness o obesity major cause in development o tends to occur in older individuals, but can occur in young adults o treatment with diet, exercise, and medications  Gestational diabetes o seen in some pregnant women o if untreated, causes risk to fetus and increases delivery complications o increases chance of later developing type 2 diabetes  Hypoglycemia o glucose levels below 60 mg/DL o numerous causes:  insulin overdose, prolonged exercise, alcohol use, liver or kidney dysfunction  deficiency of glucocorticoids or growth hormone, genetics  symptoms of hunger, dizziness, confusion, sweating, and sleepiness  glucagon given if individual unconscious and unable to eat 19. What are the four components of blood? Which are formed elements? What is each components function?  Blood components o Formed elements and plasma o Formed elements:  erythrocytes, leukocytes, platelets  Erythrocytes  transport respiratory gases in the blood  Leukocytes  defend against pathogens  Platelets  help clot blood  prevent blood loss from damaged vessels  Plasma  fluid portion of blood  contains plasma proteins and dissolved solutes 20. Describe in detail the three functions of blood.  Transportation o Transports formed elements and dissolved molecules and ions o Carries oxygen from and carbon dioxide to lungs o Transports nutrients, hormones, heat and waste products o “Delivery system” for the body  Regulation o Regulates body temperature  absorbs heat from body cells  released from blood at body surface  as blood transported through vessels of the skin o Regulates body pH  absorbs acids and base from body cells  contains chemical buffers that bind and release hydrogen ions o Regulates fluid balance  water added to blood from GI tract  water lost in urine, skin  exchange of fluid between blood plasma and interstitial fluid  contains proteins and ions  exert osmotic pressure  pulls fluid back into capillaries  Protection o Contains leukocytes, plasma proteins, other molecules  help protect the body from harmful substances o Platelets and plasma proteins  help protect body against blood loss 21. When whole blood it separates into three components. Explain what these components are and what percentage of whole blood they make up.  1. Erythrocytes o lower layer of centrifuged blood o 44% of sample  2. Buffy coat o middle slightly gray-white layer o composed of leukocytes and platelets o less than 1% of sample  3. Plasma o straw colored liquid at top of tube o remaining sample 22. What is hemocrit? Why do males have a higher count hemocrit than females?  Hematocrit o percentage of volume of formed elements o clinical definition: percentage of only erythrocytes o adult males between 42 and 56 percent o adult females between 38 and 46 percent o males with higher hematocrit due to testosterone  stimulates kidney to produce more erythropoietin  promotes erythrocyte production 23. What is plasma composed of? Blood considered a colloid, why? Where are most blood plasma proteins made?  Plasma o Composed of  water (92%)  plasma proteins (7%)  dissolved molecules and ions (1%) o Extracellular fluid o Similar composition to interstitial fluid o Protein concentration higher in plasma than interstitial fluid  Plasma proteins o Blood considered a colloid  contains proteins in plasma o Include  albumin, globulins, fibrinogen, and other clotting proteins  enzymes and some hormones o Most produced in the liver o Others produced by leukocytes and other organs 24. What is colloid osmotic pressure? Why is it important? What factors can influence or affect colloid osmotic pressure?  Colloid osmotic pressure o Osmotic pressure exerted by plasma proteins  prevent loss of fluid from blood as moves through capillaries  helps maintain blood volume and blood pressure o Can be decreased with disease  e.g., liver disease, resulting in decreased production of plasma proteins  e.g., kidney damage, increasing elimination of plasma proteins  result in fluid loss from blood  results in fluid retention in interstitial space 25. What are the different types of blood plasma proteins? What percentage of plasma is made up of each? What are the functions of each type of blood plasma protein?  Albumins o Smallest and most abundant plasma proteins o Make up 58% of total proteins o Exerts greatest colloid osmotic pressure  helps maintain blood volume and pressure o Act as transport proteins  Carry ions, hormones, some lipids  Globulins o Second largest group of plasma proteins o Make up 37% of total proteins  transport some water-insoluble molecules, hormones, metals, ions  also called immunoglobulins or antibodies  play part in body’s defenses  Fibrinogen o Make up 4% of total proteins o Contributes to blood clot formation o Following trauma, converted to insoluble fibrin strands o Plasma with clotting proteins removed  termed serum  Regulatory proteins o Less than 1% of total proteins o Includes  enzymes to accelerate chemical reactions  some hormones (e.g., insulin) 26. Why is blood considered a solution? What types are solutes are found in blood?  Blood considered a solution o Contains dissolved organic and inorganic molecules and ions o Include electrolytes, nutrients, gases, waste products o Polar or charged substances dissolving easily o Nonpolar molecules requiring transporter protein  Nitrogenous by-products of metabolism—lactic acid, urea, creatinine  Nutrients—glucose, carbohydrates, amino acids  Electrolytes—Na , K , Ca , Cl , HCO 3  Respiratory gases—O and CO 2 2  Hormones 27. Explain the structure and function of erythrocytes (RBCs).  Erythrocytes o Biconcave discs, anucleate, essentially no organelles o Filled with hemoglobin (Hb) for gas transport o Contain the plasma membrane protein spectrin and other proteins  Provide flexibility to change shape as necessary o Are the major factor contributing to blood viscosity o Structural characteristics contribute to gas transport  Biconcave shape—huge surface area relative to volume  >97% hemoglobin (not counting water) 28. What is the hemoglobin? What is hemoglobin’s structure? What are the different forms of hemoglobin?  Hemoglobin (Hb) o Hemoglobin structure  Protein globin: two alpha and two beta chains  Heme pigment bonded to each globin chain o Iron atom in each heme can bind to one O molecule 2 o Each Hb molecule can transport four2O o O2loading in the lungs  Produces oxyhemoglobin (ruby red) o O2unloading in the tissues  Produces deoxyhemoglobin or reduced hemoglobin (dark red) o CO2loading in the tissues  Produces carbaminohemoglobin (carries 20% of CO2in the blood) 29. What is hematopoiesis? Where does hematopoiesis occur? What are hemocytoblasts?  Hematopoiesis o Hematopoiesis (hemopoiesis): blood cell formation  Occurs in red bone marrow of axial skeleton, girdles and proximal epiphyses of humerus and femur  Hemocytoblasts (hematopoietic stem cells) o Give rise to all formed elements o Hormones and growth factors push the cell toward a specific pathway of blood cell development  New blood cells enter blood sinusoids 30. What is erythropoiesis? Explain in detail the phases of erythropoiesis including the hormonal mechanisms that control the process.  Erythropoiesis o Erythropoiesis: red blood cell production o A hemocytoblast is transformed into a proerythroblast o Proerythroblasts develop into early erythroblasts o Phases in development 1. Ribosome synthesis 2. Hemoglobin accumulation 3. Ejection of the nucleus and formation of reticulocytes o Reticulocytes then become mature erythrocytes 31. How long to RBCs live? What happens to the components of RBCs as they are broken down?  Life span: 100–120 days  Old RBCs become fragile, and Hb begins to degenerate  Macrophages engulf dying RBCs in the spleen  Heme and globin are separated o Iron is salvaged for reuse o Heme is degraded to yellow the pigment bilirubin o Liver secretes bilirubin (in bile)) into the intestines o Degraded pigment leaves the body in feces as stercobilin o Globin is metabolized into amino acids 32. What is anemia? Specifically, what is sickle-cell anemia? What causes sickle-cell anemia?  Anemia: blood has abnormally low O -carrying capacity 2 o A sign rather than a disease itself o Blood O2levels cannot support normal metabolism o Accompanied by fatigue, paleness, shortness of breath, and chills 33. What are leukocytes? What is leukocytosis?  Leukocytes o Make up <1% of total blood volume o Can leave capillaries via diapedesis o Move through tissue spaces by ameboid motion and positive chemotaxis o Leukocytosis: WBC count over 11,000/mm3  Normal response to bacterial or viral invasion 34. What are granulocytes? What are the different types of agranulocytes, and what are their functions?  Granulocytes o Cytoplasmic granules stain specifically with Wright’s stain o Larger and shorter-lived than RBCs o Lobed nuclei o Phagocytic  Neutrophils – kill bacteria  Eosinophils – kill parasites  Basophils - Large, purplish-black (basophilic) granules contain histamine  35. What are agranulocytes? What are the different types of agranulocytes, and what are their functions?  Agranulocytes o Agranulocytes: lymphocytes and monocytes o Lack visible cytoplasmic granules o Have spherical or kidney-shaped nuclei 36. Describe the process of leukopoiesis.  Leukopoiesis o Production of WBCs o Stimulated by chemical messengers from bone marrow and mature WBCs  Interleukins (e.g., IL-1, IL-2)  Colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) named for the WBC type they stimulate (e.g., granulocyte-CSF stimulates granulocytes) o All leukocytes originate from hemocytoblasts 37. What is leukopenia? What is leukemia?  Leukopenia o Abnormally low WBC count—drug induced  Leukemias o Cancerous conditions involving WBCs o Named according to the abnormal WBC clone involved o Myelocytic leukemia involves myeloblasts o Lymphocytic leukemia involves lymphocytes  Acute leukemia involves blast-type cells and primarily affects children  Chronic leukemia is more prevalent in older people  Bone marrow totally occupied with cancerous leukocytes  Immature nonfunctional WBCs in the bloodstream  Death caused by internal hemorrhage and overwhelming infections  Treatments include irradiation, antileukemic drugs, and stem cell transplants 38. What are platelets? Describe the process of thrombopoiesis .  Platelets o Small fragments of megakaryocytes o Formation is regulated by thrombopoietin o Blue-staining outer region, purple granules o Granules contain serotonin, Ca , enzymes, ADP, and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) o Form a temporary platelet plug that helps seal breaks in blood vessels o Circulating platelets are kept inactive and mobile by NO and prostacyclin from endothelial cells of blood vessels 39. What is a thrombus? What is an embolus, and how can these conditions be prevented?  Thrombus: clot that develops and persists in an unbroken blood vessel o May block circulation, leading to tissue death  Embolus: a thrombus freely floating in the blood stream o Pulmonary emboli impair the ability of the body to obtain oxygen o Cerebral emboli can cause strokes  Prevented by o Aspirin  Antiprostaglandin that inhibits thromboxane A2 o Heparin  Anticoagulant used clinically for pre- and postoperative cardiac care o Warfarin  Used for those prone to atrial fibrillation 40. Describe the ABO and Rh blood groups. Why is it important to know a person’s blood type? What groups can receive blood from each other and what groups can donate blood to each other and why? Explain agglutination.  There are 45 different Rh agglutinogens (Rh factors)  C, D, and E are most common  Rh indicates presence of D  Anti-Rh antibodies are not spontaneously formed in Rh individuals  Anti-Rh antibodies form if an Rh individual receives Rh blood  A second exposure to Rh blood will result in a typical transfusion reaction 41. What are some examples of diagnostic blood tests? Why are they important?  Hematocrit  Blood glucose tests  Microscopic examination reveals variations in size and shape of RBCs, indications of anemias  Differential WBC count  Prothrombin time and platelet counts assess hemostasis  SMAC, a blood chemistry profile  Complete blood count (CBC) 42. Describe coronary circulation. What and where are the major coronary arteries and veins?  Coronary circulation is the functional blood supply to the heart muscle itself.  Major arteries: Right and left coronary (in atrioventricular groove), marginal, circumflex, and anterior interventricular arteries.  Major veins: Small cardiac, anterior cardiac, and great cardiac veins Describe the valves in the heart. Where are they located and what are their names and functions (i.e. when do they open and close)?  Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood flow through the heart.  Atrioventricular (AV) valves o Prevent backflow into the atria when ventricles contract o Tricuspid valve (right) o Mitral valve (left)  Chordae tendineae anchor AV valve cusps to papillary muscles  Semilunar (SL) valves o Prevent backflow into the ventricles when ventricles relax o Aortic semilunar valve o Pulmonary semilunar valve 43. Describe the microscopic anatomy of a heart cell.  Cardiac muscle cells are striated, short, fat, branched, and interconnected  Connective tissue matrix (endomysium) connects to the fibrous skeleton  T tubules are wide but less numerous; SR is simpler than in skeletal muscle  Numerous large mitochondria (25–35% of cell volume)  Intercalated discs: junctions between cells anchor cardiac cells  Gap junctions allow ions to pass; electrically couple adjacent cells  Desmosomes prevent cells from separating during contraction  Heart muscle behaves as a functional syncytium 44. In detail describe the electrical events of how a cardiac muscle cell contracts.  Depolarization of the heart is rhythmic and spontaneous  About 1% of cardiac cells have automaticity— (are self-excitable)  Gap junctions ensure the heart contracts as a unit  Long absolute refractory period (250 ms)  Depolarization opens voltage-gated fast Na+ channels in the sarcolemma  Reversal of membrane potential from –90 mV to +30 mV  Depolarization wave in T tubules causes the SR to release Ca2+  Depolarization wave also opens slow Ca2+ channels in the sarcolemma  Ca2+ surge prolongs the depolarization phase (plateau)  Ca2+ influx triggers opening of Ca2+-sensitive channels in the SR, which liberates bursts of Ca2+  E-C coupling occurs as Ca2+ binds to troponin and sliding of the filaments begins  Duration of the AP and the contractile phase is much greater in cardiac muscle than in skeletal muscle  Repolarization results from inactivation of Ca2+ channels and opening of voltage- gated K+ channels 45. Describe the sequence of excitation in the conduction system of the heart. What role do the pacemaker cells play and how do they generate APs?  Sinoatrial (SA) node (pacemaker) o Generates impulses about 75 times/minute (sinus rhythm) o Depolarizes faster than any other part of the myocardium  Atrioventricular (AV) node o Smaller diameter fibers; fewer gap junctions o Delays impulses approximately 0.1 second o Depolarizes 50 times per minute in absence of SA node input  Atrioventricular (AV) bundle (bundle of His) o Only electrical connection between the atria and ventricles  Right and left bundle branches o Two pathways in the interventricular septum that carry the impulses toward the apex of the heart  Purkinje fibers o Complete the pathway into the apex and ventricular walls o AV bundle and Purkinje fibers depolarize only 30 times per minute in absence of AV node input 46. Where are the cardiac centers in the brain? How is the heartbeat modified by the autonomic nervous system?  Cardiac centers are located in the medulla oblongata  Cardioacceleratory center innervates SA and AV nodes, heart muscle, and coronary arteries through sympathetic neurons. Cardioinhibitory center inhibits SA and AV nodes through parasympathetic fibers in the vagus nerves 47. What is an electrocardiogram? What are the three waves associated with an electrocardiogram and their corresponding electrical events?  Electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG): a composite of all the action potentials generated by nodal and contractile cells at a given time  Three waves: 1. P wave: depolarization of SA node 2. QRS complex: ventricular depolarization 3. T wave: ventricular repolarization 48. What are sounds that the heart makes? What events are these sounds associated with?  Two sounds (lub-dup) associated with closing of heart valves  First sound (lub) occurs as AV valves close and signifies beginning of systole (contraction). Second sound (dub) occurs when SL valves close at the beginning of ventricular diastole (relaxation). 49. What is the cardiac cycle? Detail the events of the cardiac cycle.  Cardiac cycle: all events associated with blood flow through the heart during one complete heartbeat  Events: 1. Ventricular filling—takes place in mid-to-late diastole  AV valves are open  80% of blood passively flows into ventricles  Atrial systole occurs, delivering the remaining 20%  End diastolic volume (EDV): volume of blood in each ventricle at the end of ventricular diastole 2. Ventricular systole  Atria relax and ventricles begin to contract  Rising ventricular pressure results in closing of AV valves  Isovolumetric contraction phase (all valves are closed)  In ejection phase, ventricular pressure exceeds pressure in the large arteries, forcing the SL valves open  End systolic volume (ESV): volume of blood remaining in each ventricle 3. Isovolumetric relaxation occurs in early diastole  Ventricles relax  Backflow of blood in aorta and pulmonary trunk closes SL valves and causes dicrotic notch (brief rise in aortic pressure) 50. What is cardiac output? What are the variables involved in calculating CO and SV? What are three main factors that affect SV?  Cardiac output is the volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one minute.  CO = heart rate (HR) x stroke volume (SV) o HR = number of beats per minute o SV = volume of blood pumped out by a ventricle with each beat  SV = EDV – ESV o EDV stands for end diastolic volume in the ventricles, the amount of blood collecting in the ventricle during diastole o ESV stands for end systolic volume, blood remaining in ventricle after contraction  Three main factors affect SV: o Preload o Contractility o Afterload 51. Describe homeostatic imbalances of the heart.  Defects in the intrinsic conduction system may result in 1. Arrhythmias: irregular heart rhythms 2. Uncoordinated atrial and ventricular contractions 3. Fibrillation: rapid, irregular contractions; useless for pumping blood  Defective SA node may result in 1. Ectopic focus: abnormal pacemaker takes over 2. If AV node takes over, there will be a junctional rhythm (40–60 bpm)  Defective AV node may result in 1. Partial or total heart block 2. Few or no impulses from SA node reach the ventricles  Tachycardia: abnormally fast heart rate (>100 bpm) 1. If persistent, may lead to fibrillation  Bradycardia: heart rate slower than 60 bpm 1. May result in grossly inadequate blood circulation 2. May be desirable result of endurance training 52. Briefly discuss the embryology of the heart and congenital heart defects.  Embryology of the heart o Embryonic heart chambers  Sinus venous  Atrium  Ventricle  Bulbus cordis o Fetal heart structures that bypass pulmonary circulation o Foramen ovale connects the two atria o Ductus arteriosus connects the pulmonary trunk and the aorta  Congenital heart defects o Lead to mixing of systemic and pulmonary blood o Involve narrowed valves or vessels that increase the workload on the heart 53. What happens to the heart as we age? What is congestive heart failure?  As the heart ages, Sclerosis and of valve flaps thicken, cardiac reserve decline, fibrosis of cardiac muscle, and Atherosclerosis.  Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a progressive condition where the CO is so low that blood circulation is inadequate to meet tissue needs. 1. What are the three types of blood vessels and their general functions?  Three types of blood vessels: o Arteries  convey blood from heart to capillaries o Capillaries  microscopic porous blood vessels  exchange substances between blood and tissues o Veins  drain blood from capillaries  transport it back to heart 2. Differentiate between the tunica intima, tunica media, and tunica externa.  Tunics o Tunica intima  innermost layer of vessel  has endothelial component (simple squamous epithelium)  facing lumen  has subendothelial layer of areolar connective tissue o Tunica media  middle layer of vessel  circularly arranged layers of smooth muscle cells with elastic fibers  contraction causing vasoconstriction  narrowing of vessel lumen  relaxation causing vasodilation  widening of vessel lumen o Tunica externa  outermost layer of vessel  areolar connective tissue with elastic and collagen fibers  helps anchor vessel to other structures  may contain vasa vasorum  small arteries required to supply very large vessels 3. Describe the following vessel types based on structure and function a. Companion vessels o arteries and veins supplying same body region o tend to lie next to one another b. Arteries o have thick tunica media and narrower lumen o have more elastic and collagen fibers o can spring back to shape o more resistant to changes in blood pressure c. Veins o have thicker tunica externa and larger lumen o less elastic and collagen fibers o wall collapsed if no blood in it d. Capillaries o contain only tunica intima o composed of endothelium and basement membrane o lack subendothelial layer o allow for rapid gas and nutrient exchange 4. What are the three different types of arteries? Describe them.  Three basic types: o elastic arteries  Largest arteries with diameters from 2.5 to 1 cm  Conduct blood from heart to smaller muscular arteries  Have large proportion of elastic fibers o muscular arteries  Medium arteries with diameters from 1 cm to 3 mm  Distribute blood to specific body regions  Have greater amounts of muscle, less elastic tissue  better able to vasoconstrict and vasodilate  less able to stretch  Have elastic tissue in two layers  internal elastic lamina between tunica intima and tunica media  external elastic lamina between tunica media and tunica externa o arterioles  Smallest arteries with diameters 3 mm to 10 micrometers  Have fewer layers of smooth muscle  Larger arterioles  with three tunics  Smaller arterioles  with thin endothelium and single layer smooth muscle  Smooth muscle usually somewhat constricted  called vasomotor tone  regulated by vasomotor center in brainstem  Regulate systemic blood pressure and blood flow 5. What are the three different types of capillaries? Describe them.  Three structural types: 1. Continuous capillaries  Abundant in the skin and muscles  Continuous capillaries of the brain 2. Fenestrated capillaries  Some endothelial cells contain pores (fenestrations)  More permeable than continuous capillaries  Function in absorption or filtrate formation (small intestines, endocrine glands, and kidneys) 3. Sinusoidal capillaries (sinusoids)  Fewer tight junctions, larger intercellular clefts, large lumens  Usually fenestrated  Allow large molecules and blood cells to pass between the blood and surrounding tissues  Found in the liver, bone marrow, spleen 54. What are capillary beds? What are the two types of vessels associated with capillary beds? Describe how blood flows through capillary beds.  Capillary beds are interwoven networks of capillaries form the microcirculation between arterioles and venules.  Consist of two types of vessels 1. Vascular shunt (metarteriole—thoroughfare channel):  Directly connects the terminal arteriole and a postcapillary venule 2. True capillaries  10 to 100 exchange vessels per capillary bed  Branch off the metarteriole or terminal arteriole  Blood flows through capillary beds by the precapillary sphincters regulating blood flow into true capillaries. Then they are regulated by local chemical conditions and vasomotor nerves. 55. How does capillary exchange work? Where does water enter and exit the capillary? How do solutes and gases move into and out of capillaries?  Capillary Exchange: o Capillaries are very narrow and tiny RBCs must go through single file o Walls of capillaries are very thin to facilitate diffusion of nutrients, gases, and wastes  Water exits a capillary near the arterial end and enters a capillary near the venous end. o Solutes diffuse into and out of a capillary according to their concentration gradient o Oxygen and nutrients diffuse out of capillaries o Carbon dioxide and wastes diffuse into the capillary  Small solutes diffuse via endothelial cells or intercellular clefts. Larger solutes pass through fenestrations or gaps in sinusoids. 8. What is vesicular transport into/out of capillaries? When does this type of transport occur?  Vesicular transport: o Occurs when endothelial cells use pinocytosis  fuse fluid-filled vesicles with plasma membrane  transport their contents from blood to interstitial fluid (or reverse)  certain hormones and fatty acids transported by this method 56. What is bulk flow? What are the two types of bulk flow and how are they different from each other?  Bulk flow is the movement of large amounts of fluids and dissolved substances.  Bulk flow types: o Filtration  movement of fluid out of blood through openings in capillaries  fluid and small solutes flowing easily  larger solutes blocked  occurs on arterial end of capillary o Reabsorption  movement of fluid back into blood  on venous end 57. Compare hydrostatic pressure and colloid osmotic pressure. Why are these two different types of pressure important in understanding bulk flow into/out of capillaries via net filtration pressure?  Hydrostatic pressure o Physical force exerted by fluid on a structure (e.g. a blood vessel) o E.g., blood hydrostatic pressure (HPb)  force exerted per unit area by blood on wall  promotes filtration from capillary o E.g., interstitial fluid hydrostatic pressure (HBif)  force of interstitial fluid on external blood vessel  close to 0 in most tissues  Colloid osmotic pressure o Pull of water into tissue by tissue’s protein concentration (colloid)  Osmotic pressure is the “pull” of water into an area by osmosis due to higher relative concentration of solutes. o E.g., blood colloid osmotic pressure (COPb)  draws fluid into blood due to blood proteins  promotes reabsorption, opposing hydrostatic pressure o E.g., interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure (COPif)  force drawing fluid into interstitial fluid  few proteins present, so relatively low (0 to 5 mm Hg) 58. Differentiate between the simple pathway and alternative pathways of blood flow. What are the four different types of alternative pathways?  Simple pathway (a) o Type of blood vessel arrangement o One major artery delivering blood to organ or region  branches into smaller arteries to become arterioles  each arteriole feeding into single capillary bed  drained by venule  merge to one major vein o E.g., blood transportation to the spleen o End arteries  arteries that provide only one pathway for blood to organ  Alternative pathway (b) o Multiple alternative pathways possible o Differ in number of arteries, capillary beds, or veins  Four different types of alternative pathways: o Arterial anastomosis  two or more arteries converging to supply same region  e.g., superior and inferior epigastric arteries supplying abdominal wall, heart, brain, jointd o Venous anastomosis  two or more veins draining same body region  more common in veins  e.g., basilic, brachial, and cephalic veins draining the upper limb o Arteriovenous anastomosis  transports blood from artery directly to a vein  e.g., in fingers, toes, palms, ears  allow areas to be bypassed if body hypothermic o Portal system  blood flowing through two capillary beds  beds separated by a portal vein  portal vein delivering blood to another organ first  e.g., hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal system  e.g., hepatic portal system 19. Define the following terms a. Blood flow o Volume of blood flowing through a vessel, an organ, or the entire circulation in a given period -Measured as ml/min -Equivalent to cardiac output (CO) for entire vascular system -Relatively constant when at rest -Varies widely through individual organs, based on needs b. Blood pressure o Force per unit area exerted on the wall of a blood vessel by the blood -Expressed in mm Hg -Measured as systemic arterial BP in large arteries near the heart -The pressure gradient provides the driving force that keeps blood moving from higher to lower pressure areas c. Resistance; also what factors affect resistance? o Opposition to flow o Measure of the amount of friction blood encounters o Generally encountered in the peripheral systemic circulation o Three important sources of resistance -Blood viscosity -Total blood vessel length -Blood vessel diameter 20. How does the blood (hydrostatic) pressure gradient and resistance affect blood flow?  Blood flow (F) is directly proportional to the blood (hydrostatic) pressure gradient o ses, blood flow speeds up  Blood flow is inversely proportional to peripheral resistance (R) o  R is more important in influencing local blood flow because it is easily changed by altering blood vessel diameter 21. What factors aid in venous return?  Muscular “pump”: contraction of skeletal muscles “milk” blood toward the heart and valves prevent backflow  Respiratory “pump”: pressure changes created during breathing move blood toward the heart by squeezing abdominal veins as thoracic veins expand  Vasoconstriction of veins under sympathetic control (BE SURE TO LOOK OVER CHARTS WITHIN THE POWERPOINTS) 22. What are the three components of the lymphatic system? What is the function of the lymphatic system?  Consists of three parts 1. A network of lymphatic vessels (lymphatics) 2. Lymph 3. Lymphatic tissues and organs  Returns interstitial fluid and leaked plasma proteins back to the blood  Once interstitial fluid enters lymphatics, it is called lymph  Together with lymphoid organs and tissues, provide the structural basis of the immune system 23. Which way does lymph flow? What are the four types of lymphatic vessels? Compare in detail the four types of lymphatic vessels based on structure and function.  Lymph flows toward the heart.  Lymph vessels (lymphatics) include: o Lymphatic capillaries  resemble blood capillaries in that they branch extensively throughout the body and their walls are only one cell thick, but they are far more permeable than blood capillaries  “dead-end” in the extracellular fluid surrounding body cells  Flow of lymph is regulated by internal pressures from breathing and from skeletal muscle contraction o Lymphatic collecting vessels  Similar to veins, except  Have thinner walls, with more internal valves  Anastomose more frequently  Collecting vessels in the skin travel with superficial veins  Deep vessels travel with arteries o Lymphatic trunks  Formed by the union of the largest collecting ducts  Paired lumbar  Paired bronchomediastinal  Paired subclavian  Paired jugular trunks  A single intestinal trunk o Lymphatic ducts  Lymph is delivered into one of two large ducts  Right lymphatic duct drains the right upper arm and the right side of the head and thorax  Thoracic duct arises from the cisterna chyli and drains the rest of the body  Each empties lymph into venous circulation at the junction of the internal jugular and subclavian veins on its own side of the body 24. What are the different types of cells associated with the lymphatic system? What are their basic functions?  Lymphocytes the main warriors of the immune system  Two main varieties: o T cells (T lymphocytes) o B cells (B lymphocytes)  T cells and B cells protect against antigens o Anything the body perceives as foreign  Bacteria and their toxins; viruses  Mismatched RBCs or cancer cells o T cells  Manage the immune response  Attack and destroy foreign cells o B cells  Produce plasma cells, which secrete antibodies  Other Lymphoid Cells o Macrophages phagocytize foreign substances and help activate T cells o Dendritic cells capture antigens and deliver them to lymph nodes o Reticular cells produce stroma that supports other cells in lymphoid organs 25. Differentiate between loose lymphatic tissue and lymphatic follicles.  Lymphatic tissue o Diffuse lymphatic tissue comprises scattered reticular tissue elements in every body organ  Lymphatic follicles o Lymphatic follicles (nodules) are solid, spherical bodies of tightly packed reticular elements and cells o Germinal center composed of dendritic and B cells o May form part of larger lymphoid organs 26. What are lymph nodes? Where are lymph nodes located? What two functions do lymph nodes perform?  Lymph nodes: o Principal lymphoid organs of the body o Embedded in connective tissue, in clusters along lymphatic vessels o Near the body surface in inguinal, axillary, and cervical regions of the body  Functions o Filter lymph—macrophages destroy microorganisms and debris o Immune system—lymphocytes are activated and mount an attack against antigens 27. Describe the structure of a lymph node. What are the two histologically distinctive regions of a lymph node? What cells are associated with these structures?  Bean shaped  External fibrous capsule  Trabeculae extend inward and divide the node into compartments  Two histologically distinct regions  Cortex  Medulla  Cortex contains follicles with germinal centers, heavy with dividing B cells  Dendritic cells nearly encapsulate the follicles  Deep cortex houses T cells in transit  T cells circulate continuously among the blood, lymph nodes, and lymphatic stream  Medullary cords extend inward from the cortex and contain B cells, T cells, and plasma cells  Lymph sinuses contain macrophages 28. How does lymph flow through a lymph node?  Lymph o Enters via afferent lymphatic vessels o Travels through large subcapsular sinus and smaller sinuses o Exits the node at the hilus via efferent vessels  Fewer efferent vessels, causing flow of lymph to stagnate, allowing lymphocytes and macrophages time to carry out functions 29. Discuss the structure and function of the spleen.  Spleen: o Largest lymphoid organ o Served by splenic artery and vein, which enter and exit at the hilus o Functions:  Site of lymphocyte proliferation and immune surveillance and response  Cleanses the blood of aged cells and platelets and debris o Structures:  Two distinct areas  White pulp around central arteries o Mostly lymphocytes on reticular fibers and involved in immune functions  Red pulp in venous sinuses and splenic cords o Rich in macrophages for disposal of worn-out RBCs and bloodborne pathogens 30. Discuss the structure and function of the thymus.  Differs from other lymphoid organs in important ways o It functions strictly in T lymphocyte maturation o It does not directly fight antigens  The stroma of the thymus consists of star-shaped epithelial cells (not reticular fibers)  These thymocytes provide the environment in which T lymphocytes become immunocompetent  Thymic lobes contain an outer cortex and inner medulla  Cortex contains densely packed lymphocytes and scattered macrophages  Medulla contains fewer lymphocytes and thymic (Hassall’s) corpuscles involved in regulatory T cell development 31. Discuss the structure and function of tonsils.  Simplest lymphoid organs  Form a ring of lymphatic tissue around the pharynx o Palatine tonsils—at posterior end of the oral cavity o Lingual tonsils—grouped at the base of the tongue o Pharyngeal tonsil—in posterior wall of the nasopharynx o Tubal tonsils—surrounding the openings of the auditory tubes into the pharynx


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